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  • Theories can never become laws, because laws form the body of evidence upon which we base theories. Laws can help with formulating theories, but theories do not develop into laws.
  • To the Teacher:
  • To the Teacher:
  • To the Teacher:
  • Miller Urey – http://www.ucsd.tv/miller-urey/ , http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp03/0301s.swf , http://faculty.massasoit.mass.edu/whanna/122/page4/page29/page61/page61.html , Three Domains – http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter26/animation_-_three_domains.html
  • Probably not. The same conditions no longer exist on Earth. The oxygen in the atmosphere would likely react with and destroy any new kinds of organic molecules or they would be consumed by bacteria and molds.
  • Endosymbiosis – http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter26/animation_-_endosymbiosis.html
  • Probably not. The same conditions no longer exist on Earth. The oxygen in the atmosphere would likely react with and destroy any new kinds of organic molecules or they would be consumed by bacteria and molds.

Topic 6 origins of life ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. DAY 1 Topic 6 – Origins of Life
  • 2. 1. Grab a Biology EOC Exam Preparation Worksheet 2. Provide a GIST of the Question. 3. Bubble your answer. 4. Explain why you believe is the correct answer. 5. BE PREPARED TO PARTICIPATE IN CLASS DISCUSSION. 6. After correcting, reflect on our answer. DO NOW
  • 3. Theory or Law? ORIGINS OF LIFE
  • 4.  I will recognize the differences between theories and laws.  I will apply knowledge of the development of a scientific theory. SC.912.N.3.4 Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well- supported explanations and laws are well-supported descriptions. WHAT ARE WE LEARNING TODAY? Benchmarks Learning Objectives
  • 5. How does a theory become a law? Explain. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL QUESTION? Look, Kid, I don't know why. Ask him to explain it!
  • 6. THINK – WRITE – PAIR – SHARE Scientific Theories Explained 1. What is the everyday use of the word theory? 2. What is a scientific theory? 3. Give an example of a scientific theory 4. Can a scientific theory change? Scientific Laws Explained 1. What is the everyday use of the word law? 2. Can a law be broken? 3. What is a scientific law? Can it be broken? 4. Give an example of a scientific law. How does a law differ from a theory? How does a scientific theory become a law?
  • 7. HOW ARE THEORIES AND LAWS RELATED? Scientific Theory Scientific Law Description of what happens in nature. Explains how things behave. Generally accepted to be true and universal. Explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times. Explains why things behave the way they do. Subject to change as new information is available.
  • 8. HOW ARE THEORIES AND LAWS RELATED?  In general, both a scientific theory and a scientific law are  accepted to be true by the scientific community as a whole, and  represent the tools and products of science.
  • 9. Collaborative Activity Title: Development of a Scientific Theory Problem Statement: Why are theories never proven or considered absolute truths? Look, Kid, I don't know why. Ask him to explain it!
  • 10. Collaborative Activity First discovery in the 1600’s: 1. Remove one piece of the puzzle from the envelope. 2. Write a hypothesis that best describes what your group thinks the picture on the puzzle will look like. Second discovery early 1800’s: 3. Remove 10 pieces of the puzzle from the envelope. 4. After examining the pieces, develop a second hypothesis about the complete scene or picture shown represented by the puzzle. 5. Identify the key evidence used to support the hypothesis.
  • 11. Collaborative Activity Third discovery early 1900’s: 6. Remove another 15 pieces of the puzzle from the envelope and either retain or revise your 1st and 2nd hypotheses or develop a 3rd hypothesis. 7. Again cite the key evidence should be identified. Fourth discovery late 1900’s: 8. Remove an additional 20 puzzle pieces from the envelope and proceed as in step 6. 9. Collect evidence seen and develop a final hypothesis. 10. State your hypothesis and the evidence you’ve accumulated to support it. 11. DRAW WHATYOUTHINKTHE PICTURE WILL LOOK LIKE.
  • 12. DAY 2 Topic 6 – Origins of Life
  • 13. 1. Grab a Biology EOC Exam Preparation Worksheet 2. Provide a GIST of the Question. 3. Bubble your answer. 4. Explain why you believe is the correct answer. 5. BE PREPARED TO PARTICIPATE IN CLASS DISCUSSION. 6. After correcting, reflect on our answer. DO NOW
  • 14. MACROMOLECULES ARE POLYMERS MADE UP OF MANY MONOMERS  Monomer - small molecular subunit which joins with similar units to form a polymer.  Polymer - consists of up to millions of repeated, covalently linked monomers.
  • 15. PROTEINS  Are macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.  Made up of a repeating chain of amino acids.
  • 16.  Are used to build muscle and can be found in beef, chicken, eggs, tofu, beans, and fish.  Denature under exposure to heat – that’s what causes the egg to turn white! PROTEINS
  • 17.  Experiment conducted in 1953 by Staley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey  Their apparatus, illustrated in the figure included a:  Gas chamber containing gases present in Earth early atmosphere  Electrodes supply electricity to provide energy to drive chemical reactions  Water chamber substituted for the oceans and lakes.  The Miller-Urey experiment produced a variety of organic compounds, including amino acids. HOW DID THE FIRST ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORM?
  • 18. MILLER-UREY
  • 19. WHAT ARE WE LEARNING TODAY? Benchmarks  SC.912.L.15.8 – Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth. Learning Objectives  I will describe scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.  I will identify situations or conditions contributing to the origin of life on Earth.
  • 20. Scientists explain that that life arose from nonlife billions of years ago through the theory of abiogenesis. Could life arise from nonlife today? Explain. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL QUESTION?
  • 21. WHAT CONDITIONS MAKE EARTH UNIQUE?  Only planet known to sustain life.  Several conditions make Earth able to sustain life as we know it.  presence of liquid water  moderate temperature range  free oxygen in the atmosphere  adequate sunlight  no toxic substances in the atmosphere  absence of lethal radiation
  • 22. WHAT WAS EARTH LIKE?  Earth’s early atmosphere probably contained hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water.  Volcanic activity probably formed it.  Released great amounts of water vapor that later condensed to form oceans.  Released CO2 that warms the atmosphere by absorbing outgoing heat. How did that affect the temperature?  This early atmosphere lacked oxygen, so it could not support life as we know it today.  WHERE DID LIFE BEGIN?  HOW DID LIFE BEGIN?  WHAT DID IT LOOK LIKE? SO MANY QUESTIONS!!!
  • 23.  Proposed by Alexander Oparin and John Haldane.  Early atmosphere contain NH3, CO2, H2O, H2, and CH4  At high temperatures, these gases may have formed single organic compounds.  When Earth cooled and water vapor condensed, these simple organic compounds would have collected in lakes and oceans.  Overtime. these compounds could have entered complex chemical reactions, fueled by energy from ultraviolet radiation, volcanic eruptions, and lighting.  Fossil evidence indicates that life on Earth appeared about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans  Provided protection from UV radiation  Allowed multidirectional movement  Served as a medium for essential chemical reactions.  Anaerobic prokaryotes WHERE DID LIFE BEGIN? Fossil Evidence Primordial Soup Theory
  • 24.  Abiogenesis or spontaneous generation states that life can arise from nonliving things  Oparin reasoned that O2 prevents the synthesis of certain organic compounds that are necessary building blocks for the evolution of life  Oparin proposed that the "spontaneous generation of life" did in fact occur once, but was now impossible because the conditions found on the early Earth had changed  Oparin argued that a "primeval soup" of organic molecules could be created in an oxygen-less atmosphere.  Biogenesis states that every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing.  In 1668 Francesco Redi, proved that no maggots appeared in meat when flies were prevented from laying eggs.  In 1768, Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrated that microbes were present in the air, and could be killed by boiling.  In 1861, Louis Pasteur performed a series of experiments which demonstrated that organisms such as bacteria and fungi do not spontaneously appear in sterile, nutrient-rich media. ABIOGENESIS VS. BIOGENESIS
  • 25.  Can generate amino acids and sugars from an atmosphere loaded with water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen  Demonstrated in the famous Miller-Urey experiment reported in 1953  New evidence suggest that it may have occurred in volcanic clouds  These vents release important hydrogen-rich molecules  Mineral catalysts could have made critical reactions occurs faster HOW DID LIFE BEGIN? Hydrothermal Vents Electric Spark
  • 26.  Clay may have provided the foundation for first organic compounds.  Mineral crystals in clay could have arranged organic compounds into organized patterns.  Life could have come from outer space in a comet or meteorite. HOW DID LIFE BEGIN? Panspermia Community Clay  3 billion years ago ice might have covered the oceans.  Protected from UV light, organic compounds may have formed and reacted with one another. Ice Earth
  • 27.  Sidney Fox and other scientists have done extensive research on the physical structures that may have given rise to the first cells.  Cell like structures, including microspheres and coacervates, form spontaneously in certain kinds of solutions.  Coacervates and microspheres like cells can take up certain substances from their surroundings.  Coacervates can grow  Microspheres can bud to from smaller microspheres. However, microspheres and coacervates do not have all of the properties of life.  Unlike cells, microspheres and coacervates do not have hereditary material. HOW DID CELLS FORM?
  • 28.  About 2.7 b.y.a., cyanobacteria or blue-green algae began photosynthetic reactions  About 1.8 b.y.a, the atmosphere contained abundant free oxygen. Allowed for the development of more complex, oxygen-breathing life forms Caused the first mass extinction of organism that had evolved in an oxygen-less planet Ended the process of chemical evolution WHEN DID ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN APPEARED? Spirulina
  • 29.  According to the endosymbiotic theory, eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms.  Eukaryote provided a beneficial environment  Prokaryote provided a method of energy synthesis.  Did not receive much support until the 1960s, when it was championed by Lynn Margulis of Boston University. HOW DID THE FIRST EUKARYOTES FORMS? Aerobic prokaryote Anaerobic eukaryote
  • 30. WHAT EVIDENCE SUPPORTS THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY?  Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA similar to bacterial DNA.  Mitochondria and chloroplasts have ribosomes whose size and structure closely resemble those of bacteria.  Mitochondria and chloroplasts, like bacteria, reproduce by binary fission.  Mitochondria and chloroplast replicate independently from the replication cycle of the cells that contains them.
  • 31. Scientists explain that that life arose from nonlife billions of years ago through the theory of abiogenesis. Could life arise from nonlife today? Explain. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL QUESTION?