OVERVIEW• Introduction• Definition• Importance of HCI• Disciplines contributing to HCI• Description• Model of HCI• HCI design models
INTRODUCTION• Human factors related to computer can roughlydivided into topics related to hardware design &topics related to design of the software interface• Hardware should be designed to maximize taskperformance.• Software interface refers to the information providedby the computer and the control mechanisms forinformation inputting
HUMAN - COMPUTER INTERFACEHumanthe end-userComputerhardwaresoftware
Interface• A point where two objects meet.• A point where the human can tell the computer whatto do.• A point where thecomputer displays therequested information.
Importance of HCI• Productivity– individual (e.g. installations, word processing)– organizational (changing job content, satisfaction,working environment, power and influence)• Safety (e.g. nuclear plants, flight control)
Disciplines, contributing to HCI• Computer science• Cognitive psychology• Social & organizational psychology• Ergonomics• Artificial intelligence• Linguistics• Philosophy, sociology, anthropology
Computer Match• A good interface match would include as manysenses as possible.• Computer input and output is basically seeing whatwe enter and what is displayed.• Sound can be added to some programs, either bygiving instructions by voice, or listening to acommentary / music.• Touch can be in the form of using the mouse, ajoystick, or a drawing tablet.
Virtual Reality• Virtual Reality is a computer interface.• The applications programs combine the interfacesalready mentioned to give a simulated threedimensional world of sight, sound, touch andmovement.• Interaction may be made through special equipmentsuch as: spectacles, gloves, sound systems, and thecomputer and monitor.• As these types of interfaces develop and becomemore advanced (realistic) through high levelprogramming, so the human use will become morecommon and so it will seem to be similar tocommunication with other humans.
Natural Language• Normal speech recognised by a computer is NaturalLanguage Interface. Talk to a computer and itrecognises what we want.• Natural means human-like,and the technology is leaningtowards gettingcomputers to behave in amore natural way.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)• Used on computers first by Apple Macintosh, andafterwards by Microsoft.• The memory and file management are done by theoperating system while applications are running –Multi-Tasking.• A mouse is used to point and click on icons instead oftyping in a command.• Dialogue boxes, menus, icons, toolbars etc form thewindow on the computer screen.
Standardisation• The GUI is very similar in different applications.• In an integrated package it will be almost identicalfrom application to application.WordPowerPointExcel
Command Driven Interfaces• Had to type in a command.• The syntax had to be correct.• Difficult for inexperienced users.• Example above: Microsoft DOS, and UNIX.• Advantages: Powerful, Quick, and Flexible.• Disadvantages: Difficult, need experience, Syntaxdifficult to remember, typing mistakes!
A model of HCIPeople TechnologyWorkLevel 1Level 2Level 3 SocialsystemOrganizationalgoal
HCI design models• Waterfall model• The star life cycle model
The waterfall modelRequirementsanalysis &specificationSystem &softwaredesignImplementation& unit testingIntegration& systemtesting
The star life cycleTask analysis /functionalanalysisRequirementsspecificationConceptual design /formal designPrototypingImplementationEvaluation
Eye TrackingEye tracking is a research methodologywhereby a persons eye movements arecaptured using a camera, and this datais used to track exactly what the participantis looking at. In Human Computer Interaction(HCI) and usability research, eye tracking isused to determine what people look atwhen interacting with computers. Thisinformation is used to make programsand applications that are more intuitiveand easier to use.
Referred websites• IBM HCI design guide athttp://www.ibm.com/ibm/hci/guidelines/design• Terry Winograd, Donald Norman