Proposal Heavily Edted


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An empirical model for the effect of the morbidity of malaria on productivity of farmers. by Cephas J. B. Samwini

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Proposal Heavily Edted

  2. 2. IntroductionBackground to study<br />Apart from HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, malaria is the highest cause of death due to single agent infectious diseases, accounting for 2.2% of such deaths. (Asenso-Okyere. 1994).<br />The WHO estimates that in 2006, an estimated 250 million cases of malaria occurred out a 3.3 billion people in the world who were at risk of the disease. out of that nearly 1 million deaths were recorded.<br />In that year, Ghana recorded an estimated 7.2 million cases which accounts for 3%. They went on to report that there was no evidence of a reduction in malaria cases between 2001 and s007 and the reported deaths due to the disease actually increased in 2007. (WHO 2008) <br />
  3. 3. Background Cont’d<br />According to Asante and Asenso-Okyere (2003), sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 90% of the world’s 300-500 million cases and 1.5-2.7 million deaths annually. <br />Between 20-40% of outpatient visits and between 10-15% of hospital admissions in Africa are attributable to Malaria. It is also the leading cases of workdays lost due to illness. <br />Malaria and agriculture are intimately related, this is because agricultural environments provide suitable conditions for breeding of anopheles mosquitoes which is the vector of the Plasmodium parasite which causes malaria in man.<br />Here in Ghana malaria accounts for about 9% of deaths. According Asenso-Okyere (1994) Malaria contributes 30% of out patients’ visits and 9% of Hospital admissions among others. The disease causes pain, fevers loss of productive labour time, and direct cost due to prevention and treatment.<br />
  4. 4. Problem Statement and research question<br />Does malaria have any effect on maize farmers’ output or not? If it does what is the nature of such effect? In what areas are maize farmers affected by malaria? Is it in the level of productivity? How much of productivity and income loss among maize farmers can be attributed to the effects of malaria?<br />Secondly, who does the work on the farm when the farmer is absent due to malaria? Does he hire additional labour to carry out the farm operations? If he does how much does it cost him to hire additional labourers to undertake operations which otherwise would have been done by the farmer himself?<br />Finally, how much does it cost the farmer in terms of direct cost of treating malaria? and who bears the cost? Is it the farmer directly or the national health insurance? <br />
  5. 5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS<br />What are the direct and indirect costs that the morbidity of malaria have on maize farmers?<br />How much productive time is lost by farmers due to the incidence of malaria among maize farmers in a typical growing season?<br />Is there any difference between the mean yields of farmers who had malaria within a production season and those of farmers who did not.<br />What is the effect of malaria on productivity and farmers income within a typical production season<br />
  6. 6. Objectives<br />Main objectives<br /> The main objective of the research is to ascertain the effect of malaria on the productivity levels of maize farmers in the District under study.<br />Specific objectives<br />To ascertain the direct and indirect costs that the morbidity of malaria has on farmers<br />The study will seek to ascertain the amount of productive time lost (in man days) due to the incidence of malaria to farmers in a typical season.<br />To compare the mean yields per acre of farmers who had malaria within a production season with those of farmers who did not have malaria in the production season.<br />To determine the effect of malaria on productivity and farmers income within a production season.<br />
  7. 7. Hypotheses of the study<br />It is hypothesized that malaria would have a negative effect on productivity and income levels of maize farmers<br />
  8. 8. Justification of study<br />In a country like Ghana where the primary goal is to reach the highest level of productivity in the agricultural sector, it is imperative to study all the factors that may affect the productivity of farmers.<br />Thus this research will be source of information to guide policy makers to make policies that will help ease the burden of malaria on farmers.<br />The baseline information from this research will also serve as a guide to other researchers as they search for additional information in this field which relatively under-explored.<br />
  9. 9. Conceptual framework<br />Where: <br />L: The available cultivatable land to the household<br />K=market value of fixed inputs used on the farm<br />Fe = the quantity of fertilizer used on by the farmer<br />Se=the expenditure on seeds.<br />ND= the productive time loss in man days<br />
  10. 10. Where:<br />Y= Income per season<br />AGE= the of farmer in years<br />HS= household size<br />FS= Farm size<br />TDA= total days of incapacitation<br />NFE= Non-food expenditure in Ghana Cedis<br />YT= Total income lost due to malaria in Ghana Cedis<br />Ajani, O.I.Y et al (African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 11 (2008); 259 - 265)<br />
  11. 11. Methodology<br />Study Area<br /> The study will be conducted in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district of the Ashanti region<br />Population and sample size<br />The study will have as its population all maize farmers in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district<br />A sample size of 100 farmers will be selected for the study.<br />
  12. 12. Types and sources of Data<br />Primary Data will be collected from farmers through structured questionnaires.<br />Secondary data will be collected from the district MOFA office Faculty and public libraries and the internet.<br />
  13. 13. Method of Analysis<br />
  14. 14. References<br />Gallup, John Luke and Sachs Jeffery D. (2001), The Economic Burden of malaria. American Journal of tropical Medicine, Massachusetts. <br />Berg, Henk van Den and Knols, Bart G. J (2006), The farmer Field School: A method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control? BioMed Central, http://www.malariajournal .com/content/5/1/3 Wagningen <br />Russell Steven (2004), The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: A review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acuired Immunodeficiency syndrome; American Journal of tropical medicine  <br />Sachs Jeffery and MalaneyPia (2002) The economic and social burden of malaria.<br />Asenso-Okyere W. K. (1994), Socioeconomic factors in malaria control.<br />NurE. T (1993) the impact of malaria on labour use and efficiency in the Sudan. Social Science and Medicine.<br />AnkomahAsante Felix and Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo (2003), Economic burden of Malaria in Ghana<br /> <br />WHO, (2008) WHO World malaria Report 2008. WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland. <br /> <br />Ajani, O.I.Y and W.M. Ashagidigbi(2008) Effect of Malaria On Rural Households’ Farm Income in Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 11 (2008); 259 - 265<br />SHARADA WEIR(1999). The Effects of Education on Farmer<br /> Productivity in Rural Ethiopia. Centre for the Study of African Economies.<br />
  15. 15. Thank you<br />