Gdsd workshow

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Gdsd workshow

  1. 1. Performance Management Input: Unsafe worker Process Output: Safe worker Chapter 7 Goal Directed Systems Design Part 1: Input – Process – Output Model
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Check lists and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 6 </li></ul>Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  3. 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity 12 </li></ul>Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  4. 4. Table of Contents <ul><li>Review Section </li></ul>Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  5. 5. Table of Contents <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs, inputs, or goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-directed approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input-Process-Output Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and Development (R & D) </li></ul></ul>Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  6. 6. Table of Contents <ul><li>Check lists and rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions to ask yourself when making the outline of organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline checklist </li></ul></ul>Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  7. 7. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 , #2 , #3 , #4 , #5 , #6 , #7 , #8 , #9 , #10 , #11 , #12 , #13 , #14 , #15 , #16 , #17 , #18 , #19 , #20 , #21 , #22 , #23 , #24 , #25 , #26 , #27 , #28 , #29 , #30 </li></ul></ul>Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  8. 8. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#31 , #32 , #33 , #34 , #35 , #36 , #37 , #38 , #39 , #40 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  9. 9. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#41 , #42 , #43 , #44 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  10. 10. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#45 , #46 , #47 , #48 , #49 , #50 , #51 , #52 , #53 , #54 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  11. 11. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#55 , #56 , #57 , #58 , #59 , #60 , #61 , #62 , #63 , #64 , </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  12. 12. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#65 , #66 , #67 , #68 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  13. 13. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#69 , #70 , #71 , #72 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  14. 14. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#73 </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  15. 15. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#74 , </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  16. 16. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#75 , </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  17. 17. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#76 , </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  18. 18. Table of Contents <ul><li>Activity #12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#77 , </li></ul></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  19. 19. Goal-Directed Systems Design is a technology for designing an ideal structure of organizational goals using a behavioral systems analytic approach .
  20. 20. <ul><li>In this part of the workshow you will learn the concepts </li></ul><ul><li>involved in </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-Directed Systems Design (GDSD) </li></ul><ul><li>and do some practice-work </li></ul><ul><li>in designing organizational goals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>You can do a GDSD up front </li></ul><ul><li>for a new organization </li></ul><ul><li>that you’re starting, </li></ul><ul><li>to help it work well from day one… </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>…or you can apply GDSD later </li></ul><ul><li>to an existing organization, </li></ul><ul><li>to help it work better </li></ul><ul><li>and to recover </li></ul><ul><li>from organizational disasters. </li></ul>
  23. 23. What’s the behavioral systems analysis approach ?
  24. 24. Behavioral Systems Analysis approach <ul><li>A system is an </li></ul><ul><li>organized, integrated, unified </li></ul><ul><li>set of components, </li></ul><ul><li>accomplishing a particular set </li></ul><ul><li>of goals. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Behavioral Systems Analysis approach <ul><li>A system consists of inputs (resources), processes, and outputs (goals). </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>For example, an automobile is an example of a system. </li></ul><ul><li>It inputs people at one location and moves them to another. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a transportation system . </li></ul>Behavioral Systems Analysis approach
  27. 27. <ul><li>A behavioral system is a system in which the principle components are human beings. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Behavioral System… </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a university </li></ul><ul><li>is an example of a </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral system, which </li></ul><ul><li>inputs high-school graduates , </li></ul><ul><li>educates them , </li></ul><ul><li>and outputs college graduates . </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>In a behavioral systems approach , you define an organization as a set of systems by identifying the output, process, and input for each component. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>In other words, </li></ul><ul><li>you see an organization </li></ul><ul><li>as a behavioral system, </li></ul><ul><li>or a collection of </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral systems, </li></ul><ul><li>each of which has an output, </li></ul><ul><li>a process, and inputs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Practice!!-Activity #1 <ul><li>For the following behavioral systems, identify each underlined component of the system as either output, process, or input. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  32. 32. Practice!!-Activity #1 <ul><li>Put O for output, P for process, or I for input. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>#1 Return to Table of Contents
  34. 34. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Treating sick people is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  35. 35. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Treating sick people is an activity and not the initial thing or condition that begins the process. Back to the question!
  36. 36. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul>Right on!!! Treating sick people is the behavior responsible for processing sick people into healthy people. <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  37. 37. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>#2 Return to Table of Contents
  38. 38. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. Back to the question!
  39. 39. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul>Nice Work!!! <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  40. 40. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #3 Return to Table of Contents
  41. 41. <ul><li>A hospital : </li></ul><ul><li>___Treating sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Sick people </li></ul><ul><li>___Healthy people </li></ul>Right on!!! Healthy people is the final outcome or goal when treating sick people. <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul><ul><li>C. Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  42. 42. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#4 Return to Table of Contents
  43. 43. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Amusing people is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  44. 44. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  45. 45. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul>Nice Work!!! <ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  46. 46. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#5 Return to Table of Contents
  47. 47. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  48. 48. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul>Good!! Happier people is the final outcome or goal when trying to amuse people. <ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  49. 49. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #6 Return to Table of Contents
  50. 50. <ul><li>An amusement park : </li></ul><ul><li>___Amusing people </li></ul><ul><li>___Happier people </li></ul><ul><li>___People </li></ul>Right on!!! <ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  51. 51. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#7 Return to Table of Contents
  52. 52. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  53. 53. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  54. 54. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  55. 55. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#8 Return to Table of Contents
  56. 56. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing rooms to people is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  57. 57. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  58. 58. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#9 Return to Table of Contents
  59. 59. <ul><li>A motel : </li></ul><ul><li>___Tired people </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing rooms </li></ul><ul><li>___Rested people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Right on!!! Rested people is the final outcome or goal when providing a room for tired people . On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  60. 60. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#10 Return to Table of Contents
  61. 61. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  62. 62. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  63. 63. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Right on!!! People at their destination is the final goal when transporting people. On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  64. 64. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#11 Return to Table of Contents
  65. 65. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  66. 66. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  67. 67. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #12 Return to Table of Contents
  68. 68. <ul><li>A bus company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People at destination </li></ul><ul><li>___People at place of departure </li></ul><ul><li>___Transporting people </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Right on!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  69. 69. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>#13 Return to Table of Contents
  70. 70. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  71. 71. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is what a book store wishes to accomplish through the sales process. Back to the question!
  72. 72. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  73. 73. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>#14 Return to Table of Contents
  74. 74. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Selling books is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  75. 75. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Right on!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  76. 76. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #15 Return to Table of Contents
  77. 77. <ul><li>A book store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have books and books to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling books </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have books </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Right on!!! People who have books is the final outcome or goal of a book-selling process. On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  78. 78. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>#16 Return to Table of Contents
  79. 79. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. Back to the question!
  80. 80. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  81. 81. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  82. 82. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>#17 Return to Table of Contents
  83. 83. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  84. 84. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Keep it up!!! People who have pets is the final outcome of a pet-selling process. On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  85. 85. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #18 Return to Table of Contents
  86. 86. <ul><li>A pet store : </li></ul><ul><li>___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People who have pets </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling pets </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  87. 87. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>#19 Return to Table of Contents
  88. 88. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  89. 89. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  90. 90. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Nice job!!! Repaired VCRs is the goal of a VCR-repairing process. On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  91. 91. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>#20 Return to Table of Contents
  92. 92. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  93. 93. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Right on!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  94. 94. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #21 Return to Table of Contents
  95. 95. <ul><li>A VCR repair company : </li></ul><ul><li>___Repaired VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Repairing VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>___Broken VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  96. 96. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>#22 Return to Table of Contents
  97. 97. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  98. 98. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is what the cable company wishes to accomplish by providing cable to customers. Back to the question!
  99. 99. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>That’s right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  100. 100. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>#23 Return to Table of Contents
  101. 101. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing cable to customers is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  102. 102. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Yup!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  103. 103. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #24 Return to Table of Contents
  104. 104. <ul><li>A Cablevision company : </li></ul><ul><li>___People without cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>___People with cablevision </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul>Right on!!! People with cablevision is the final output of a cable providing company. On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  105. 105. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy </li></ul><ul><li> about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#25 Return to Table of Contents
  106. 106. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing services is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  107. 107. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  108. 108. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  109. 109. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy </li></ul><ul><li> about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#26 Return to Table of Contents
  110. 110. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal a hair salon wishes to accomplish by providing quality service to customers. Back to the question!
  111. 111. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>YES!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  112. 112. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy </li></ul><ul><li> about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #27 Return to Table of Contents
  113. 113. <ul><li>A hair salon : </li></ul><ul><li>___Providing hair services </li></ul><ul><li>___People unhappy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>___People happy about their hair </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Sweet!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  114. 114. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#28 Return to Table of Contents
  115. 115. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. “ Selling ” is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  116. 116. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!
  117. 117. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  118. 118. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>#29 Return to Table of Contents
  119. 119. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the sales process. Back to the question!
  120. 120. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>That’s right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  121. 121. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>And so the last one would be…. #30 Return to Table of Contents
  122. 122. <ul><li>A bike shop : </li></ul><ul><li>___Selling bikes </li></ul><ul><li>___People without bikes and bikes to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>___People with bikes </li></ul><ul><li>A. Output </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  123. 123. <ul><li>In this workbook, </li></ul><ul><li>you are asked to describe </li></ul><ul><li>outputs, inputs, or goals </li></ul><ul><li>as things or conditions. </li></ul>
  124. 124. <ul><li>You are also asked </li></ul><ul><li>to describe processes </li></ul><ul><li>as activities or behaviors. </li></ul>
  125. 125. <ul><li>We want you to learn </li></ul><ul><li>this distinction because </li></ul><ul><li>a process does not necessarily produce the expected output </li></ul><ul><li>even when the process seems </li></ul><ul><li>to be active. </li></ul>
  126. 126. <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>Even when a motel </li></ul><ul><li>provides plenty of rooms, </li></ul><ul><li>people may not get rested </li></ul><ul><li>because of poor service, dirty bath rooms, etc. </li></ul>
  127. 127. <ul><li>So, we do not want to say the goal of a motel is to provide rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>…..that’s what the motel does to accomplish the output of rested people. </li></ul>
  128. 128. <ul><li>The goal should be described </li></ul><ul><li>as “rested people” </li></ul><ul><li>and one of its </li></ul><ul><li>processes as “providing rooms” . </li></ul>
  129. 129. <ul><li>This distinction may seem odd and less important to you, </li></ul><ul><li>but it becomes critical </li></ul><ul><li>when you start designing </li></ul><ul><li>the structure of organizational goals later. </li></ul>
  130. 130. Rules Define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors . Use “[verb] + ing + [noun]” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define a process. Example: Baking bread, or to bake bread. Define outputs , inputs , or goals of an organization as things or conditions . Avoid using “[verb] + ing + [noun]” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output/input. Instead, Use [adjective] + [noun] to define inputs/outputs. Example: Baked bread. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  131. 131. <ul><li>Identify the following items by selecting whether it is either an Output or a Process </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Baking bread </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul>Practice!!-Activity 2 <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  132. 132. <ul><li>Manufacturing watches </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#31 Return to Table of Contents
  133. 133. <ul><li>Manufacturing watches </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  134. 134. <ul><li>Manufacturing watches </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  135. 135. <ul><li>School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#32 Return to Table of Contents
  136. 136. <ul><li>School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Sorry….Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  137. 137. <ul><li>School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  138. 138. <ul><li>Writing a book </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#33 Return to Table of Contents
  139. 139. <ul><li>Writing a book </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  140. 140. <ul><li>Writing a book </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Yup!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  141. 141. <ul><li>Making an appointment </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#34 Return to Table of Contents
  142. 142. <ul><li>Making an appointment </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Sorry, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  143. 143. <ul><li>Making an appointment </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>That’s right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  144. 144. <ul><li>Teaching students </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#35 Return to Table of Contents
  145. 145. <ul><li>Teaching students </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  146. 146. <ul><li>Teaching students </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  147. 147. <ul><li>Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#36 Return to Table of Contents
  148. 148. <ul><li>Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Sorry….Remember processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!
  149. 149. <ul><li>Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  150. 150. <ul><li>Landscaped lawn </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#37 Return to Table of Contents
  151. 151. <ul><li>Landscaped lawn </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>A little reminder: You define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  152. 152. <ul><li>Landscaped lawn </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Correct!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  153. 153. <ul><li>Training a dog </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#38 Return to Table of Contents
  154. 154. <ul><li>Training a dog </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Try once more. Remember to avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  155. 155. <ul><li>Training a dog </li></ul><ul><li>__Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  156. 156. <ul><li>Training materials distributed __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#39 Return to Table of Contents
  157. 157. <ul><li>Training materials distributed __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  158. 158. <ul><li>Training materials distributed __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  159. 159. <ul><li>Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>#40 Return to Table of Contents
  160. 160. <ul><li>Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Sorry… but remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Back to the question!
  161. 161. <ul><li>Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>B. Process </li></ul>Good Work!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  162. 162. <ul><li>Goal-Directed Systems Design: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : select the ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><li>of an organization </li></ul>
  163. 163. <ul><li>Goal-Directed Systems Design: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : select the ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><li>of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : select the various levels </li></ul><ul><li> of intermediate goals needed </li></ul><ul><li> to accomplish that ultimate goal </li></ul>
  164. 164. <ul><li>Goal-Directed Systems Design: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : select the ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><li>of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : select the various levels </li></ul><ul><li> of intermediate goals needed </li></ul><ul><li> to accomplish that ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd : select the initial goals needed to accomplish those intermediate goals </li></ul>
  165. 165. <ul><li>In other words… </li></ul><ul><li>you decide what to accomplish first </li></ul><ul><li>and then design goals </li></ul><ul><li>that will enable you to accomplish what you have decided </li></ul><ul><li>to accomplish. </li></ul>
  166. 166. Definition <ul><li>The ultimate goal is the highest level of the organizational goals and ought to involve </li></ul><ul><li>the well-being of living creatures . </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  167. 167. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  168. 168. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important? <ul><li>Philosophically we believe…. </li></ul><ul><li>the world would </li></ul><ul><li>be better off if every organization </li></ul><ul><li>set their ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><li>as the well-being of creatures </li></ul><ul><li>on the earth, and derived </li></ul><ul><li>the intermediate and initial goals </li></ul><ul><li>from this ultimate goal. </li></ul>
  169. 169. <ul><li>All of us should work toward this goal, </li></ul><ul><li>and Goal-Directed Systems Design will help us </li></ul><ul><li>achieve this ultimate goal. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  170. 170. <ul><li>However… </li></ul><ul><li>We also think </li></ul><ul><li>this might be too </li></ul><ul><li>idealistic. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  171. 171. <ul><li>Now just for the record… </li></ul><ul><li>We are not selling our philosophical stand. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, </li></ul><ul><li>we are providing a technology </li></ul><ul><li>that helps you accomplish whatever you want </li></ul><ul><li>to accomplish. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  172. 172. <ul><li>In fact… </li></ul><ul><li>You are learning </li></ul><ul><li>to analyze organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>not from the well-being </li></ul><ul><li>of living creatures </li></ul><ul><li>but from the final output </li></ul><ul><li>of an organization. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  173. 173. <ul><li>Regardless of the goal </li></ul><ul><li>you start with, </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-Directed Systems Design </li></ul><ul><li>is useful and effective </li></ul><ul><li>because of its goal-directed nature, or in other words, </li></ul><ul><li>“ top-down approach ”. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?
  174. 174. Definition <ul><li>Goal-directed approach: </li></ul><ul><li>A technology of designing </li></ul><ul><li>organizational goals by defining </li></ul><ul><li>higher goals of an organization first, </li></ul><ul><li>and then selecting sub goals </li></ul><ul><li>that are necessary to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>those higher goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the accomplishment of each </li></ul><ul><li>subgoal contributes to the accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>of the higher goals. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  175. 175. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful?
  176. 176. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>It gives flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>in designing organizations. </li></ul>
  177. 177. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>It gives flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>in designing organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the desired output </li></ul><ul><li>is accomplished, the process </li></ul><ul><li>that produces the output </li></ul><ul><li>could be anything. </li></ul>
  178. 178. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>It gives flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>in designing organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>In systems engineering terms, </li></ul><ul><li>this is called </li></ul><ul><li>equifinality . </li></ul>
  179. 179. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>In systems engineering terms, this is called equifinality . </li></ul>
  180. 180. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>There are a number </li></ul><ul><li>of different processes </li></ul><ul><li>that can produce </li></ul><ul><li>the same final output. </li></ul><ul><li>For example… </li></ul>#1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.
  181. 181. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>working in a training department </li></ul><ul><li>at a company, </li></ul><ul><li>you may feel that you must </li></ul><ul><li>train people whenever </li></ul><ul><li>there is a performance problem. </li></ul>#1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.
  182. 182. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>But, if you look </li></ul><ul><li>at the desired outcome </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e., job done), </li></ul><ul><li>the best bet may NOT be training but rather a simple job aid </li></ul><ul><li>(like the job aid we’re using </li></ul><ul><li>to help you apply GDSD). </li></ul>#1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.
  183. 183. <ul><li>Or maybe the most </li></ul><ul><li>cost-effective solution </li></ul><ul><li>is performance-management contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>(like the point contingencies we’re using to encourage you </li></ul><ul><li>to apply GDSD to an area </li></ul><ul><li>of professional interest). </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.
  184. 184. <ul><li>Focusing on the output </li></ul><ul><li>before selecting the process </li></ul><ul><li>thus gives you flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>in selecting processes. </li></ul>Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.
  185. 185. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#2 </li></ul><ul><li>We take a goal-directed approach </li></ul><ul><li>in order to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>two kinds of mistakes. </li></ul>
  186. 186. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>#2 </li></ul><ul><li>We take a goal-directed approach </li></ul><ul><li>in order to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>two kinds of mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>One is the activity trap </li></ul><ul><li>and the other is the means-ends trap . </li></ul>
  187. 187. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>In both kinds of traps, we fail to accomplish what we want to accomplish without even knowing it. </li></ul>#2 We take a goal-directed approach in order to avoid two kinds of mistakes (activity trap & means-end trap).
  188. 188. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>An activity trap </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when you are satisfied with an activity or process without producing a valuable accomplishment or output. </li></ul>
  189. 189. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>An instructor at a university may use a lot of advanced technologies in her psychology class, such as an interactive video and computer-assisted instruction. </li></ul>
  190. 190. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>An activity trap occurs </li></ul><ul><li>when she or the university </li></ul><ul><li>is satisfied with the use </li></ul><ul><li>of the technology and not concerned about how students are doing in the class. </li></ul>
  191. 191. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>It may be the case that </li></ul><ul><li>the students are failing to learn the material because </li></ul><ul><li>they lack the prerequisite skills necessary to make use </li></ul><ul><li>of the material the instructor </li></ul><ul><li>has presented. </li></ul>
  192. 192. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>To get around the trap, </li></ul><ul><li>you have to focus on the output of a system. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, </li></ul><ul><li>it is the students who learned the material. </li></ul>
  193. 193. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>A means-ends trap occurs </li></ul><ul><li>when you are satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>with the accomplishment of lower-level goals and not concerned </li></ul><ul><li>with the accomplishment of higher-level goals to which </li></ul><ul><li>the lower-level goals are supposed </li></ul><ul><li>to contribute. </li></ul>
  194. 194. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>In the former example, </li></ul><ul><li>suppose the instructor finally succeeded in making </li></ul><ul><li>the students learn in the class. </li></ul>
  195. 195. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>A means-ends trap occurs, </li></ul><ul><li>for example, when the students fail to succeed after they graduate from her class. </li></ul><ul><li>The jobs they got do not require </li></ul><ul><li>the skills she taught. </li></ul>
  196. 196. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? <ul><li>To get around this trap, </li></ul><ul><li>you need to derive your goals </li></ul><ul><li>from what you are ultimately attempting to accomplish. </li></ul>
  197. 197. Practice!! <ul><li>Read the definition of the goal-directed approach again: </li></ul><ul><li>a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals </li></ul>
  198. 198. Practice!!-Activity 3 <ul><li>For the following pairs </li></ul><ul><li>of descriptions, </li></ul><ul><li>indicate which is an example </li></ul><ul><li>of a goal-directed approach . </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  199. 199. <ul><li>In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, </li></ul><ul><li>we need to, for instance, raise funds </li></ul><ul><li>and send the money to the third world countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #41 Return to Table of Contents
  200. 200. <ul><li>A. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, </li></ul><ul><li>we need to, for instance, raise funds </li></ul><ul><li>and send the money to the third world countries. </li></ul><ul><li>B. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Sorry…. Remember the goal-directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting sub goals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals Back to the question!
  201. 201. <ul><li>In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, raise funds and send the money to the third world countries. </li></ul><ul><li>B. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Yup!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  202. 202. <ul><li>A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #42 Return to Table of Contents
  203. 203. <ul><li>A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Sorry…. Here’s a little refresher of t he definition of the goal-directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals Back to the question!
  204. 204. <ul><li>A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Keep it up!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  205. 205. <ul><li>A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #43 Return to Table of Contents
  206. 206. <ul><li>A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Remember…… The goal-directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals Back to the question!
  207. 207. <ul><li>A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Great Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  208. 208. <ul><li>A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #44 Return to Table of Contents
  209. 209. <ul><li>A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question!
  210. 210. <ul><li>A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. </li></ul><ul><li>B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. </li></ul>Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Nice!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  211. 211. <ul><li>Although it is ideal to analyze organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>from the ultimate goal, </li></ul><ul><li>it is often difficult </li></ul><ul><li>and time consuming. </li></ul>
  212. 212. <ul><li>Therefore, in this program, you will only be asked to start analyzing organizational goals with a final output </li></ul><ul><li>of organizations. </li></ul>
  213. 213. <ul><li>Final output: </li></ul><ul><li>The final product </li></ul><ul><li>of an organization that </li></ul><ul><li>is distributed outside </li></ul><ul><li>the organization. </li></ul>
  214. 214. <ul><li>Final output: </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined in terms </li></ul><ul><li>of things or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>but not in terms of activities </li></ul><ul><li>or behaviors. </li></ul>
  215. 215. <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>The final output of this workbook </li></ul><ul><li>is “students who can use Goal-Directed Systems Design” </li></ul><ul><li>but not “teaching students how to use Goal-Directed Systems Design.” </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very important point. </li></ul>
  216. 216. <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Once you finish an outline, </li></ul><ul><li>it is a good idea to go back </li></ul><ul><li>and examine your final output </li></ul><ul><li>and make sure it is defined </li></ul><ul><li>in terms of things or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>and not in terms of activities </li></ul><ul><li>or behaviors. </li></ul>
  217. 217. <ul><li>A rough rule: </li></ul><ul><li>the final output is usually </li></ul><ul><li>what the organization gets paid for. </li></ul><ul><li>Another way to put it is that </li></ul><ul><li>the final output is the “purpose” of the organization. </li></ul>
  218. 218. Definition <ul><li>A final output of an organization is the final product that is distributed outside the organization. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  219. 219. Practice!!-Activity 4 <ul><li>The following are descriptions of final outputs </li></ul><ul><li>for some organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify which is an example </li></ul><ul><li>of a final output </li></ul><ul><li>in each pair. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  220. 220. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) #45 Return to Table of Contents
  221. 221. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  222. 222. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) Great!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  223. 223. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a university? </li></ul>A. B. A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) #46 Return to Table of Contents
  224. 224. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a university? </li></ul>A. B. A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  225. 225. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a university? </li></ul>A. B. A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) Yup!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  226. 226. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? </li></ul>A. B. A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) #47 Return to Table of Contents
  227. 227. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? </li></ul>A. B. A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  228. 228. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? </li></ul>A. B. A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) Correct!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  229. 229. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) #48 Return to Table of Contents
  230. 230. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  231. 231. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) Right on!!!! Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  232. 232. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? </li></ul>A. B. A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) #49 Return to Table of Contents
  233. 233. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? </li></ul>A. B. A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  234. 234. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? </li></ul>A. B. A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) Right on!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  235. 235. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? </li></ul>A. B. A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) #50 Return to Table of Contents
  236. 236. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? </li></ul>A. B. A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  237. 237. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? </li></ul>A. B . A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) Nice job!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  238. 238. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? </li></ul>A. B. A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) #51 Return to Table of Contents
  239. 239. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? </li></ul>A. B. A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!
  240. 240. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? </li></ul>A. B. A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) Right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  241. 241. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? </li></ul>A. B. A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) #52 Return to Table of Contents
  242. 242. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? </li></ul>A. B. A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  243. 243. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? </li></ul>A. B. A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) That’s great!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  244. 244. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) #53 Return to Table of Contents
  245. 245. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  246. 246. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? </li></ul>A. B. A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) This ain’t so hard huh!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  247. 247. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) #54 Return to Table of Contents
  248. 248. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread) Back to the question!
  249. 249. <ul><li>Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? </li></ul>A. B. A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) Nice Work!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  250. 250. Outlining Organizational Goals <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn how to design organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>You will use an Output-Process-Input Chain to produce </li></ul><ul><li>the structure of organizational goals. </li></ul>
  251. 251. <ul><li>First, you define the final output of the organization. </li></ul>
  252. 252. <ul><li>First, you define the final output of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Then you define the process that produces that output. </li></ul>
  253. 253. <ul><li>First, you define the final output of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Then you define the process that produces that output. </li></ul><ul><li>Then you define inputs that are necessary for the process. </li></ul>
  254. 254. <ul><li>This output-process-input forms a subsystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The inputs for one subsystem are the outputs from other subsystems. </li></ul>
  255. 255. <ul><li>Once you have determined </li></ul><ul><li>the inputs for a subsystem, </li></ul><ul><li>you go on to define the processes that produce those inputs </li></ul><ul><li>and the inputs needed </li></ul><ul><li>for the processes </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. the next output-process-input chains). </li></ul>
  256. 256. <ul><li>You will repeat this chaining </li></ul><ul><li>until inputs are obtained </li></ul><ul><li>from other organizations than </li></ul><ul><li>the one you are analyzing. </li></ul>
  257. 257. <ul><li>In other words…. </li></ul><ul><li>You are linking subsystems in an organization by chaining the inputs of one subsystem to the output of another subsystem . </li></ul>
  258. 258. <ul><li>This chaining continues until </li></ul><ul><li>the input to a subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>is offered by other organizations than the one you are analyzing. </li></ul>
  259. 259. <ul><li>As you can see in the following outline, it is easy </li></ul><ul><li>to read the flow of resources </li></ul><ul><li>in an organization when </li></ul><ul><li>it is presented as the outline </li></ul><ul><li>of organizational goals. </li></ul>
  260. 260. Input-Process-Output Chain
  261. 261. <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s analyze organizational goals for an automobile assembling factory. </li></ul>
  262. 262. <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>This factory simply gets every part needed for building an automobile and assembles the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The final output of this organization </li></ul><ul><li>is “automobiles correctly assembled </li></ul><ul><li>with no defects.” </li></ul>
  263. 263. <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>So, first, you put this final output on the top of the outline: </li></ul><ul><li>( Automobiles correctly assembled with no defects ) </li></ul>
  264. 264. <ul><li>Notice that the final output is put in parentheses . </li></ul>
  265. 265. <ul><li>In Goal-Directed Systems Design, all outputs and inputs (goals and resources) </li></ul><ul><li>are put in parentheses in </li></ul><ul><li>order for us to easily distinguish them from processes. </li></ul>
  266. 266. <ul><li>Now, the next thing you do is ask yourself how to accomplish this goal. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, what process do you need to produce correctly assembled automobiles?... </li></ul>
  267. 267. <ul><li>…Assembling, right? </li></ul><ul><li>So you put this process underneath the final output slightly (3-4 letters) indented to the right . </li></ul>
  268. 268. <ul><li>Notice that you do not </li></ul><ul><li>have parentheses this time </li></ul><ul><li>and, instead, have a label (“Production”) </li></ul><ul><li>and a colon before </li></ul><ul><li>the description of the process. </li></ul>
  269. 269. <ul><li>Indenting </li></ul><ul><li>is important here because we want </li></ul><ul><li>to see the hierarchical structure </li></ul><ul><li>of goals with ease. </li></ul><ul><li>Indented items illustrate prerequisites for the item </li></ul><ul><li>just above them. </li></ul>
  270. 270. <ul><li>(Indented items cont…) </li></ul><ul><li>They must be fulfilled </li></ul><ul><li>in order for the item </li></ul><ul><li>Just above them </li></ul><ul><li>to be accomplished. </li></ul>
  271. 271. <ul><li>(Indented items cont…) </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, </li></ul><ul><li>a process must be active </li></ul><ul><li>to produce its output, </li></ul><ul><li>and inputs must be obtained </li></ul><ul><li>in order for a process to be active. </li></ul>
  272. 272. <ul><li>(Indented items cont…) </li></ul><ul><li>By connecting two levels </li></ul><ul><li>by lines , you can see </li></ul><ul><li>more easily the relationship between outputs, processes </li></ul><ul><li>and inputs. </li></ul>
  273. 273. <ul><li>The next question is: </li></ul><ul><li>what resources do you need </li></ul><ul><li>for the process? </li></ul>
  274. 274. <ul><li>Well, you can come up with many things </li></ul><ul><li>that you think are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>for assembling automobiles: </li></ul><ul><li>Front line workers </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for the workers </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>The parts of the automobile </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  275. 275. <ul><li>In the output-process-input chains, however, you </li></ul><ul><li>only focus </li></ul><ul><li>on the flow of main resources , which are the parts </li></ul><ul><li>of the automobile in this case. </li></ul>
  276. 276. Input-Process-Output Chain
  277. 277. <ul><li>The analysis does not stop here. </li></ul><ul><li>As you might guess, the next question is: </li></ul><ul><li>what process do you need </li></ul><ul><li>to get the parts? </li></ul>
  278. 278. <ul><li>Before analyzing this, </li></ul><ul><li>let’s review the definition </li></ul><ul><li>of the “output-process-input chain,” and learn about </li></ul><ul><li>main resources and labels </li></ul><ul><li>for processes. </li></ul>
  279. 279. Definition <ul><li>Output-Process-Input chain is a way of sequencing goals </li></ul><ul><li>first by asking what you want to accomplish ( output ), </li></ul><ul><li>second, how you accomplish it ( process), and third , what you need to accomplish it ( inputs ). </li></ul><ul><li>Then, each input is analyzed in the same way until the organization you are analyzing has made contact with some other organizations. </li></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  280. 280. <ul><li>To make an Output-Process-Input chain you must follow the… </li></ul><ul><li>Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals . </li></ul>
  281. 281. Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals <ul><li>The final output of the organization must be placed on the top. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs and inputs consist only of main resources . </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs and inputs are put in parentheses . </li></ul><ul><li>Processes must be labeled . </li></ul><ul><li>Lower level must be indented to the right and connected with a line . </li></ul><ul><li>6. Multiple resources or multiple processes must be located at the same level and connected with a line . </li></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  282. 282. What are the main resources? <ul><li>We like to make a distinction </li></ul><ul><li>between the main resources </li></ul><ul><li>that are directly processed </li></ul><ul><li>and the resources that are used </li></ul><ul><li>in order to process those main resources. </li></ul>
  283. 283. What are the main resources? <ul><li>For example… </li></ul><ul><li>Every behavioral system has workers as human resources </li></ul><ul><li>(such as builders in the home construction industry). </li></ul>
  284. 284. What are the main resources? <ul><li>However… </li></ul><ul><li>They are NOT the main resources for the manufacturing process </li></ul><ul><li>in the sense that the builders themselves are not being processed . </li></ul>
  285. 285. What are the main resources? <ul><li>Instead, what the builders </li></ul><ul><li>use in the manufacturing process (such as wood and nails) </li></ul><ul><li>are considered the main resources. </li></ul>
  286. 286. What are the main resources? <ul><li>Builders are considered main resources when their training </li></ul><ul><li>or recruiting is analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>In such a case, you draw a different outline which starts with </li></ul><ul><li>“ skilled builders” as the final output. </li></ul>
  287. 287. Definition <ul><li>Main resources: </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials for production processes, </li></ul><ul><li>resources that are distributed </li></ul><ul><li>by distribution processes, </li></ul><ul><li>or customers for ALL selling processes. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  288. 288. <ul><li>So, it is important to note </li></ul><ul><li>that you would NEVER put employees in the outline unless </li></ul><ul><li>they were actually being processed, as in a training department </li></ul><ul><li>at a corporation. </li></ul>
  289. 289. Practice!!-Activity 5 <ul><li>For the following pairs of resources, click on the one that consists of examples of main resources for the specified organization. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  290. 290. <ul><li>Hamburger shop: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #55 Return to Table of Contents
  291. 291. <ul><li>Hamburger shop: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  292. 292. <ul><li>Hamburger shop: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  293. 293. <ul><li>Publisher of a magazine: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Writers and photographers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Articles and photographs. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #56 Return to Table of Contents
  294. 294. <ul><li>Publisher of a magazine: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Writers and photographers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Articles and photographs. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  295. 295. <ul><li>Publisher of a magazine: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Writers and photographers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Articles and photographs. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Nice!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  296. 296. <ul><li>Book shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Books </li></ul><ul><li>B. Employees. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #57 Return to Table of Contents
  297. 297. <ul><li>Book shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Books </li></ul><ul><li>B. Employees. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) It is important to remember that you would never put employees in the outline unless they were actually being processed, as in a training department at a corporation. Back to the question!
  298. 298. <ul><li>Book shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Books </li></ul><ul><li>B. Employees. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Correct!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  299. 299. <ul><li>Bar: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Beer, popcorn, etc. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #58 Return to Table of Contents
  300. 300. <ul><li>Bar: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Beer, popcorn, etc. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  301. 301. <ul><li>Bar: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Beer, popcorn, etc. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Great!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  302. 302. <ul><li>University: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Professors. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Students. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #59 Return to Table of Contents
  303. 303. <ul><li>University: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Professors. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Students. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  304. 304. <ul><li>University: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Professors. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Students. </li></ul>A. B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  305. 305. <ul><li>VCR repair shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Repair technicians. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Broken VCRs. </li></ul>A . B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #60 Return to Table of Contents
  306. 306. <ul><li>VCR repair shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Repair technicians. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Broken VCRs. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  307. 307. <ul><li>VCR repair shop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Repair technicians. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Broken VCRs. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) You got it!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  308. 308. <ul><li>Computer supply store: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Modems, monitors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Salespeople. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #61 Return to Table of Contents
  309. 309. <ul><li>Computer supply store: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Modems, monitors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Salespeople. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  310. 310. <ul><li>Computer supply store: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Modems, monitors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Salespeople. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Nice Work!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  311. 311. <ul><li>An amusement park: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Customers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Maintenance people. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #62 Return to Table of Contents
  312. 312. <ul><li>An amusement park: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Customers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Maintenance people. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  313. 313. <ul><li>An amusement park: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Customers. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Maintenance people. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Yup!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  314. 314. <ul><li>A movie theater: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Seats. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Movie-goers. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #63 Return to Table of Contents
  315. 315. <ul><li>A movie theater: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Seats. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Movie-goers. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  316. 316. <ul><li>A movie theater: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Seats. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Movie-goers. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Right!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  317. 317. <ul><li>A doctor’s office: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sick people. </li></ul>A . B . (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #64 Return to Table of Contents
  318. 318. <ul><li>A doctor’s office: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sick people. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Back to the question!
  319. 319. <ul><li>A doctor’s office: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sick people. </li></ul>A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Nice Work!!! On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  320. 320. <ul><li>We provide a classification system to help you define a variety of processes when you design organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three kinds of processes: Production , </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution , and </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Development ( R&D ). </li></ul>
  321. 321. Definition <ul><li>Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same) </li></ul><ul><li>Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.) </li></ul>Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide
  322. 322. Practice!!-Activity 6 <ul><li>Carefully review the definitions and label the following components with production, distribution, R & D, or none of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Put P for production, D for distribution, R for R & D, or N for none. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: For any given example, it is possible to use an answer more than once. </li></ul>Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents
  323. 323. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>#65 Return to Table of Contents
  324. 324. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.) Back to the question!
  325. 325. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Remember… Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same ) Back to the question!
  326. 326. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Look it over again and give it another shot…. Back to the question!
  327. 327. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Right on!!! On to the next question! Back to the previous question!
  328. 328. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>#66 Return to Table of Contents
  329. 329. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Sorry… Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing) Back to the question!
  330. 330. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.) Back to the question!
  331. 331. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>Look it over again and give it another shot…. Back to the question!
  332. 332. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving beef stew to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>___Revising the beef stew recipe </li></ul><ul><li>___Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Production D. None </li></ul><ul><li>B. Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>C. R & D </li></ul>You Got It!!! Here beef stew is simply distributed to the customer (not actually processed or changed). On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  333. 333. <ul><li> In a restaurant : </li></ul><ul><li>___Cooking beef stew </li></ul><ul><li>___Serving bee

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