Genetics unit notes
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Genetics unit notes

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Basic Genetics course notes for 6-7-8 grade life science, Organization from the Human body to DNA, Alleles and protein creation. Takes off from historical information on Mendel and his beloved Peas. ...

Basic Genetics course notes for 6-7-8 grade life science, Organization from the Human body to DNA, Alleles and protein creation. Takes off from historical information on Mendel and his beloved Peas. Then moves forward from the physical aspects studied in the Cells Unit to asexual vs sexual reproduction and Genetic crosses, to field work on asexual and sexual reproduction examples to a simple face lab "Dropping your Genes in the Gene Pool.

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Genetics unit notes Genetics unit notes Presentation Transcript

  • Genetics Unit Notes http://jeanapettus.webs.com/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/celldivision/celldivision1.shtml cute-baby-animals.tumblr.com jschmied©2014
  • Learning Goals 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow & function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. • Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles. 2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during both sexual & asexual reproduction. 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. 5. I am able to explain why offspring from sexual reproduction have more diverse characteristics compared to offspring from asexual reproduction. 6. I can accurately predict the outcome of genetic crosses by using Punnett Squares to demonstrate the principles of Mendel’s genetics. jschmied©2014
  • Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit jschmied©2014 Chromosome – A long strand of DNA that has sections of the strand called genes that have the code for different proteins. Gene – A section of DNA that has the codes “blueprints” to make a protein Allele – A different “brand” of the code for a protein (Blue Eyes – Brown Eyes) Protein – Molecules that are structural (muscle, hair, collagen etc.) , enzymes, antibodies.. Dominant Trait – Trait that overrides a recessive trait. (Brown Eyes) Recessive Trait – A trait that doesn’t show when paired with a dominant trait. (Ex: A Blue Eye trait is recessive to the Brown Eye trait) Characteristics – A genetic trait that is shown…. like eye color, hair curliness, widow’s peak, double jointed, thumb crossing. Mutation – A mistake in the code for a protein (on a gene) Pedigree – A map used to study the inheritance of genetic traits. Genotype - The code on the DNA for a specific trait. (BB = homozygous dominant genotype) Phenotype – The way the genetic code is expressed, or shown. (Curly or Straight hair)
  • Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit jschmied©2014 Nucleus – A organelle in a cell that contains the genetic code (DNA /Chromosomes) for that individual. DNA – A molecule that holds the code with the genetic instructions for a person. Punnet Square – A tool used to predict the result of a breeding experiment. Offspring – The product of reproduction between two individuals. Incomplete Dominance – When two different alleles pair up & neither is dominant. (Ex: White flower X Red flower = Pink Flower) Trade Off – When one has to chose between 2 (or more) competing “Goods” (Ex: Going to a friend’s birthday party vs. Playing soccer in the championship game) Asexual Reproduction – When offspring are created by one parent. Each has ame traits Sexual Reproduction – The offspring of two parents. Each offspring has a mix of traits. Genetic Information – Family genetic history, often used to track probability of disease.
  • Data Table 1 -Genetics Unit Key Vocabulary Chromosome Nucleus Gene Asexual Reproduction Allele Sexual Reproduction Dominant Trait Genetic Information Recessive Trait DNA Characteristics Punnet Square Mutation Offspring Pedigree Incomplete Dominance Genetic Crosses Trade-Offs Phenotype Genotype Protein Key Vocabulary list to quiz yourself on! jschmied©2014
  • Asexual Reproduction 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. www.ubqool.com Hydra Budding www.sciencequiz.net Strawberry reproducing asexually www.howanimalsdoit.com Walking Stick jschmied©2013
  • Sexual Reproduction 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. www.10news.com questions.thoughts.com 413some.blogspot.com jschmied©2013
  • Data Table One – Types of Cell Division Name Definition Where Done in body Purpose Mitosis Meiosis Simple Cell Division Asexual Sexual Reproduction Cell Division a. All parts of body except in sex cells. b. New cell has 2 of each chromosome. (A full set of chromosomes from the one parent.) a. In sex organs (testes, ovaries.) b. New cell has only 1 of each chromosome. The cell has some chromosomes from each parent to make 1 full set. a. Growth b. Replacement of injured or worn out cells a. Reproduction of species. (Sperm & Egg unite make new organism with 2 of each chromosome) jschmied©2013 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. c. Asexual Reproduction
  • Data Table Two – Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction Name DNA Process Advantages Disadvantages Sexual Asexual DNA from two Parents DNA from one Parent - Offspring are genetically diverse. - Can adapt better in changing conditions to give better survival. Ex: climate change, competition, predation - Each mate gives 1/2 of the chromosomes to mating. - Female gives all other parts to mating. - Everything duplicates. - Cell splits into two identical organisms. - Reproduce without a partner. - Lots of offspring - Helpful in disaster to ensure species survival. - Ex: volcano destroying all but one plant. - Need two partners. - Requires lots of time, energy & resources. - Often fewer Offspring produced - Genome has no diversity. “Clones” - Not able to adapt quickly in changing conditions. - Susceptible to disease, sub lethal mutations 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. 5. I am able to explain why offspring from sexual reproduction have more diverse characteristics compared to offspring from asexual reproduction. jschmied©2013
  • Mitosis – Meiosis 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent.jschmied©2013 www.crackingthecode.ca
  • Organization: Human Body to DNA 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. x 2 jschmied©2013 www.daviddarling.info
  • Comparing Sexual to Asexual Reproduction 5. I am able to explain why offspring from sexual reproduction have more diverse characteristics compared to offspring from asexual reproduction. jschmied©2013  One parent  Offspring get ALL DNA from one parent  Offspring are identical to parent unless mutation  One-celled organisms and some multi-celled organisms reproduce asexually  Offspring’s genes are the same as the parent’s  Cloning is a form of asexual reproduction  Two parents  Gets ½ the DNA from each parent.  Offspring not identical  Offspring inherit traits from two parents  Offspring inherits a unique set of genes  Generally only multi- celled organisms reproduce sexually  Single-celled organisms do not reproduce sexually  Produce offspring  Has at least one parent  Both pass DNA down to offspring  Offspring have a complete set of DNA  Can produce mutations (not clear from reading)  Both Continue species Sexual Asexual Both
  • A Human Karyotype http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Human_Karyotype.html 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. jschmied©2013 Two Sets! One of each from the Male, One of each from the Female
  • Genes “Code” for proteins 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. jschmied©2013 Correctly coded proteins make your body function properly!
  • Proteins and Shape Shape is everything! React properly if correct shape! It’s sorta like a Key in a Lock! If the protein is right shape reaction proceeds. pandasthumb.org jschmied©2013 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles.
  • If shape is slightly wrong the reaction can proceed slowly If protein is wrong shape the reaction can not happen! Genes “code” for Proteins AND the code must be correct … wnthinktank.wordpress.com More like reality, two molecules “induce the enzyme to fit and react. jschmied©2013 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles.
  • Genes & Alleles AT CG 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles. “B” “b” jschmied©2013 Base Pairs A = Adenine T = Thymine C = Cytosine G = Guanine Father’s Allele From Crick Mother’s Allele From Crick “Gene”
  • Alleles “brands of a the same gene” Allele for Eye Color Codes for Brown, Hazel or Green appearing eye color protein “B” Allele for Eye Color Codes for Blue appearing eye color protein “b”• Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles. jschmied©2013 Example using the Eye Color Trait
  • Dominant & Recessive Alleles If a baby has two “B” alleles for eye color BB = Brown, Green or Hazel eyes (BGH) Called “Homozygous Dominant” Genotype = BB Phenotype = BGH Eye color IF a baby has two “b” alleles for eye color bb = Blue eyes Called “Homozygous Recessive” Genotype = bb Phenotype = Blue Eye color IF a baby has “B” & “b” alleles for eye color Bb = Brown Green or Hazel eyes Called “Heterozygous” Genotype = Bb Phenotype = BGH color jschmied©2013 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent.
  • Creating a Family Pedigree 2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during both sexual & asexual reproduction. 1. Gather Information 2. Plot Data 3. Use Evidence to determine missing data Phenotype = Is what a trait “looks” like Ex: Wavy hair Blue Eyes Genotype = the code for a protein that makes a characteristic. Ex: code for Wavy hair or for Blue Eyes jschmied©2013
  • Mutations jschmied©2013 7. I can explain how biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species on Earth today. Many mutations are lethal, but we take advantage of gene mutations every day! Selective Breeding Mutation in nature Click the cow to see cool genetic projects
  • Punnet Squares Mike and Suzy are investigating inherited traits in two Beebop Terriers • Ally, the female, is a rare Albino white coat. She is homozygous recessive (rr) for coat color. • Herman, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. Herman is heterozygous (Rr) Complete the Punnett Square and show the results of Mike and Suzy’s experiment. jschmied©2013
  • Punnet Squares Mike and Suzy are investigating inherited traits in two Beebop Terriers • Ally, the female, is a rare Albino white coat. She is homozygous recessive (rr) for coat color. • Herman, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. Herman is heterozygous (Rr) Complete the Punnett Square and show the results of Mike and Suzy’s experiment. jschmied©2013 rr Rr r r R r r r r r R R r r 0 2 2 0% 50% 50%
  • Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (SS) and straight hair (ss) in wizard families at the Hogwarts houses. Below is a pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family who all were chosen for the Gryffindor house. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. http://gothlupin.tripod.com/gryffindor.html jschmied©2013
  • Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (SS) and straight hair (ss) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family who were all members of Gryffindor. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. http://gothlupin.tripod.com/gryffindor.html jschmied©2013 ss ss ss ss SS, Ss SS,Ss Ss SsSsSsSsSs Ss SS Ss SS Ss SS Less likely, Why?
  • Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR) and non rolling tongues (rr) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family from Syltherin House. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. jschmied©2013 harrypotter.wikia.com
  • Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR) and non rolling tongues (rr) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family from Syltherin House. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. jschmied©2013 Rr Rr Rr rr Rr Rr rr RR,RrRR,RrrrRrRR,Rr Rr Rr Rr harrypotter.wikia.com