Physical Science Notes - Properties, Systems, Matter & Energy

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Physical Science Unit for Middle and Junior High Schools, which can be used for High School and College students as a basic overview of matter. The unit notes begins with the Learning Goals and Performance Expectations as well as key vocabulary. Content starts with matter, atoms, periodic table, classifying types of matter, and then proceeds to explore system types and states of matter. Unit ends with ways Matter can be changed, Physical & Chemical changes, Systems and ends with the law of Conservation of Matter. Unit notes include a review of topics.

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Physical Science Notes - Properties, Systems, Matter & Energy

  1. 1. Including Goals & Key Vocabulary jschmied©2015
  2. 2. jschmied©2015 Unit C: Physical Science Learning Goals Pre-Assessment Act1-Whatis MatterMadeOf? Act2.-Elements, Mendeleev&the PeriodicTable Act3-Howand WhyDoWe ClassifyMatter? ACT4–Whatare theStatesofMatter Activity5–Whatarethe waysMattercan Change? Act7-HowdoI IdentifyPhysical andChemical Changes? Act7–Whatisa system? Act8–IsMass reallyConserved? Post-Assessment Characteristics of Matter 1. I know how matter is organized and can describe characteristics of matter Properties and Change 2a. I can describe physical and chemical properties 2 b. I can identify if a physical and chemical change occurs.. Systems 3. I can identify an open or closed system by analyzing the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in a system
  3. 3. Learning Goals Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Learning Goal 1: I know how matter is organized and can describe characteristics of matter. I can define these terms: - matter - mass - atom - volume - protons - compound - neutrons - mixture - electrons - organic - element - inorganic - molecule - Periodic Table - atomic name - atomic symbol - atomic number - atomic mass I can tell:  the key characteristics of matter. (has mass, volume etc...)  the names of the parts of an atom & each part’s charge I can correctly classify samples of substances as:  atoms mixtures  elements solutions  molecules  compounds  organic  inorganic With use of a Periodic Table I can identify:  an element’s name  atomic symbol  number of protons/atomic number  atomic mass I can tell if a particle has a neutral, positive, or negative charge based on the number of protons and electrons. I can describe to others the chemical structure of:  atoms,  molecules  elements  compounds  mixtures  solutions Learning Goal 2: a. I can describe physical and chemical properties and b. I can identify if a physical and chemical change occurs. I can define these terms: - physical properties - chemical properties - state(s) of matter - gas - solid - liquid - phase change (change of ctate) - physical change - chemical change - motions of molecules (One card)  vibration  rotation  translation I can identify  a substance’s physical and chemical properties.  the difference between physical and a chemical change.  3 key properties of solids, liquids and gases.  the molecular motions an atom makes in different states of matter. I can identify:  if a physical change occurs  if a chemical change occurs  if a substance loses or gains energy when making a phase change.  If a substance in a container is a solid, liquid or gas  when a chemical reaction occurs I can explain how physical changes are different from chemical changes at the atomic level. I can explain how solid, liquid and gas molecules behave as energy is added or taken away from a system. Learning Goal 3: I can identify an open or closed system by analyzing the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in a system. I can define these terms: - energy - open system - closed system - system inputs - system outputs - cycling of matter - system boundary - flow of matter - flow of energy - conservation of matter (mass) I can identify if a system is open or closed. I know what the law of conservation of mass is. I can explain why mass in an open system changes, but does not in a closed system. I can draw the inputs & outputs of matter & energy for:  an open system  a closed system. I can show & explain to others how matter is conserved in:  an open system  a closed system. Physical Science Performance Expectations
  4. 4. Matter Objects that take up space and have mass are matter. Sugar is made of matter. Atom - the smallest unit of matter with a unique identity. Each atom is made up of a number particles: protons (+), neutrons (no charge) & electrons (-). Proton – Positively charged (+) particle (s) located in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons determines which element an atom is. Neutron - Neutrally charged particle(s) located in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms contain neutrons if there are more than 1 proton. Electron – Negatively charged particle(s) located in orbits around the nucleus. Neutral atoms contain the same amount of protons as neutrons. Element – fundamental particles from which all other substances are made of. Each element has a unique number of protons and is made of one & only one type of atom. Periodic Table – A list of all elements by the number of protons as well as chemical & physical properties. Element Name – The name of an element Atomic Symbol – The symbol representing one atom of an element (Au = Gold, O = Oxygen) Atomic Number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, also its place in the periodic table Atomic Mass – mass of an atom of an element. Approx. equals the # protons + # neutrons Compounds – 2 or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio (i.e. CO2) Molecule – When 2 or more atoms (same or different) bond together chemically. (O2, CO2, NaCl, C6H12O6) Mixture – When 2 or more substances combine, yet retain their individual properties. (i.e. Italian dressing, Zinc) Solution – Mixture with uniform structure throughout Suspension – Mixture jschmied©2015
  5. 5. Mass - A measure of how much matter (atoms / molecules) is in an object. Volume - the three-dimensional space occupied by a specific object. State(s) of Matter - one of the distinct forms that matter takes on. (Plasma Gas, Liquid, Solid, BEC). The states of matter below are listed in the amount of energy and movement the atoms of each possesses. Plasma – Highest energy. No definite volume or shape. “fills its container”, particles far apart & random order. Gas – No definite volume or shape, “fills its container”, particles far apart & random order. Liquid – Definite volume, no definite shape, “takes shape of its container” . Particles close but random Solid – Definite volume & shape, “fills its container”. Particles close together in regular, not random order Bose Einstein Condensate – Lowest energy – Atoms lose individual identities. Very low atomic movement. Physical Change – A change in the form or shape of matter, not its identity (chemical composition). (i.e. Ice melts, Water evaporates, Big salt crystals crushed into small salt crystals, Paper torn into pieces). Change of State (Phase Change) When a substance changes from one state, or phase, of matter to another. Changes of phase always occur with a transfer of heat energy. (Example:, ice melts to become water; water evaporates to become water vapor.) Chemical Change – A Chemical Change occurs when 2 or more substances react to create one or more entirely different substances. Properties of Matter: Chemical Property - A property that can only be observed or measured by changing the substance’s chemical identity. Properties include: Reactivity, Toxicity, Flammability, pH, Heat of combustion, Chemical stability Physical Property - A property that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity. Physical properties include: melting point, texture, boiling point, color, hardness, odor, density, solubility, etc. jschmied©2015
  6. 6. Motions of molecules (one card) – the amount of a molecule’s motion is directly related to its energy level. Vibration – bending, stretching & compressing of a molecule Rotation – spinning movement around a molecule’s axis Translation – movement of a molecule from place to place Energy - "Energy Is the Ability to Do Work." Energy can be found in a number of different forms. It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat (thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical energy, and nuclear energy Heat – the transfer of energy from a higher temperature object or system to a lower temperature object or system. System - a group of related parts that move or do work together. Open System – a system in which energy and matter can flow in and out of the system Closed System - a system in which energy can flow, but matter cannot leave and is cycled within the system System Boundary - The “edges” of a system. By crossing a system’s boundary one is either entering or leaving a defined system. Flow of matter: Matter moving into, out of, or inside of a system. Flow of energy: Energy moving into, out of, or inside of a system Input – When matter, energy or information comes into (flows in) a system. Output - When matter, energy or information leaves (flows out of) a system. Cycling - When matter stays in a system & cycles between different states of matter, substances or organisms. Example: Matter cycling inside an ecosystem = from soil =>plants =>to soil =>plants =>animals =>bacteria =>soil => etc. Conservation of Matter – A law that states that matter is always conserved during a chemical reaction. a. This means the atoms of the reacting materials ( the reactants ) are not destroyed. Instead the atoms are rearranged to form new materials ( the products ). b. Also the combined masses of the reactants are the same as the combined masses of the products. jschmied©2015
  7. 7.  Go to this link.  Watch the video & identify the different types of energy & each type’s source.  Enter this data in the data table below. Data Table One - Cymatics Types of Energy & Cause https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3oItpVa9fs Instance Type of Energy Source(s) of this Energy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 jschmied©2015
  8. 8. What are the Four Characteristics of Matter? 1. Matter is made up of atoms or molecules. (atoms make up molecules) 2. Has mass (weight) 3. Takes up space (volume) 4. Is found in at least 5 states: • Plasma (Very Hot!) • Gas • Liquid • Solid • Bose Einstein Condensate (Very Cold!) The Sun has Matter in the Plasma state jschmied©2014
  9. 9. Nucleus Carbon atom Carbon is also an element as it is made of only one type of atom. Carbon Dioxide Molecule All molecules have two or more atoms bonded together. • There are 3 atoms in the CO2 molecule above. • CO2 is also a compound since it has 2 or more different atoms bonded together • I know what matter is made up of… ….and can describe characteristics of matter The number of Protons an atom has determines which element the atom is! jschmied©2014
  10. 10. A table organized by Weights & Properties of Elements In 1869, a Russian chemist named Dmitriy Mendeleev came up with a way of organizing the elements that were known at the time. Dmitriy set the elements out in order of atomic weight. Next he grouped the elements into rows and columns based on chemical & physical properties jschmied©2015
  11. 11. Modern Periodic Tables do not organize elements by atomic mass. Instead the elements are organized by two criteria: 1. The number of protons each possesses. (That’s because each element has a unique number of protons.) 2. The reactivity of each element. Be able to name at least three common elements, Including a solid, liquid & gas at room temp! jschmied©2015
  12. 12. • I know what matter is made up of… ….and can describe characteristics of matter The number of Protons an atom has determines which element the atom is! jschmied©2014
  13. 13. Subtract the Atomic Mass ( rounded) from the Number of Protons Atomic Mass = 23 jschmied©2015 EX: Sodium minus # Protons = 11 # Neutrons = 12
  14. 14. Directions: Use a Periodic Table to fill in the rest of this data table . • I know what matter is made up of… and can name common elements. Data Table One – Periodic Table Examples Element Name Chemical Symbol Number of protons Atomic Number Atomic Weight Oxygen 47 Pt 92 jschmied©2014
  15. 15. = 1 Sodium atom & 1 Chlorine atom = 2 elements, 1 atom = 2 Hydrogen atoms, 1 Sulfur atom & 4 Oxygen atoms = 3 Elements, 7 Atoms total. This is an inorganic compound = 6 Carbon, 12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen = Sugar 3 Elements, 24 atoms total. This is an organic compound as it has both Carbon & Hydrogen Au Cl Hg Single elements. Each one atom H2 O2 H2O CO2 2 elements, each 2 atoms. Both = Molecules = 1 Nitrogen atom & 2 Oxygen atoms = 2 elements, 1 atom jschmied©2014 NO2 NaCl H2SO4 C6H12O6 2 elements, 3 atoms. Both = Molecules & Compounds
  16. 16. • I understand the relationship between atoms, molecules, elements and compounds and …. • I know the differences between compounds and mixtures jschmied©2014
  17. 17. • I understand the relationship between atoms, molecules, elements and compounds and …. • I know the differences between compounds and mixtures jschmied©2014
  18. 18. Salt water Tea Coffee Milk Italian Dressing • I know the differences between compounds & mixtures and….. can give everyday examples of each. Salt (NaCl) Distilled Water (H2O) Wood (C6H10O5) Sugar (C6H12O6) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) jschmied©2014
  19. 19. jschmied©2015 MORE ENERGYLESS ENERGY MOLECULAR MOVEMENT MOSTLEAST PARTICLE SPACING FAR APARTCLOSE TOGETHER I can tell the molecular motions an atom makes in different states of matter.
  20. 20. I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical and chemical change is. jschmied©2012
  21. 21. jschmied©2015 I can tell the molecular motions an atom makes in different states of matter. The atoms, molecules, or ions that make up a chemical system can undergo several types of molecular motion. These include translation, rotation, and vibration Translational motion. The entire molecule can move in some direction in three dimensions Rotational motion. The entire molecule can rotate around any axis, (even though it may not actually change its position translationally) Vibrational motion. The atoms within a molecule have certain freedom of movement; this displacement can be periodic motion like the vibration of a tuning fork The States of Matter diagram on the previous slide, entry 7, shows which movements occur in which states of matter.
  22. 22. I can visualize how solids, liquids and gases behave in a container. jschmied©2012http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter
  23. 23. I can visualize how solids, liquids and gases behave in a container. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter jschmied©2014 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? Liquid – Why? Solid – Why? Gas – Why?
  24. 24. A physical change of state is a change from one state of matter to another. Take away Energy Ice (H2O)Water (H2O) jschmied©2015
  25. 25. jschmied©2014
  26. 26. Physical Properties: ….. A property that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity. Physical properties include: appearance melting point texture boiling point color hardness odor density solubility mass and many others. jschmied©2012http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/images/2_0_0_0/2222screen2.jpg http://www.gemstonebuzz.com/files/emerald.jpg
  27. 27. Physical Properties: ….. A property that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity. Example: Gold is: • a shiny yellow metal • able to be shaped, easily bent • melts at 1064°C • boils at 2856°C and is a • solid at room temperature jschmied©2012http://www.gemstonebuzz.com/files/emerald.jpg
  28. 28. Add energy Paper Crumpled Paper jschmied©2014
  29. 29. … any of a material's properties that can be observed during a chemical reaction. Chemical Properties include: • Reactivity • Toxicity • Flammability • pH • Heat of combustion • Chemical stability … A quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. jschmied©2012
  30. 30. … any of a material's properties that can be observed during a chemical reaction. For example, 1. Hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode given the right conditions. 2. Zinc reacts with Hydrochloric acid to produce Hydrogen gas. … A quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. http://www.ceskatelevize.cz/ct24/svet/175001-vzducholod-hindenburg-titanic-nebes/ I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is. jschmied©2014
  31. 31. A Chemical Change occurs when one starts with 2 or more substances & they react and create Entirely different substances. CO2 + H20 + Sunlight O2 + Sugar or Cellulose In a plant’s Chlorophyll Reactants Products jschmied©2015
  32. 32. ChemicalPhysical Physical Change Physical Change of State When one or more substances REACT with another (or more) to produce Entirely Different Substances • Shattered Wine Glass • Shredded Paper • Breaking a Rock • Chipping Ice • Sharpening Pencil A change in the appearance of a substance. A change from one State of Matter to another • H2O(liq) -> H2O(gas) • H20(solid) -> H2O(liq) • H2O(gas) -> H2O(liq) • H2O(solid)-> H2O(BEC) Both start with a substance and end with that SAME substance • Burning Paper • Vinegar + Baking Soda => • Gas + O2 + Thermal Energy • Na + Cl => NaCl I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is.
  33. 33. System - a group of related parts that move or do work together. Flow of matter: Matter moving into, out of, or inside of a system. Flow of energy: Energy moving into, out of, or inside of a system
  34. 34. Open System – a system in which energy & matter can flow in, out or both in & out of the system jschmied©2015 System Boundary - The “edges” of a system. By crossing a system’s boundary one is either entering or leaving a defined system.
  35. 35. Closed System - a system in which energy can flow, but matter cannot leave. The matter is cycled within the system System Boundary - The “edges” of a system. By crossing a system’s boundary one is either entering or leaving a defined system. jschmied©2015
  36. 36. jschmied©2015
  37. 37. Open System Closed System Matter Energy The movement of Matter in a system determines if a system is open or closed. *assuming common systems are not “perfectly closed” • If matter flows in and/or out of a system, the system is Open • If matter cycles within a system, the system is Closed. Can Flow In &/or Out Cycles within Flows through Flows through jschmied©2014
  38. 38. Energy Out 1. I am able to identify an open or closed system and analyze the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in different systems. Matter In Energy In Matter Out Matter Cycling Energy Matter Closed System Open System System Boundaries jschmied©2014
  39. 39. Open Jar Closed Jar I can properly set the boundary, as well as diagram the inputs, outputs and flows of matter and energy in any system! I am able to identify an open or closed system and analyze the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in different systems. jschmied©2014
  40. 40. =>+ 2 g 32 g 34 g I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open and closed systems Reactants Product Hydrogen (Gas) Oxygen (Gas) H2O (liquid) jschmied©2014
  41. 41. I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open and closed systems Vinegar + Baking Soda Reactants Products Matter is always conserved during a chemical reaction. This means the atoms of the reacting materials ( the reactants ) are not destroyed just rearranged. • Instead the atoms are rearranged to form new materials ( the products ). • The combined masses of the reactants are the same as the combined masses of the products. Sodium Acetate + Water + Carbon Dioxide The Mass Stays the same = Matter is conserved! jschmied©2014 10 g 10 g 9 g 9 g 2 g
  42. 42. I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open and closed systems Closed Jar Closed Jar + 2 g 32 g 34 g => Start End jschmied©2014
  43. 43. I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open and closed systems Open Jar Open Jar + 2 g 32 g => Start End 31 g 3 g jschmied©2014
  44. 44.  This section is a review of the learning goals you’ll want to master for the exam. • Goal: I know what matter is made up of… ….and can describe characteristics of matter jschmied©2014 Know all the parts of the atom.
  45. 45. • I know what matter is made up of… ….and can describe characteristics of matter Know what these items are without using a key jschmied©2014
  46. 46. Directions: Complete the Data Table for the 4 elements shown.. Copper Tin Barium Platinum Cu 29 63.55 Sn 50 118.71 Ba 56 137.33 Pt 78 195.08 • I know what matter is made up of & can describe characteristics of matter jschmied©2014 Know how to find these data without a key
  47. 47. 1. Is made up of atoms or molecules. (atoms make up molecules) 2. Has mass (weight) 3. Takes up space (volume) 4. Is found in at least 5 states jschmied©2014 Be able to recognize these characteristics & properties of matter using an element example Physical properties include: appearance texture color odor solubility melting point boiling point hardness density Matter is: I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is.
  48. 48. • I know what matter is made up of… ….and can name properties of at least 3 common elements. I can name at least three common elements, Including a solid, liquid & gas at room temp! jschmied©2014
  49. 49. I know the differences between atoms, elements, molecules, & Organic & Inorganic compounds! Organic compounds have both Carbon & Hydrogen I know how matter is organized and can describe characteristics of matter. jschmied©2014
  50. 50. Salt water Tea Coffee Salt (NaCl) ) = Inorganic compound Distilled Water (H2O) = Inorganic compound Wood (C6H10O5) = Organic compound Milk Italian Dressing Sugar (C6H12O6) = Organic compound Carbon Dioxide (CO2) = Inorganic compound • I know what matter is made up of & can describe characteristics of matter I can tell the difference between Mixtures & Molecules and also organic & inorganic compounds jschmied©2015
  51. 51. = 1 Sodium atom & 1 Chlorine atom = 2 elements, 1 atom = 2 Hydrogen atoms, 1 Sulfur atom & 4 Oxygen atoms = 3 Elements, 7 Atoms total. This is an inorganic compound = 6 Carbon, 12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen = Sugar 3 Elements, 24 atoms total. This is an organic compound as it has both Carbon & Hydrogen Au Cl Hg Single elements. Each one atom H2 O2 H2O CO2 2 elements, each 2 atoms. Both = Molecules = 1 Nitrogen atom & 2 Oxygen atoms = 2 elements, 1 atom jschmied©2014 NO2 NaCl H2SO4 C6H12O6 2 elements, 3 atoms. Both = Molecules & Compounds • I know what matter is made up of & can describe characteristics of matter I can tell the amount of elements & atoms in a molecule
  52. 52. jschmied©2014 Be able to recognize the differences between physical properties and chemical properties.Physical properties include: appearance texture color odor solubility melting point boiling point hardness density Chemical Properties include: • Reactivity • Toxicity • Flammability • pH • Heat of combustion • Chemical stability I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is.
  53. 53. ChemicalPhysical Physical Change Physical Change of State When one or more substances REACT with another (or more) to produce Entirely Different Substances • Shattered Wine Glass • Shredded Paper • Breaking a Rock • Chipping Ice • Sharpening Pencil A change in the appearance of a substance. A change from one State of Matter to another • H2O(liq) -> H2O(gas) • H20(solid) -> H2O(liq) • H2O(gas) -> H2O(liq) • H2O(solid)-> H2O(BEC) Both start with a substance and end with that SAME substance • Burning Paper • Vinegar + Baking Soda => • Gas + O2 + Thermal Energy • Na + Cl => NaCl I can tell the difference between different types of change AND give examples of each. I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is. jschmied©2014
  54. 54. I can visualize how solids, liquids, and gases behave in a container and describe the properties of each state of matter. Goal: I can tell at least 3 different characteristics of each state of matter, including VRT jschmied©2014
  55. 55. jschmied©2014 A. B. C. Which is which……and tell why this is so! http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter Goal: I can tell the which state of matter is displayed in a diagram And explain 3 characteristics of each state of matter I can describe a physical and chemical property and explain what a physical & chemical change is.
  56. 56. Closed Jar Closed Jar 3 g 48 g 51 g Chemically combine => jschmied©2014 I am able to identify an open or closed system and analyze the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in different systems. Goal: I understand the Law of Conservation of Matter & can explain the law for both open & closed systems
  57. 57. Open System Closed System Matter Energy I can determine if a system is open or closed. Can Flow In &/or Out Cycles within Flows through Flows through I am able to identify an open or closed system and analyze the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in different systems. jschmied©2014
  58. 58. jschmied©2014 a. Make a clear drawing of the scenario b. Organize your thoughts • Choose a timeframe to diagram = > This may be given to you. • Pencil data in to start with. d. Identify if the system is Open or Closed & label. e. Trace the sources of matter or energy through the system. f. Draw all sources of energy and matter in & out of the system (if open). • Use the Key and color code for each input/output. g. Use straight lines & clear labels (print on the horizontal). h. Double check your figure for errors. I am able to identify an open or closed system and analyze the inputs and outputs of matter and energy in different systems.
  59. 59. H2O + O2 + CO2 (Gases) Light Energy Thermal Energy I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open & closed systems Light Energy Thermal Energy H2O H2O + O2 + CO2 (Gases) H2O + O2 + CO2 (Gases) H2O + O2 + CO2 (Gases) Start Mass 132.5g End Mass 126.4g Why? jschmied©2014 => Goal: I understand the Law of Conservation of Matter & can explain the law for both open & closed systems
  60. 60. I can tell if mass in a system is conserved (doesn’t change) I am able to Identify and analyze open and closed systems => H2O (gas) H2O (liq) H2O (gas) H2O (liq) Light Energy Light Energy Thermal Energy Thermal Energy Start Mass 132.5g End Mass 132.5g Why? Start End jschmied©2014 Goal: I understand the Law of Conservation of Matter & can explain the law for both open & closed systems
  61. 61. About the author: John Schmied has been a secondary science & environment teacher for 20 years and is involved in developing practical, yet innovative, hands on curriculum for teens. He also created, developed and manages a 6 acre Environmental Center at his school site. In addition, John is a Chemical Hygiene Officer. John’s presentations have been viewed worldwide & have been in the top 5% of Slideshare for multiple years. During this time John served as the Strategic planner for the Friends of the Hidden River a 501(C)(3) non profit. • Over the past 13 years Friends helped King County, WA design, fund, construct & develop the 14,800 sqft Brightwater Environmental Center in Woodinville WA. • John is the Director & a principal developer of the Ground to Sound STEM Environmental Challenge course, a locally popular cutting edge environmental program that merges, Science, Tech, Art, Multimedia and other disciplines with Leadership studies at the Center Prior to this period John served for 21 years as a Coast Guard Officer, primarily involved in ice, navigation, search and rescue operations. His specialties are Ship handling, Diving, Personnel, & Oceanographic Operations. John can be contacted via Linked In.

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