Unit 3 Nutrition and Physical Activity (NPA)


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Unit 3 Nutrition and Physical Activity (NPA)

  1. 1. NUTRITION AND FITNESS : QTR. 4 Healthy Food Guidelines Managing Your Weight Eating Disorders Physical Activities Fitness Injuries and Safety
  2. 2. Importance of Nutrition (chpt. 10/L.1) <ul><li>**Nutrition: </li></ul><ul><li>Process of taking in and using food by your body </li></ul><ul><li>**Nutrient: </li></ul><ul><li>Substances in the food needed for growth, repair and energy </li></ul><ul><li>**Calorie: </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of heat to measure energy received from food </li></ul>
  3. 3. Facts about Good Eating Habits <ul><li>During the teen years, good food types and amounts affect your growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition now affects lifelong health : How?**helps you avoid weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>**Eating a variety of foods prevent diseases and Type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Other diseases that are prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease Obesity Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoperosis Certain Cancers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Your **environment affects what you choose to eat: <ul><li>Who and what does this include? Examples! </li></ul><ul><li>1. Family and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Meals at home? Fast food? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza after school? Fast food in the cafeteria? Packed lunches? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Time and Money </li></ul><ul><li>Busy schedule? Microwave meals? Cheaper food instead of healthy? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Advertising**Affects our food “choice” Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of the juicy hamburger at the nearest fast food? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the Nutrients and What do they Do? (chpt. 10/L.2) <ul><li>6 OF THEM! ALL NECESSARY! </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carbohydrate: starches and sugars / main source of energy / Complex are chains of sugar linked together: </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of carbs– bread , pasta, grains, root vegetables, fruits (**Complex Carb ex: beans) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Proteins: maintains cell and tissue growth / nutrient is made of chemicals called amino acids and 9 of the 20 are essential amino acids and the body must get from food sources </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of protein—meat, eggs, dairy, soy…more on plant sources in vegetarian discussion </li></ul>
  6. 6. More nutrients……. <ul><li>3. Fats: Body needs fat to function properly/help brain development, blood clotting and control inflammation &**maintain healthy skin and hair ; however, choose healthy fat/ Fat composed of fatty acids and body cannot produce on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated vs. Unsaturated: Saturated mostly animal based and increase risk of heart disease/** Unsaturated mostly vegetable based and decrease risk of heart disease/ Trans Fat are formed from processing </li></ul><ul><li>4. Vitamins: Compounds found in food & help regulate many body processes/ Folic Acid: A vitamin found to lower risk of birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Different vitamins perform different roles and are found in various types of food (see 10.6, p. 263) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Final nutrients…… <ul><li>5. Minerals: Elements found in food that are used by the body in many ways : Calcium —esp. important mineral that reduces the risk of osteoperosis! </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Table 10.7, p.264 </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Your body cannot produce minerals; it must get them from food </li></ul><ul><li>6. Water: Essential for almost all body functions like: </li></ul><ul><li>*moving food through digestion </li></ul><ul><li>*transporting nutrients *releasing heat & stores it </li></ul><ul><li>*cooling body w. perspiration *lubricates joints </li></ul><ul><li>*cushions the eyes, brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>**Water is NOT a “source” of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: 8-10 cups a day/ teen girls need 9, teen boys need 13, athletes need extra before during after exercise EVEN if you’re not thirsty </li></ul>
  8. 8. Summary of Why Teens Need Food <ul><li>Everything contains nutrients and they perform specific roles </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an energy source—do you lack energy? </li></ul><ul><li>It heals and repairs your tissue </li></ul><ul><li>**It sustains growth and activity levels </li></ul><ul><li>It help regulate your body </li></ul><ul><li>It transports oxygen to your cells </li></ul><ul><li>**If you don’t feel good much of the time/ what are you eating??? </li></ul>
  9. 9. MY PYRAMID: (chpt.10/L.3) <ul><li>Your GUIDE to making good food choices </li></ul><ul><li>See 10.9, p. 267 </li></ul><ul><li>See handout chart and displays </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary Guidelines for Americans: set of recommendations about getting food from each food group—published by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Colored bands on the pyramid run from the tip to the base/ What do they represent? Why is th yellow band the most narrow? </li></ul><ul><li>Page 271—Give reasons why it is beneficial for teens and children to start their day with breakfast </li></ul>
  10. 10. NUTRITION LABELS (chpt. 10/L.4) <ul><li>Food labels provide information about ingredients and the nutrient value of each food </li></ul><ul><li>See p. 276; 10.4 as an example of what a food label looks like/ Practice reading the facts/ Understand serving size, calories and DV </li></ul><ul><li>Percent Daily Value: (DV) </li></ul><ul><li>**The nutrient guide that tells approximately how much of that nutrient you need each day AND what % of that is in that particular food serving </li></ul>
  11. 11. Maintaining a Healthy Weight (chpt. 11/L.1 & 3) <ul><li>Define: </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism: </li></ul><ul><li>**The process by which your body breaks down a substance and gets energy from food </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: </li></ul><ul><li>Units to measure the energy found in food </li></ul><ul><li>How many calories should I eat? Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>**A. Age (teens need more/ growth time) </li></ul><ul><li>**B. Gender (females fewer cal. But more calcium & iron) </li></ul><ul><li>**C. Activity Level (more active more cals) </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom line? </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain weight/ eat same calories then you burn; To lose weight eat less calories then you burn </li></ul>
  12. 12. How much should I weigh? <ul><li>Should fall into the healthy range </li></ul><ul><li>**Body Mass Index: A measure of weight relative to height/ Calculate the following for BMI: </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Convert ht. to inches____ </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Take wt. in lbs.____ divide by ht. in inches_____ divide by ht. in inches again_____= _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Take resulting # and x by 703=_______ </li></ul><ul><li>What did you get? It’s Your BMI—see chart on p. 293 and note the range you fall into </li></ul>
  13. 13. Facts about your weight: <ul><li>The right weight for people is not ONLY your BMI—other factors are important: </li></ul><ul><li>Your age Your height </li></ul><ul><li>Your gender Your body frame (are you muscular?) </li></ul><ul><li>Your rate of growth Stage of Life </li></ul><ul><li>**Overweight is : heavier than standard wt. range/ what about muscular build? </li></ul><ul><li>**Underweight is: less than standard wt./ what about muscular build? </li></ul><ul><li>**Obesity: YES, there is concern: excess body fat carries serious health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Severely underweight? YES, there is concern: extremely thin people have higher health risks and trouble fighting off disease </li></ul><ul><li>Body Composition: </li></ul><ul><li>Your body fat levels compared to your lean levels—**skin-fold calipers are an instrument used to measure fat tissue levels and should be performed by a qualified individual </li></ul>
  14. 14. How do I personally manage my weight? <ul><li>Teens SHOULD NOT diet! Not recommended by Dietary Guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens SHOULD eat balanced meals and exercise daily </li></ul><ul><li>TIPS if you have weight concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>**Target a healthy weight with someone qualified (dr. nurse, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Set a realistic goal for eating right and exercising </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize plan : have some foods you enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Put your goals in writing: What is your plan </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your progress: Track your weight weekly </li></ul>
  15. 15. Your Body Image: (chpt. 11/L.2) <ul><li>When you look in the mirror, do you like what you see? That is your body image </li></ul><ul><li>**Fad Diets: Why do we use them? </li></ul><ul><li>Unsafe and unreliable ways to lose weight that are popular for a little time and we use them because we do not have a positive body image and we want a quick, easy weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>**Weight cycling: repeated patterns of losing and regaining weight/ typical to those who fad diet </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we quit fad diets? </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions of certain types of food, make it too difficult to maintain for life. Result, regain weight and have serious health issues </li></ul><ul><li>**How do we know a FAD diet? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it follow MyPyramid? No? Fad diet **Does it promise ultra-fast weight loss (more than 2 lbs. per week…) Yes? Fad diet </li></ul>
  16. 16. EATING DISORDERS (chpt. 11/L.2) <ul><li>Define: </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme, harmful, eating behaviors that can cause serious illness or even death </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders are classified as a mental illness and are linked to depression, low self-esteem, troubled personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Social and cultural forces play a role in emphasizing personal appearance/**Ex: A job depending on looks and body shape can lead to an eating disorder </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3 Types of Eating Disorders <ul><li>1. Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>**Irrational fear of weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>**Known as self starver Avoids meals </li></ul><ul><li>Eats only few foods & small amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Counts every calorie they eat </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises excessively Weighs repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition Starvation </li></ul><ul><li>**Bones become brittle and higher incidence of fractures Reduction in organ size </li></ul><ul><li>Heart problems and sudden cardiac death </li></ul>
  18. 18. More eating disorders… <ul><li>2. Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>**Eating disorder involving cycles of overeating, purging, attempts to rid the body of food </li></ul><ul><li>**Binge and Purge **Laxatives </li></ul><ul><li>Binge and Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Binge and exercise frantically </li></ul><ul><li>Typically are normal weight </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration Sore,inflammed throat </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth damage Stomach damage </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to intestines and kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical imbalances leading to heart failure and death </li></ul>
  19. 19. More Eating disorders…. <ul><li>Binge Eating Disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>**Person overeats compulsively/ large amounts of food in short periods of time much like bulimia. They don’t occur as frequently. Person feels guilty & disgusted but powerless to stop </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming overweight or obese </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>More common in males than other disorders </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO GET HELP: </li></ul><ul><li>Realize these are serious illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Need medical and professional help </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes will need hospital stays if severe </li></ul><ul><li>Keys: Anorexia must be restored to normal wt. and maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia deal with emotionally breaking cycles of binging & purging </li></ul><ul><li>Binge Eating must also deal with emotional problems causing behavior </li></ul>
  20. 20. LIFELONG NUTRITION (chpt. 11/ L.3) <ul><li>Special Dietary Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>**Athletes, infants, people who are ill, pregnant women: all need to take great care in their diet </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians: </li></ul><ul><li>**People who eat mostly plant based food </li></ul><ul><li>The strictest type is a vegan/ absolutely no animal based foods </li></ul><ul><li>Plant based foods lower in saturated fat reducing risk of disease and some cancers; **however they are only “healthy” if this diet has great variety and is well planned in order to get needed amino acids </li></ul>
  21. 21. Athletics and Nutrition <ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Eating right affects performance </li></ul><ul><li>Potential need for 2,000 to 5,000 calories per day from nutrient dense food and foods higher in carbs and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>They need extra amounts of water**Before/During and After! And….** A Diet high in carbs……Total Calories!! </li></ul><ul><li>They do NOT need LARGE amounts of proteinand sports drinks and protein shakes, etc… </li></ul>
  22. 22. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (chpt. 12/L.1) <ul><li>Define: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Any form of movement causing the body to use energy </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Fitness: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to carry out daily tasks easily and reserve enough energy for unexpected demands </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful, planned, repetitive activity that improves your level of fitness (TEENS are to aim for 60 minutes a day) </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Inactivity brings risk for shortened life and multiple health problems (p.322) and the benefits of activity are numerous: </li></ul><ul><li>Better self esteem Stress Relief (releases endorphines) </li></ul><ul><li>Better mood Better sleep </li></ul>
  23. 23. Planning your Program (chpt. 12/ L.2 ) <ul><li>Use different methods to improve different elements of fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>**Includes all rhythmic activities that use large muscle groups for an extended period of time. It raises your heart rate and body’s need for oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Jog, swim, ride bike, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>**Included intense , short bursts of activity in which muscles work so hard they produce energy without oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Lifting weights, sprinting </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Aerobic Exercise improves Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Anaerobic Exercise improves muscular strength and endurance </li></ul>
  24. 24. IMPROVE YOUR FITNESS (chpt. 12/L.2) <ul><li>5 Components: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: Ability for heart and lungs and blood vessels to send oxygen to your tissues during vigorous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Example: **Step Test 3 min./ bench 12” high (see 12.6, p. 326) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Muscular Strength: The amount of force muscles exert </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Situps and pushups </li></ul><ul><li>3. Muscular Endurance: Ability of muscles to continue a task over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Situps and pushups </li></ul><ul><li>4. Flexibility: Ability to move your body parts through a full range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sit n Reach </li></ul><ul><li>5. Body Composition: Ratio of fat tissue to lean tissue (see chpt. 11/ L.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: BMI and Skinfold Test (chpt. 11/ L.1) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Target Heart Zone (chpt. 12/L.2)** Resting Hrt. Rate (sit quietly a minimum of 5 minutes) <ul><li>Page 329 (Real World Connection) </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply your age by .7 =_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Take this # / subtract it from 208 =____ </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply this # by 50% to get your minimum hrt. Rate for moderate activity ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply that same # by 70% to get your maximum hrt. Rate for vigorous activity ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply that same # by 85% to get hrt. Rate for intense activity _____ </li></ul><ul><li>(Ex. 16 yr. old on chart) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Principles to Follow for your Program (chpt.12/L.3) <ul><li>4 keys to building a fitness plan: </li></ul><ul><li>1. **Specificity: </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing an activity to improve on the element of fitness you want (ex.) </li></ul><ul><li>2.** Overload: </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising beyond your regular level so your body will adapt and get stronger </li></ul><ul><li>3.** Progression: </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually increasing demands on your body a little more each session or more often </li></ul><ul><li>4. **Regularity: </li></ul><ul><li>Working out on a regular basis/ min. of 3 workouts a week with different activities to get the recommended one hour. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Stages of an Actual Workout <ul><li>Stage 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-up: Gentle cardio activity that prepares the muscles for work and increases blood flow. Gradually increases pulse rate and body temperature (slow jog) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Workout (see next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: </li></ul><ul><li>**Cool-down: Low level activity preparing body to return to the resting state. Allows heart rate and breathing to return to normal and reduces the strain on the heart as well as prevents muscle soreness (5-10 min. of gentle activity or stretching) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Workout: ** Part of the workout session when you are keeping your heart at its highest peak <ul><li>FITT Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>F: Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule at least 3 times per week and in between do other types of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>I: Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>**Push yourself hard to create “overload”—get into your heart zone and feel strain, not pain to your muscles </li></ul><ul><li>T: Time </li></ul><ul><li>The duration of workouts need to keep heart in the target heart rate zone for at least 20 minutes and strength training for at least 20-30 minutes/ flexibility about 10 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>T: Type </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your activity througout the week to build different elements of fitness Ex: jog on Mon. & Wed/ lift weights on Tue. And Thurs. </li></ul><ul><li>***Track your progress………Journal your Resting Heart Rate: the number of times your heart beats per minute when you are not active (# for 15 seconds x 4) 60 to 100 is typical for teens (better fit/ better resting pulse) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Safety and Avoiding Injuries (chpt. 12/L.4) <ul><li>Watch the weather and plan ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions: </li></ul><ul><li>Cold weather: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid exercising outdoors in extreme cold or dress in layers (hypothermia/dangerously low body temps) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot weather: </li></ul><ul><li>heavy sweating leads to dehydration and **fluids are needed before, during and after exercise to prevent this. **Avoid exercising in peak hours of heat & humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium, potassium and chloride (all need to be replaced esp. during hot weather): sports drinks help this </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hot Weather Health Issues <ul><li>Overexertion: </li></ul><ul><li>Overworking the body </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Exhaustion: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical stress on the body due to overheating </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: dizzy, faint, rapid pulse, cramps, nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Stroke: </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated heat exhaustion and **a loss of fluids/ high temperatures that lead to the body losing its ability to cool itself through perspiration. Can cause SUDDEN death. </li></ul><ul><li>**Symptoms of dehydration: Darkened urine, dry mouth, weakness—get fluids before danger is increased </li></ul>