China’s Role in the Advancement of Civilization
China – 中国 A Brief IntroductionThe Country The People The Significant Third largest country in Fourth largest economy the world (next to Russia Most populous country and Canada) with a land with 1.3 billion people. (next to US, Japan, and area of 9.6 million km2 . German). Standard spoken Border 15 countries. language is Mandarin World’s largest exporter. Capital city is Beijing - based on Beijing dialect. World oldest continuous 北京 . 56 ethnic groups with the civilization (5000 years) 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, and Han as the majority with 29 World Heritage sites. 4 municipalities (Beijing 92% of the population. 2008 Olympic will Shanghai- 上海 , Tianjin- 天津 , and Per capital in Shanghai commence on 08:08:08 pm Chongqing- 重庆 ). is over US$7000 on 08/08/2008 at Beijing Largest city is Shanghai (China per capital is stadium (the bird’s net) with 19 million people. US$2000, USA is $44000 and Burundi is $90)
Chinese Food 中国食物 Hui (Anhui) Min (Fujian)Yang (Jiangsu) Xiang (Hunan) Zhe (Zhejiang) Lu (Shandong) Beijing Chuan (Sichuan) Yue (Cantonese) Shanghai
Chinese InventionsAgricultural Exploration Iron Plow Kite Technology Horse Harness Parachute Lacquer Rotary winnowing fan Hot-air balloons Paper Row cultivation of Rudder crops Wheelbarrow Helicopter rotor Fishing reel PorcelainEngineering Umbrella Cast iron Warfare Chess Double acting piston Crossbow Printing bellows: air, liquid Matches Gunpowder Water power Paper money Flame thrower Suspension bridge Compass Rocket Chain drive Ice cream Gun, cannon, and Deep drilling for mortars. Silk natural gas Martial arts Belt drive
Marquis Cai Lun - 蔡伦 Invented by Cai Lun about 105 AD Prior to paper, bamboo, stones, wood, and animal bones were used as writing materials (heavy, cumbersome, and expensive). Paper making technology was transferred to Korea and Vietnam then on to Japan around the 3rd century. Significant: impact global cultural advancement of China and the world (literature & literacy). For his contribution - Cai Lun ( 蔡伦 ) is considered one of the 100 most influential people in human history.
1281 – a “bomb” was thrown against a charging samurai. Discovered by Chinese alchemist (in search for an elixir of immortality) around 9th century. Consisted of saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal. Gunpowder spread from China to the world around 13th century (Yuan Dynasty). Significant: fireworks, cannon, rockets, missiles, guns, etc. Irony: China used gunpowder primarily for firecrackers while the West used it to develop guns and cannons which allowed the West to dominate China in the 1800s.
The Chinese Diamond Sutra (868 AD), the oldest existent woodblock printed book in the world. Bì Shēng 毕升 Invented by Bi Sheng - 毕升 around 1040 AD. First movable type was made of baked clay. In late 13th century, wooden movable type was made by Wang Zhen - 王祯 . In 14th century, Hua Sui – 华燧 invented the metal movable type. Significant: advanced the development of world civilization by changing the ways that information and knowledge were produced, exchanged, and shared. 11th Century Printed money
Ming Dynasty mariner’s compass Mariner’s compass Zheng He - 郑和 : First user of the compass First magnetic direction finder was used in China around 1044. Zheng He - 郑和 made 7 naval expeditions (1405-1433) using the compass for navigation with detail needle positions given in the Mao Kun map. Chinese compass had the needle pointing South. Western compass has the needle pointed North. Significant: Opened the oceans of the world for travel and for the discovery of New World (America in 1492, among others). Made explorations and trades possible, increased commerce and welfare of all nations.
Chinese Four Great Modern Inventions Bi Sheng - 毕升 Yuan Longping - 袁隆平 Li Siguang - 李四光 Wang Xuan - 王选 Hybrid Rice (1973): Developed by Yuan Longping - 袁隆平 . Substantially increased the yield of rice (30 times more than the common rice). This inventions greatly contributed to resolving the food problem of China and of the world. Land Facie Oil-Forming Theory (1953): forwarded by Li Siguang- 李四光 . Enabled the development of big oil fields in land (Daqing, Dagang, and Shengli oilfields) . Synthesized Crystalline Bovine Insulin (1965): a collective work Chinese scientists to synthesizing a living body (bioactive protein). This invention have substantial implications in the understanding of life and in exploring life secret. Chinese Language Laser Typesetting Systems (1987): Developed by Wang Xuan - 王选 , his inventions transformed China’s printing from letterpress printing to electronic publishing. Wang Xuan is known as “Bi Sheng, Father of Printing in Modern Times.”