Hadoop and Hive at Orbitz
Jonathan Seidman and Ramesh Venkataramaiah
Hadoop World 2010
Agenda
•  Orbitz Worldwide
•  The challenge of big data at Orbitz
•  Hadoop as a solution to the data challenge
•  Applica...
page 3
Launched: 2001, Chicago, IL
page 4
Orbitz…
…poster children for Hadoop
Data Challenges at Orbitz
On Orbitz alone we do millions of searches and transactions daily,	

which leads to hundreds of ...
page 6
Utterly redonkulous amounts of money 	

$ per managed TB
page 7
Utterly redonkulous amounts of money	

More reasonable amounts of money	

$ per managed TB
•  Adding data to our data warehouse also requires a lengthy
plan/implement/deploy cycle.
•  Because of the expense and ti...
page 9
Hadoop brings our cost per TB down to $1500 (or even less)
•  Important to note that Hadoop is not a replacement to a data
warehouse, but rather is a complement to it.
•  On the oth...
page 11
page 12
How can we improve hotel ranking?	

Hey! Let’s use machine learning!	

All the cool kids are doing it!
Requires data – lots of data
•  Web analytics software providing session data about user
behavior.
•  Unfortunately specif...
Now we need to process the data…
•  Extract data from raw Webtrends logs for input to a trained
classification process.
• ...
Processing Flow – Step 1
page 15
Processing Flow – Step 2
page 16
Processing Flow – Step 3
page 17
Processing Flow – Step 4
page 18
Processing Flow – Step 5
page 19
Processing Flow – Step 6
page 20
Once data is in hive…
•  Provides input data to machine learning processes.
•  Used to create data exports for further ana...
Statistical Analysis: Infrastructure and Dataset
page 22
•  Hive + R platform for query processing and statistical analysi...
Statistical Analysis - Positional Bias
page 23
•  Lurking variable is…
Positional Bias.
•  Top positions invariably
picked...
Statistical Analysis - Kernel Density
page 24
•  User Ratings of Hotels
•  Strongly affected by the number
of bins used.
•...
Statistical Analysis - Exploratory correlation
page 25
Statistical Analysis - More seasonal variations
page 26
•  Customer hotel stay gets longer during summer months
•  Could h...
Analysis: take away’s…
page 27
•  Costs of cleaning and processing data is significant.
•  Tendency to create stories out ...
Lessons Learned
•  Make sure you’re using the appropriate tool – avoid the temptation to
start throwing all of your data i...
Lessons Learned (continued)
•  Hadoop’s limited security model creates challenges when
trying to deploy Hadoop in the ente...
Hadoop is a virus…
page 30
Just a few more examples of how Hadoop is being used at Orbitz…
•  Measuring page download performance: using web analytic...
Applications of Hadoop at orbitz are just beginning…
•  We’re in the process of quadrupling the capacity of our
production...
References
•  Hadoop project: http://hadoop.apache.org/
•  Hive project: http://hadoop.apache.org/hive/
•  Hive – A Petaby...
Contact
•  Jonathan Seidman:
–  jseidman@orbitz.com
–  @jseidman
–  Chicago area Hadoop User Group: http://www.meetup.com/...
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Hadoop and Hive at Orbitz, Hadoop World 2010

  1. 1. Hadoop and Hive at Orbitz Jonathan Seidman and Ramesh Venkataramaiah Hadoop World 2010
  2. 2. Agenda •  Orbitz Worldwide •  The challenge of big data at Orbitz •  Hadoop as a solution to the data challenge •  Applications of Hadoop and Hive at Orbitz – improving hotel sort •  Sample analysis and data trends •  Other uses of Hadoop and Hive at Orbitz •  Lessons learned and conclusion page 2
  3. 3. page 3 Launched: 2001, Chicago, IL
  4. 4. page 4 Orbitz… …poster children for Hadoop
  5. 5. Data Challenges at Orbitz On Orbitz alone we do millions of searches and transactions daily, which leads to hundreds of gigabytes of log data every day. So how do we store and process all of this data? page 5
  6. 6. page 6 Utterly redonkulous amounts of money $ per managed TB
  7. 7. page 7 Utterly redonkulous amounts of money More reasonable amounts of money $ per managed TB
  8. 8. •  Adding data to our data warehouse also requires a lengthy plan/implement/deploy cycle. •  Because of the expense and time our data teams need to be very judicious about which data gets added. This means that potentially valuable data may not be saved. •  We needed a solution that would allow us to economically store and process the growing volumes of data we collect. page 8
  9. 9. page 9 Hadoop brings our cost per TB down to $1500 (or even less)
  10. 10. •  Important to note that Hadoop is not a replacement to a data warehouse, but rather is a complement to it. •  On the other hand, Hadoop offers benefits other than just cost. page 10
  11. 11. page 11
  12. 12. page 12 How can we improve hotel ranking? Hey! Let’s use machine learning! All the cool kids are doing it!
  13. 13. Requires data – lots of data •  Web analytics software providing session data about user behavior. •  Unfortunately specific data fields we needed weren’t loaded into our data warehouse, and just to make things worse the only archive of raw logs available only went back a few days. •  We decided to turn to Hadoop to provide a long-term archive for these logs. •  Storing raw data in HDFS provides access to data not available elsewhere, for example “hotel impression” data: –  115004,1,70.00;35217,2,129.00;239756,3,99.00;83389,4,99.00! page 13
  14. 14. Now we need to process the data… •  Extract data from raw Webtrends logs for input to a trained classification process. •  Logs provide input to MapReduce processing which extracts required fields. •  Previous process used a series of Perl and Bash scripts to extract data serially. •  Comparison of performance –  Months worth of data –  Manual process took 109m14s –  MapReduce process took 25m58s page 14
  15. 15. Processing Flow – Step 1 page 15
  16. 16. Processing Flow – Step 2 page 16
  17. 17. Processing Flow – Step 3 page 17
  18. 18. Processing Flow – Step 4 page 18
  19. 19. Processing Flow – Step 5 page 19
  20. 20. Processing Flow – Step 6 page 20
  21. 21. Once data is in hive… •  Provides input data to machine learning processes. •  Used to create data exports for further analysis with R scripts, allowing us to derive more complex statistics and visualizations of our data. •  Provides useful metrics, many of which were unavailable with our existing data stores. •  Used for aggregating data for import into our data warehouse for creation of new data cubes, providing analysts access to data unavailable in existing data cubes. page 21
  22. 22. Statistical Analysis: Infrastructure and Dataset page 22 •  Hive + R platform for query processing and statistical analysis. •  R - Open-source stat package with visualization. •  Hive Dataset: –  Customer hotel booking on our sites and User rating of hotels. •  Investigation: –  Are there built-in data bias? Any Lurking variables? –  What approximations and biases exist? –  Are variables pair-wise correlated? –  Are there macro patterns?
  23. 23. Statistical Analysis - Positional Bias page 23 •  Lurking variable is… Positional Bias. •  Top positions invariably picked the most. •  Aim to position Best Ranked Hotels at the top based on customer search criteria and user ratings.
  24. 24. Statistical Analysis - Kernel Density page 24 •  User Ratings of Hotels •  Strongly affected by the number of bins used. •  Kernel density plots are usually a much more effective way to overcome the limitations of histograms.
  25. 25. Statistical Analysis - Exploratory correlation page 25
  26. 26. Statistical Analysis - More seasonal variations page 26 •  Customer hotel stay gets longer during summer months •  Could help in designing search based on seasons. •  Outliers removed.
  27. 27. Analysis: take away’s… page 27 •  Costs of cleaning and processing data is significant. •  Tendency to create stories out of noise. •  “Median is not the message”; Find macro patterns first. •  If website originated data, watch for hidden bias in data collection.
  28. 28. Lessons Learned •  Make sure you’re using the appropriate tool – avoid the temptation to start throwing all of your data in Hadoop when a relational store may be a better choice. •  Expect the unexpected in your data. When processing billions of records of data it’s inevitable that you’ll encounter at least one bad record which will blow up your processing. •  To get buy-in from upper management, present a long-term, unstructured data growth story and explain how this will help harness long-tail opportunities. page 28
  29. 29. Lessons Learned (continued) •  Hadoop’s limited security model creates challenges when trying to deploy Hadoop in the enterprise. •  Configuration currently seems to be a black art. It can be difficult to understand which parameters to set and how to determine an optimal configuration. •  Watch your memory use. Sloppy programming practices will bite you when your code needs to process large volumes of data. page 29
  30. 30. Hadoop is a virus… page 30
  31. 31. Just a few more examples of how Hadoop is being used at Orbitz… •  Measuring page download performance: using web analytics logs as input, a set of MapReduce scripts are used to derive detailed client side performance metrics which allow us to track trends in page download times. •  Searching production logs: an effort is underway to utilize Hadoop to store and process our large volume of production logs, allowing developers and analysts to perform tasks such as troubleshooting production issues. •  Cache analysis: extraction and aggregation of data to provide input to analyses intended to improve the performance of data caches utilized by our web sites. page 31
  32. 32. Applications of Hadoop at orbitz are just beginning… •  We’re in the process of quadrupling the capacity of our production cluster. •  Multiple teams are working on new applications of Hadoop •  We continue to explore the use of associated tools – Hbase, Pig, Flume, etc. page 32
  33. 33. References •  Hadoop project: http://hadoop.apache.org/ •  Hive project: http://hadoop.apache.org/hive/ •  Hive – A Petabyte Scale Data Warehouse Using Hadoop: http://i.stanford.edu/~ragho/hive-icde2010.pdf •  Hadoop The Definitive Guide, Tom White, O’Reilly Press, 2009 •  Why Model, J. Epstein, 2008 •  Beautiful Data, T. Segaran & J. Hammerbacher, 2009 •  Karmasphere Developer Study: http://www.karmasphere.com/ images/documents/Karmasphere-HadoopDeveloperResearch.pdf page 33
  34. 34. Contact •  Jonathan Seidman: –  jseidman@orbitz.com –  @jseidman –  Chicago area Hadoop User Group: http://www.meetup.com/ Chicago-area-Hadoop-User-Group-CHUG/ •  Ramesh Venkataramaiah: –  rvenkataramaiah@orbitz.com page 34
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