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# Basic situational analysis

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Presentation on basic situational analysis in science, analyzing the different key elements in scientific scenarios. The benefit is that students are more capable in creating their own experiments with the proper elements in them. Helps in analyzing data as well as developing conclusions. Used in JHS and Middle school science classes

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### Basic situational analysis

2. 2. You are given a scenario (short story) & you analyze the situation. By analyzing you: Identify key parts of the experiment  Study subject (ss)  Manipulated (MV), Responding (RV),  Controlled (CV) & Uncontrolled variables (UCV)  Control (CT) & Experimental trials (ET) Then you use these key items to create a question , a prediction, and a hypothesis (QPH) schmied©2013
3. 3. Study Subject (SS) Manipulated (changed) Variable (MV) Responding (measured) Variable (RV) Controlled Variables (CV) (Not MV or RV!) Uncontrolled Variables that Matter (UCV) (Not MV or RV!) Experimental Trial (ET) Control Trial (CT) You’ll create: Scientific Question (contains SS, MV, RV) Prediction (If – Then, compared to statement) Hypothesis (If, Then, compared to, Because [MV,RV, SS & Reason Why] statement)
4. 4. Study Subject (SS) = The subject (animal, plant, object etc) that is being studied. Manipulated (changed) Variable (MV) = The ONE variable being changed for the purpose of testing the hypothesis. There’s only one MV Responding (measured) Variable (RV) = The variable being measured. Usually changes in response to changes in the manipulated variable. There can be more than one RV. Controlled Variables (Not MV or RV) = A variable kept the same in an experiment Uncontrolled Variables [that Matter] (Not MV or RV) = Variables that are not controlled & can affect the results of an experiment (cause error) Control Trial = The “natural” situation, used to compare to the Experimental Trial. (Does not have the MV) Experiment Trial = Trial contains the manipulated variable, used to test the hypothesis. schmied©2013
5. 5. schmied©2014 There’s only one MV in an experiment! There can be more than one RV in an experiment
6. 6. In this experiment 5 Arabian horses are fed a mix of all kinds of grass. Another group of 5 Arabian horses are only fed oats The Horse Race A month later, these groups are raced against each other in a mile race. Elapsed times are recorded & compared. Other data: • The entire track surface is dry & smooth • All horses have the same type of saddles • Jockeys weigh between 120- 135lbs Tell the: a. SS b. MV c. RV d. CT e. ET f. Controlled Variables g. Uncontrolled Variable(s) schmied©2013
7. 7. 5 Arabian horses fed a mix of all kinds of grass. 5 Arabian horses only fed oats The Horse Race Tell the: a. SS = Arabian Horses b. MV = Diet of the horses c. RV = Total Elapsed times of each group d. CT = Arabians - all kinds of grass e. ET = Arabians - Oats f. Controlled Variables = Same: saddle, distance, track surface, type & number or horses, same track g. Uncontrolled Variable(s) = Jockey’s weight schmied©2013
8. 8. The Horse Race Writing A Scientific Question Basic rules for writing scientific questions. 1. Write Questions, Predictions & Hypothesis about the Experimental Trial. 2. Do not create scientific questions that can be answered by a simple “Yes” or “No”. 3. Do not use the word CHANGE. Be SPECIFIC ( Instead use terms like Increase, Decrease, Remain the same) 4. Use proper names (nouns). Don’t use pronouns. 5. Use correct conventions. (Capitalization, question marks, etc.) schmied©2014
9. 9. The Horse Race SS MV Data Needed for QPH: a. SS = Arabian Horses b. MV = Diet of the horses c. RV = Total Elapsed times of each group d. CT = Arabians - all kinds of grass e. ET = Arabians - Oats schmied©2013 How will feeding oats to Arabian horses affect the horse’s time in the mile? RV
10. 10. The Horse Race If contains the Manipulated Variable and Study Subject (in either order!), Then contains the Experimental Trial, then a specific prediction about the Responding Variable Compared to contains the Control (if a control is used) schmied©2013 Prediction If – Then – Compared to Format
11. 11. The Horse Race schmied©2013 IF Arabian horses are fed a diet of oats, SS MV Then the horses fed oats will run faster, ET Prediction about RV Compared to Arabian horses fed grass. CT Prediction “If, Then, Compared to”
12. 12. The Horse Race - BECAUSE Hypothesis” Add Because – Therefore statement. a. The Because gives a logical, realistic, reason for choosing the predicted outcome. b. The Because includes the Reason Why as well as the Study Subject, Manipulated Variable, & Responding Variable in the explanation. Hypothesis “Because…. Therefore” Because oats have more nutrition than grass. Reason Why Therefore the Arabian horses will run a faster time in the mile on a diet of oats. schmied©2013 SS RV MV
13. 13. The Horse Race Completed Hypothesis IF Arabian horses are fed a diet of oats, SS MV Then the horses fed oats will run faster, ET Prediction about RV Compared to Arabian horses fed grass. CT Because oats have more nutrition than grass. Reason Why Therefore the Arabian horses will run a faster time in the mile on a diet of oats. schmied©2013 SS RV MV
14. 14. Holstein Milk Challenge In this experiment 12 Holstein cows are kept in pasture all day. Another group of 12 Holstein cows are given exercise in the morning, then kept in pasture. At 6 AM & 5 PM the 2 groups are milked in the barn. The total amount of milk given by each group is recorded Other data: & compared. • The cow pasture is 40 acres • During the trials two of the pasture cows get pregnant. • All cows are given the same feed and milked w/same machines • One of the exercise cows escapes, but is found the next morning Tell the: a. SS b. MV c. RV d. CT e. ET f. Controlled Variables g. Uncontrolled Variable(s) schmied©2013
15. 15. Holstein Milk Challenge In this experiment 12 Holstein cows are kept in pasture all day. Another group of 12 Holstein cows are exercised in the morning, then kept in pasture. a. SS = Holstein Cows b. MV = Exercise c. RV = amount of milk given by each group’s cows d. CT = Cows in pasture e. ET = Cows given exercise f. CV = Same: Pasture, feed, time milked, barn, machines g. UCV = 2 “pasture” cows get pregnant, 1 “exercise” cow escaped over night schmied©2013
16. 16. Holstein Milk Challenge Use your knowledge to create a: Question Prediction and a Hypothesis for this challenge Whoa Bessie !!!
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