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Pm

  1. 1. You’re doing pretty well so far…at thispoint you should be able to identify an Ineffective Natural Contingency So let’s move on to… The PerformanceManagement Contingency Estimated Time: 15 min.
  2. 2. One of the first tests we’re putting the Contingency through is the Planned Contingency Test.We’re asking if the Contingency was added by anyone, and if the Contingency is designed with the intent to manage performance.
  3. 3. Adam is a sixth grader who isn’t gettingall his homework done, and his parentsare worried that his grades will startslipping. So, Adam’s parents tell himthat each day he brings all of hishomework home, he can get a treat.
  4. 4. This is a Performance ManagementContingency. It was added by Adam’sparents to increase the frequency ofAdam bringing home his homework.So, it passes the Planned ContingencyTest. Before Behavior After Adam will not Adam puts all Adam will get get a treat his homework a treat when when he gets in his he gets home home backpack
  5. 5. Tracy is a bank teller at a local bank. Because of customer complaints, Tracy’s boss is monitoring her interaction with customers.Tracy is required to call eachcustomer by his or her name. Eachrecorded occurrence of using acustomer’s name earns Tracy pointstowards a bonus.
  6. 6. Is this Contingency added and planned? Before Behavior After Tracy will Tracy will not lose lose Tracy calls the opportunity opportunity customer by for points at for points at name the end of the the end of the day dayA. YesB. No
  7. 7. Is thisContingency ISher any added and No, this Contingency Tracy’s boss won’t give added. planned? name…her boss points if she doesn’t call the customer by added it to increase her Before behavior. Behavior After Tracy will Tracy will not lose lose Tracy calls the opportunity opportunity customer by for points at for points at name the end of the the end of the day dayA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  8. 8. Isincrease Tracy’s behavior of it to this Tracy’s boss added calling Right. Contingency added and planned?the customers by name. Before Behavior After Tracy will Tracy will not lose lose Tracy calls the opportunity opportunity customer by for points at for points at name the end of the the end of the day dayA. YesB. No
  9. 9. What about this example, is it an Added or Built-in Contingency? Before Behavior After Tracy does not Tracy calls the Tracy does see see the customer by the customer customer smile name smileA. Added PM ContingencyB. Built-in Natural Contingency
  10. 10. What about this example, is it an Added or Built-in Contingency? Before Behavior After Tracy does not Tracy calls the Tracy does see see the customer by the customer customer smile name smile We’re assuming the customer’s smile is a natural reaction. The customer didn’t design this Contingency to increase the frequency of Tracy calling customers by their names.A. Added PM Contingency Back to theB. Built-in Natural Contingency question!
  11. 11. What about this example, is it an Added or Built-in Contingency? Before Behavior After Tracy does not Tracy calls the Tracy does see see the customer by the customer customer smile name smile Excellent!!!! The customer didn’t purposely smile so that Tracy would call her by her name. It’s not added or planned.A. Added PM ContingencyB. Built-in Natural Contingency
  12. 12. How about this one, what kind of contingency is the following? Before Behavior After Sue registers Sue will not be for classes Sue will be able able to take during her to take classes classes next scheduled next semester semester timeA. PM ContingencyB. Natural Contingency
  13. 13. How about this one, what kind of contingencyThe school following? This is tricky. is the implemented the registration deadline, but did so to make it easier Behavior Before on After their systems. Sue registers Sue will not be for classes Sue will be able able to take during her to take classes classes next scheduled next semester semester time Whether an individual student registers or not, it doesn’t really matter to the university. This would be a natural contingency.A. PM ContingencyB. Natural Contingency
  14. 14. How about this one, what kind of contingencyEvenisthough following? Good job! This the Contingency. is a Natural Sue’s behavior is under the control of a designed outcome, if Sue doesn’t Before Behavior register, it’s really no big deal to the After University. Sue registers Sue will not be for classes Sue will be able able to take during her to take classes classes next scheduled next semester semester timeA. PM ContingencyB. Natural Contingency
  15. 15. The MoralEven though the outcome of acontingency was designed bysomebody else, it doesn’t mean thatcontingency is a PM contingency.We consider these contingencies tobe natural contingencies because theperson that designed the outcomedidn’t do so to with the directintention to manage performance.
  16. 16. Moving on now… We have to ask whether the Performance ManagementContingency is effective. That is, the outcome must be bothsizable and probable to control behavior. We call this the: Effective Contingency Test
  17. 17. To test this, we look at the before andafter conditions…and see if the changefrom the before to the after condition issizable and/or probable enough to controlbehavior. Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose opportunity for Tracy calls the the opportunity points customer by for points at at the end of name the end of the the day day
  18. 18. If the change issizable enough….. Then the Contingency is effective. And probable enough…to control that behavior….
  19. 19. Is the change in the size and probability of this outcome large? Before Behavior After Alice will have Alice will not to do her Alice washes have to do her roommate’s the dishes roommate’s laundry laundryA. YesB. No
  20. 20. No, this outcome is both sizable and Is the change in the size and probable. Alice won’t have to do her probability of this outcome large? roommate’s laundry, which is definitely sizable, and it’s also probable. It is effective! Before Behavior After Alice will have Alice will not to do her Alice washes have to do her roommate’s the dishes roommate’s laundry laundryA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  21. 21. Is the change in the sizeisand sizable Right!!! It both and probable. So it will probability of this control behavior…now let’s outcome large? move on! Before Behavior After Alice will have Alice will not to do her Alice washes have to do her roommate’s the dishes roommate’s laundry laundryA. YesB. No
  22. 22. We also need to make sure the PMContingency will affect behavior inthe appropriate direction (increaseor decrease)Anytime you are trying to increaseor maintain performance the PMContingency should be an Analog toAvoidance Contingency.This is the Analog to AvoidanceTest.
  23. 23. Remember:The contingency is an Analog toAvoidance and not simple Avoidancebecause the outcome is deliveredafter a delay of greater than 60seconds.
  24. 24. Does Tracy’s supervisor want her to call customers by the first name more or less often? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls the opportunity for opportunity for customer by points at end of points at end name day of dayA. More oftenB. Less often
  25. 25. Does Tracy’s supervisor want her to call customers by the first name more or less often? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls the opportunity for opportunity for customer by points at end of points at end name day of day No, look at the contingency again…think about what kind of contingency this is.A. More often Back to theB. Less often question!
  26. 26. Does Tracy’s supervisor want her to call customers by the first name more or less often? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy will loseThat’s right! This is Tracy an Analog will not lose to Avoidance, which means thatopportunity for opportunity for calls the my response frequency should points at end points at end of customer by day increase. name of dayA. More oftenB. Less often
  27. 27. We know this is an Analog to Avoidance, but specifically what kind of Avoidance Contingency is it? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls the opportunity for opportunity for customer by points at end of points at end name day of dayA. Analog to avoidance of loss of a reinforcerB. Analog to avoidance of an aversive condition
  28. 28. We know this is an Analog to Great job! Tracy is Avoidance, but specifically what kind of avoiding the loss of a reinforcer (the Avoidance Contingency is it? points) at the end of the day! Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls the opportunity for opportunity for customer by points at end of points at end name day of dayA. Analog to avoidance of loss of a reinforcerB. Analog to avoidance of an aversive condition
  29. 29. WeTracy is actually avoiding theAnalog to know this is an Careful! This can be tricky – Avoidance, points. Take loss of the but specifically what kind of another look at this Avoidance Contingency is it? contingency. Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls the opportunity for opportunity for customer by points at end of points at end name day of dayA. Analog to avoidance of loss of a reinforcerB. Analog to avoidance of an aversive condition
  30. 30. The PM Contingencies areAnalogs because there is a delay between the response and the consequence. The Delayed Outcome Testspecifies that it is important tospecify this delay in the before and after conditions.
  31. 31. Is there a delay that is apparent within the before and after condition? Before Behavior After Yoko won’t Yoko will have have to do one to do one of her Yoko practices of her roommate’s her violin for roommate’s chores on 30 minutes chores on Saturday SaturdayA. YesB. No
  32. 32. Is there a delay that is apparent within The delay IS specified. the before and after condition? do the Yoko will have to chore on Saturday. Before Behavior After Yoko won’t Yoko will have have to do one to do one of her Yoko practices of her roommate’s her violin for roommate’s chores on 30 minutes chores on Saturday SaturdayA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  33. 33. Is there a delay that is apparent within Right. The delay (Saturday) is specified in the before and the before and after condition? after conditions. Before Behavior After Yoko won’t Yoko will have have to do one to do one of her Yoko practices of her roommate’s her violin for roommate’s chores on 30 minutes chores on Saturday SaturdayA. YesB. No
  34. 34. We also have to be concerned with the Analog to Punishment Test: If you are trying to decrease thefrequency of behavior, the contingency should an Analog to Punishment or an Analog to Penalty.
  35. 35. Tony is a hospital patient whogets very aggressive when he ishooked up to heart monitors. A nurse begins to observe his behavior from behind a two-way mirror.
  36. 36. If Tony was not showing any aggressivebehavior during the 30-minute interval,he was awarded one token. At the end of the week, he could exchange his tokens for prizes.
  37. 37. In this example, are we trying to increase or decrease Tony’s aggressive behavior? Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get get a token Tony hits a token within within 30 the nurse 30 minutes minutesA. IncreaseB. Decrease
  38. 38. In this example, are we trying to increase or decrease Tony’s aggressive No. The nurse implemented the PM behavior?to DECREASE Tony’s contingency aggressive behavior. Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get get a token Tony hits a token within within 30 the nurse 30 minutes minutesA. Increase Back to theB. Decrease question!
  39. 39. In this example, are we PM Right. The nurse implemented the trying to aggressive behavior. my increase or contingency to decrease decrease Tony’s aggressive behavior? Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get get a token Tony hits a token within within 30 the nurse 30 minutes minutesA. IncreaseB. Decrease
  40. 40. Since we are trying to decrease behavior, what kind of contingency should the PM contingency be? Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get get a token Tony hits a token within within 30 the nurse 30 minutes minutesA. AvoidanceB. Punishment/PenaltyC. Analog to AvoidanceD. Analog to Punishment/Penalty
  41. 41. If we are trying toNo.increase or maintain decrease behavior, to If a contingency is what kind of contingency should the performance, it should be an analog to PM contingency be? punishment or penalty. Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get Tony hits get a token a token within the nurse within 30 30 minutes minutesA. AvoidanceB. Punishment/PenaltyC. Analog to Avoidance Back to theD. Analog to Punishment/Penalty question!
  42. 42. A punishment or penalty If we are trying to decrease behavior, contingency will decrease behavior. But the outcome is what kind of contingency should the too delayed. So it should be PM contingency be? an analog to punishment or penalty. Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get Tony hits get a token a token within the nurse within 30 30 minutes minutesA. AvoidanceB. Punishment/PenaltyC. Analog to Avoidance Back to theD. Analog to Punishment/Penalty question!
  43. 43. If we are trying totodecrease behavior, No. If a contingency is increase or maintain what kind of contingency should the performance, it should be an analog to PM contingency be? punishment or penalty. Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get Tony hits get a token a token within the nurse within 30 30 minutes minutesA. AvoidanceB. Punishment/PenaltyC. Analog to Avoidance Back to theD. Analog to Punishment/Penalty question!
  44. 44. If we are trying to decrease behavior, You got it!!! An what kind of contingency should the analog to punishment or penalty will PM contingency be?decrease behavior! Before Behavior After Tony will not Tony will get Tony hits get a token a token within the nurse within 30 30 minutes minutesA. AvoidanceB. Punishment/PenaltyC. Analog to AvoidanceD. Analog to Punishment/Penalty
  45. 45. Is there a deadline in this contingency? Does Tony have to hit the nurse before some specific time? Before Behavior After Tony will get Tony will not a token in Tony hits get a token less than the nurse in less than 30 minutes 30 minutesA. YesB. No
  46. 46. No. Tony will lose the Is there a deadline in this opportunity for a token WHENEVER he hits the contingency? Does Tony have to hit nurse. There is no deadline the nurse before some specific time? for analogs to penalty or punishment. Before Behavior After Tony will get Tony will not a token in Tony hits get a token less than the nurse in less than 30 minutes 30 minutesA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  47. 47. Is there a deadline the this Right!! Tony will lose in contingency? Does Tony have to hit opportunity for points whenever he hits the nurse. So we don’t the nursedeadlinepunishment. of specific time? have a before some penalty or in examples Before Behavior After Tony will get Tony will not a token in Tony hits get a token less than the nurse in less than 30 minutes 30 minutesA. YesB. No
  48. 48. We have one more thing to look at when the PMContingency is an Analog to Avoidance: The Explicit Deadline Test
  49. 49. One of the defining criteria of AvoidanceContingencies is the presence of adeadline. Without one, behavior mightnot occur!This deadline must be stated as part ofthe SD.Before we show you an example, let’sdefine “explicit” and “implicit” for ourpurposes:
  50. 50. Explicit – The deadlinespecifies a clear and definiteday or time. “Sunday at noon” isan explicit deadline.Implicit – The contingencyimplies that there is a deadline,but it isn’t a specific time.Before somebody enters/leavesa room is an implicit deadline.
  51. 51. Susie’s room is a mess, so herMom tells her to go to her roomand start cleaning it. If shefinishes cleaning her room, Susiecan go see a movie at 6:00.However, Susie needs to startcleaning it before Mom comes inthe room to check on her, or she’llget a scolding.
  52. 52. To avoid getting yelled at, Susie has to startcleaning her room before Mom comes in.This is an implicit deadline, because Momcould come in at any time. SD: Before Mom enters the room Before Behavior After Susie will get Susie starts Susie won’t yelled at by cleaning her get yelled at Mom room by Mom
  53. 53. Now, this contingency has an explicitdeadline. If Susie finishes cleaning herroom before 5:30 p.m., she can go see amovie at 6:00. SD: Before 5:30 p.m. Before Behavior After Susie can’t Susie finishes Susie can go go see a cleaning her see a movie movie at room at 6:00 6:00
  54. 54. Lizzie wants to startexercising. So she makes anagreement with herroommate. She will exercisefor 20 minutes on Mondaythrough Friday, before 10 PMeach night. If she doesn’t,she will give her roommate $1on Sunday for each day shemisses.
  55. 55. What is the deadline in this example? SD: Before Behavior After Lizzie Lizzie will not Lizzie will lose exercises for Lose $1 on $1 on Sunday 20 minutes SundayA. 10 PMB. Sunday
  56. 56. No. This is a tricky one. Sunday What is the deadline in this example? is when she will lose the money. But this is not the deadline. The deadline would be before 10 PM. She has to exercise before 10 PM SD: or she will lose the money. Before Behavior After Lizzie Lizzie will not Lizzie will lose exercises for lose $1 on $1 on Sunday 20 minutes SundayA. 10 PM Back to theB. Sunday question!
  57. 57. What is the deadlinePMhasthis example? That’s right!!! She exercise before 10 in avoid to to losing the money on Sunday!!! SD: 10 PM Before Behavior After Lizzie Lizzie will not Lizzie will lose exercises for lose $1 on $1 on Sunday 20 minutes SundayA. 10 PMB. Sunday
  58. 58. Back to Tracy, is there a deadline in this example? SD: ??? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls a opportunity for opportunity customer by points at end for points at name of day end of dayA. YesB. No
  59. 59. This one is tricky. This contingency has an IMPLICIT Back to Tracy, is there a deadline deadline. The deadline is before in this example? the customer leaves. SD: ??? Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls a opportunity for opportunity customer by points at end for points at name of day end of dayA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  60. 60. Excellent!!! This contingency has an IMPLICIT deadline: before the Back to Tracy, is there a deadline customer leaves. We can specify this deadline as part of the SD. in this example? SD: Before the customer leaves Before Behavior After Tracy Tracy Tracy will lose will not lose calls a opportunity for opportunity customer by points at end for points at name of day end of dayA. YesB. No
  61. 61. Tracy must call the customer byname before the customerleaves…otherwise, Tracy will lose thepoints at the end of the day. SD: Before the customer leaves Before Behavior After Tracy will Tracy will not lose lose Tracy calls the opportunity opportunity customer by for points at for points at name the end of the the end of the day day
  62. 62. One more question: is the following deadline implicit or explicit? SD: Before Dr. Malott starts the Power Point show Before Behavior After Ralph will Ralph won’t Ralph puts lose lose his flash- participation participation cards away points pointsA. ExplicitB. Implicit
  63. 63. Careful…is this deadline a One more question: is the following specific time or date? If it is deadline implicit or explicit? an arbitrary or variable deadline, then it can’t be explicit! SD: Before Dr. Malott starts the Power Point show Before Behavior After Ralph will Ralph won’t Ralph puts lose lose his flash- participation participation cards away points pointsA. ExplicitB. Implicit
  64. 64. One more question: is the following Good job! This deadline is deadline implicit or explicit? variable, which means the deadline isn’t a specific time. This is an implicit deadline! SD: Before Dr. Malott starts the Power Point show Before Behavior After Ralph will Ralph won’t Ralph puts lose lose his flash- participation participation cards away points pointsA. ExplicitB. Implicit
  65. 65. The PM Contingencysection of the work show is done. You may quitnow or continue with the Inferred Theoretical Contingency Section.

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