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Legistation changes of civil rights era
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Legistation changes of civil rights era

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  • 1. Civil Rights Legislation (Laws) & Court Cases
  • 2. What is the Supreme Court? • Highest court in our nation • Decides cases having to do with the Constitution & Federal Laws • Can decide whether a law is Constitutional. o Laws or actions declared Unconstitutional CAN NOT be enforced.
  • 3. “Jim Crow” or Segregation laws o Regulated African Americans to separate facilities
  • 4. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Homer Plessy, who was born a free man and was one-eighth of African descent • Louisiana law, Plessy was classified as black and therefore was required to travel in the ―colored‖ railroad car. • Plessy purchased a first class ticked and boarded the ―whites only‖ • Issue: Plessy was asked to relocate to the ―colored‖ car and refused, he was arrested
  • 5. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Decision: the Supreme Court said states could order racial segregation if the facilities provided for each race were equal. • Created the “separate but equal” policy. • The Plessy decision created the way for legal segregation in the United States
  • 6. Mendez v. Westminster ISD (1947) • In the California , Mendez family lived where there was only one other Mexican-American family. Neighbors were all white, and all children attended Westminster Main School. • Issue: Told to attend the Hoover School, in a different school district, and all of the students there were Mexican or Mexican-American • Only law in California was ―segregation of Chinese or Japanese children‖.
  • 7. Mendez v. Westminster ISD (1947) • Decision: Declared segregated schools by race in California illegal without state law.
  • 8. Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D. (1948) • State of Texas had decided that segregation of Mexican-American students was illegal. • Issue: State of Texas sued Bastrop ISD, claiming segregation of Mexican-American children without a state law. • Decision: Segregation of Mexican-American children in Texas was illegal.
  • 9. Sweatt v. Painter (1950) • Issue: Herman Sweatt, an African American, who wanted to attend the Law School at UT-Austin o A separate law school was created for Blacks • Decision: Supreme Court ruled that the separate school WAS NOT ―separate but equal‖. • Sweatt was allowed to attend with White students
  • 10. Brown v. Board of Education • Issue: Linda Brown was denied admission to a whites only school that was only 6 blocks from her home. She had to be bused miles away to the all black school. • Decision: Supreme Court declared ―Separate but equal, was UNEQUAL‖ Ended segregation in public schools, whites and blacks can attend together. • Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson case.
  • 11. Hernandez v. Texas (1954) • Pete Hernandez, was drinking with a friend at a bar in a small town in Texas. o He got kicked out and shot a man and was charged with murder. • Issue: Hernandez was convicted of murder by an all white jury. • Decision: Juries needed to be diverse and that Mexican Americans were entitled as a class to protection under the 14th Amendment.
  • 12. White v. Regester (1973) • Issue: State of Texas was accused of drawing voting boundaries to hurt Mexican American and African American candidates and voters. • Decision: Texas could not draw congressional districts that would discriminate against certain voters
  • 13. Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby (1984) • Issue/Decision: Lawsuit in Texas that resulted in a more equal school finance system (i.e. Highland Park students should have similar funding as a small 1A school)
  • 14. March on Washington 1963
  • 15. 1963 March on Washington • 250,000 people gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial to bring attention to the civil rights issue. • King gave his famous ―I have a dream‖ speech. • Pressure was now on President Kennedy and Congress to pass a new Civil Rights Act.
  • 16. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • LBJ become President after Kennedy is assassinated. • Congress and the President, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. • The act allowed the federal government to sue school boards that refused to integrate and mandated the end of segregation in public facilities.
  • 17. Civil Rights Act Clip • How did LBJ continue Kennedy’s legacy when he became President due to his assassination? • What did LBJ have to fight against to get the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed?
  • 18. The Right to Vote • Methods to prevent voting for African-Americans in the South. o Poll Taxes: small taxes charged on the right to vote o White Primary: Only whites were allowed to vote in the party primaries. o Grandfather clause-only vote if your Grandfather did. o Literacy tests
  • 19. The Right to Vote! • Alabama had three-member group review literacy test —in secret. • Voted on whether or not you passed. • Up to the judgment of the Board whether you passed or failed. o White and missed every single question they could still pass you if — in their sole judgment — you were "qualified." o Black and got every one correct, they could still flunk you if they considered you "unqualified."
  • 20. th 24 Amendment • 24th Amendment is passed. Eliminated Poll Tax. • African Americans no longer had to pay to vote.
  • 21. Voter Registration Drives • Selma March – 600 people marched in March 1965 and were attacked with clubs and tear gas by Alabama state troopers.
  • 22. • Voting Rights Act Video-Start @ 7:17 mark. Stop @ 10:10 • How did President LBJ show support to the Civil Rights movement?
  • 23. Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Under immense pressure, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. • This act abolished the literacy test and had federal officials oversee elections in cities that were known for discriminating against blacks.
  • 24. April 1968 • Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. His death sparked violence in 125 cities.