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2. pob review flashcards 2. pob review flashcards Document Transcript

  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 1 2 Concept: Concept: Reinforcer reinforcement contingency(positive reinforcer) 1 3 Concept: Concept: Behavior Escape contingency 1 3 Concept: Concept: Behavior analysis Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) 1 4 Concept: Concept: Baseline Punishment Contingency 1
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo The immediate, o Any stimulus, event, or conditiono response-contingent, o whose presentation immediatelyo presentation follows a responseo of a reinforcer o and increases the frequency of thato resulting in an increased frequency response. of that response.o The response-contingent, o A muscular, glandular, oro removal of an o electrical activity.o aversive conditiono resulting in an increased frequency of that response.o Stopping reinforcement for an o The study of the principles of inappropriate response behavior.o while shifting that reinforcement to an appropriate response.o The response-contingent o The phase of an experiment oro presentation of interventiono an aversive condition o where the behavior is measuredo resulting in a decreased frequency o in the absence of an intervention. of that response. 2
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 4 6 Concept: Principle: Social validity Extinction 5 7 Concept: Concept: Penalty Contingency Response Class 5 7 Principle: Concept: Law of Effect Task Analysis 6 7 Principle: Concept:Recovery From Punishment Single-Subject Research Design 3
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo Stopping the reinforcement or o The goals,o escape contingency o procedures, ando for a previously reinforced o results of an interventiono response causes its o are socially acceptable too response frequency to o the client,o decrease. o the behavior analyst, and o society.o A set of responses that either o The response-contingento a) are similar on at least one o removal of response dimension, or o a reinforcero b) share the effects of o resulting in a decreased frequency reinforcement and punishment, or of that response.o c) serve the same function (produce the same outcome).o An analysis of complex behavior o The effects of our actionso and sequences of behavior o determine whether we will repeato into their component responses. them.o The entire experiment is conducted o Stopping the punishment or penalty with a single subject, contingencyo though it may be replicated with o for a previously punished response several other subjects. o may cause the response frequency to increase o to its frequency before the punishment or penalty contingency. 4
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 7 9 Procedure: Concept: The Differential- Unlearned Reinforcer Reinforcement Procedure 8 9 Concept: Concept:Terminal Behavior Unlearned Aversive Condition 8 9 Concept: Principle: The Procedure of Deprivation Principle ShapingWith Reinforcement 8 9 Concept: Principle:The Procedure of Satiation PrincipleVariable-Outcome Shaping 5
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo A stimulus, event, or condition that o Reinforcing one set of responses is a reinforcer, o and extinguishing another set ofo though not as a result of pairing responses. with another reinforcer.o A stimulus, event, or condition that o Behavior not in the repertoire is aversive, o or not occurring at the desiredo though not as a result of pairing frequency; with other aversive conditions. o the goal of the interventiono Withholding a reinforcer o The differential reinforcement ofo to increase relevant learning and only that behavior performance. o that more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior.o Consuming a substantial amount of o Shaping that involves a reinforcer o an increase in the magnitude of ao temporarily decreases relevant reinforcer or learning and performance. o a decrease in the magnitude of an aversive outcome o as performance more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior. 6
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 9 11 Procedure: Concept:Motivating Operation Learned Reinforcer (secondary or conditioned reinforcer) 9 11 Principle: Concept: Premack Principle Generalized Learned Reinforcer (generalized secondary reinforcer or generalized conditioned reinforcer) 10 12 Concept: Concept:Aggression Reinforcer Discriminative Stimulus (Sd) 10 12 Concept: Concept:Addictive Reinforcer S-delta (S^) 7
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo A stimulus, event, or condition that o A procedure or condition that is a reinforcer affects learning and performanceo because it has been paired with o with respect to a particular another reinforcer. reinforcer or aversive condition.o A learned reinforcer that is a o If one activity occurs more often reinforcer than another,o because it was paired with a variety o the opportunity to do the most of other reinforcers. frequent activity o will reinforce the less frequent activity.o A stimulus in the presence of which o Stimuli resulting from acts ofo a particular response will be aggression. reinforced or punished.o A stimulus in the presence of which o A reinforcer for which a particular response will not be o repeated exposure reinforced or punished. o is a motivating operation. 8
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 12 13 Concept: Concept: Prompt Concept Training 12 13 Concept: Concept: Operandum Conceptual Stimulus Control 13 14 Concept: Concept: Stimulus Class Imitation 13 14 Concept: Concept:Stimulus Generalization Imitative Reinforcers 9
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo Reinforcing or punishing a response o A supplemental stimuluso in the presence of one stimulus o that raises the probability of a class correct response.o and extinguishing ito or allowing it to recovero in the presence of another stimulus class.o Responding occurs more often in o The part of the environment the presence of one stimulus class o the organism operates.o and less often in the presence of (manipulates) another stimulus classo because of concept training.o The behavior of the imitator is o A set of stimuli, under stimulus control o all of which have some commono of the behavior of the model physical property.o and matches the behavior of the model.o Stimuli arising from the match o The behavioral contingencies between o in the presence of one stimuluso the behavior of the imitator o affect the frequency of the responseo and the behavior of the model o in the presence of another stimulus.o ;they function as reinforcers. 10
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 15 16 Concept: Concept:Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency Punishment-by-Prevention- of-a-Reinforcer Contingency 15 17 Concept: Concept: Warning Stimulus Intermittent Reinforcement 15 17 Concept: Concept: Avoidance Contingency Schedule of Reinforcement 16 17 Concept: Concept:Punishment-by-Prevention-of- Fixed-Ratio (FR) Removal Contingency Schedule of Reinforcement 11
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo The response-contingent o The response-contingento prevention of o prevention ofo a reinforcer o loss of a reinforcero resulting in a decreased frequency o resulting in an increased frequency of that response. of that response.o A reinforcer follows the response o A stimulus that precedeso only once in awhile. o an aversive condition o and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus.o The way reinforcement occurs o The response-contingento because of the number of responses, o prevention ofo time since reinforcement, o an aversive conditiono time between responses, and o resulting in an increased frequencyo stimulus conditions. of that response.o A reinforcer follows o The response-contingento a fixed number of responses. o prevention of removal of o an aversive condition o resulting in an decreased frequency of that response. 12
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 18 18 Concept: Principle:Fixed-Interval Scallop Resistance to Extinction and Intermittent Reinforcement 18 19 Concept: Concept:Fixed-Time Schedule Concurrent Contingencies of Reinforcement 18 19 Concept: Concept:Superstitious Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) 18 20 Concept: Concept:Variable-Interval (VI) Behavioral Schedule of Chain Reinforcement 13
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo Intermittent reinforcement o A fixed-interval schedule ofteno makes the response produces a scallop-- o a gradual increase in the rate ofo more resistant to extinction responding,o than does continuous o with responding occurring at a high reinforcement. rate, o just before reinforcement is available. o No responding occurs for some time after reinforcement.o More than one contingency of o A reinforcer is delivered, reinforcement of punishment o after the passage of a fixed periodo is available at the same time. of time, o independently of the response.o Reinforcement is contingent on a o Behaving as if the response causes behavior that is o some specific outcome,o incompatible with another behavior. o when it really does not.o A sequence of stimuli and o A reinforcer is contingent on responses. o the first response,o Each response produces a change in o after a variable interval of time, the environment that o since the last opportunity foro acts as a discriminative stimulus reinforcement.o or operandumo for the next response. 14
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 20 22 Concept: Concept:Differential Punishment Rule-Governed Behavior of High Rates 21 22 Concept: Concept:Unconditioned Response Rule (UR) 21 22 Concept: Concept: Conditioned Stimulus Contingency Control (CS) (intuitive control) 21 22 Concept: Concept:Respondent Conditioning Indirect-Acting Contingency 15
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo Behavior under the control of a o The presentation of an aversive rule. condition o or the loss or prevention of a reinforcer occurs o for each response that follows the preceding response o by less than some minimum delay.o A description of a behavioral o An unlearned response contingency. o elicited by the presentation o of an unconditioned stimulus.o Direct control o A stimulus that acquires its elicitingo of behavior propertieso by a contingency, o through previous pairing witho without the involvement of rules. another stimulus.o A contingency that controls the o A neutral stimulus response, o acquires the eliciting propertieso but not because the outcome o of an unconditioned stimuluso reinforces or punishes that o through pairing the unconditioned response. stimulus o with a neutral stimulus. 16
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 22 24 Concept: Principle: Rule-Governed Analog to Rules That are Hard to Follow a Behavioral Contingency 23 25 Concept: Concept: Covert Behavior Pay For Performance 23 26 Concept: Concept: Feedback Values 24 26 Principle: Concept:Rules That are Easy to Follow Legal Rule Control 17
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo Describe outcomes that are either o An change in the frequency of ao too small (though often of response cumulative significance) o because of a rule describingo or too improbable. o the contingency.o The delay isn’t crucial.o Pay is contingent on specific o Private behavior (not visible to theo achievements. outside observer).o Learned and unlearned reinforcers o Response-contingent stimuli thato and aversive conditions. are SDs (or analogs) for the response that produced those stimuli.o Control by rules specifying added o Describe outcomes that are analogs to behavioral contingencies o both sizableo and added direct-acting behavioral o and probable. contingencies o The delay isn’t crucial.o based on material outcomes. 18
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDS 28 29 Concept: Review Concept: Transfer of Training Functional Assessment 29 29 Concept: Concept:Unobtrusive Assessment Social Validity 29 29 Concept: Concept:Interobserver Agreement Experimental Interaction 29 29 Concept: Concept: Internal Validity External Validity 19
  • POB REVIEW QUIZ FLASHCARDSo An analysis o Performance establishedo of the contingencies responsible for o at one timeo behavioral problems. o in one place o now occurs in a different time and place.o The goals, procedures, and results o Measuring performanceo of an intervention o when the clients or subjectso are socially acceptable to the o are not awareo client, the behavior analyst, o of the ongoing observation.o and society.o One experimental condition o Agreement betweeno affects the results of another. o observation of o two or more independent observers.o The extent to which the conclusions o The extent to which a research of an experiment designo apply to a wide variety of o eliminates confounding variables. conditions. 20