1st Slaves arrived to North America
in 1619
They worked on tobacco farms in
Virginia
The slaves came from West Africa
Slavery existed in the U.S. from
1619-1865
After the Civil War ended and the
North won slaves were freed!
Emergence of Civil Rights
Movement






250 years African Americans were enslaved in the
U.S.
Reconstruction is the ti...
Segregation in the South







Jim Crow laws created in the South in the late 1800s
to ensure segregation after Recon...
“Separate but Equal”
Civil Rights in the 1940s






Jackie Robinson became
the 1st African American to
cross the “color line” and
join the ...
Sweatt v. Painter


NAACP won a case involving the right of Herman
Sweatt, an African American, who wanted to
attend the ...
Desegregation in Schools


Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) –
Supreme Court overturned Plessy and said
segregation was...
Little Rock Nine








White Citizens Councils formed to stop
segregation.
Little Rock Central High School (1957) –...
Photos of Little
Rock Nine
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks challenged the city’s
segregation laws and refused to move to
the back of the bus reserv...
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1956
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott
 Selected as President of the Southern
Christian Leadership ...
Sit-in Movement
 Black

students led sit-in’s at
southern colleges.
 SNCC – Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee. L...
Lunch counter sit-ins
Civil Rights Act of 1957






Passed in 1957, Eisenhower passed this law to
increase African-American voting in the So...
1950s Culture and Laws






GI Bill: established veterans’ hospitals, provided
for vocational rehabilitation, low-inte...
Legacy of Civil Right Movement
Schools are integrated today.
 African American studies have been
established in universit...
1950s Culture and Laws




Suburbs: grew from the result of the baby boom
and GI Bill since it was cheaper to city in th...
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
Civil Rights up to 1960
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Civil Rights up to 1960

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Civil Rights up to 1960

  1. 1. 1st Slaves arrived to North America in 1619
  2. 2. They worked on tobacco farms in Virginia
  3. 3. The slaves came from West Africa
  4. 4. Slavery existed in the U.S. from 1619-1865
  5. 5. After the Civil War ended and the North won slaves were freed!
  6. 6. Emergence of Civil Rights Movement    250 years African Americans were enslaved in the U.S. Reconstruction is the time period after the Civil War that gave rights to African Americans 3 Amendments were passed to ensure rights to all citizens regardless of race during Reconstruction – 13th outlawed slavery – 14th gave citizenship rights to anyone born or naturalized (accepted) in the U.S. – 15th extended voting rights to ALL MALES
  7. 7. Segregation in the South     Jim Crow laws created in the South in the late 1800s to ensure segregation after Reconstruction. (i.e. “whites only” water fountains) Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) – Supreme Court decision that established “separate but equal.” Southern Democrats in Congress banded together to obstruct attempts to pass federal civil rights legislation & keep the status quo (the existing system of segregation) – Known as the Congressional Bloc – Many governors from the South, such as George Wallace (Alabama), Lester Maddox (Georgia), and Orval Faubus (Arkansas) believed in the status quo Case would be the landmark case for civil rights until the 1950s
  8. 8. “Separate but Equal”
  9. 9. Civil Rights in the 1940s    Jackie Robinson became the 1st African American to cross the “color line” and join the major leagues in 1947 Truman demanded his inauguration be integrated when he was re-elected Federal order to desegregate the armed forces and discriminatory hiring in the federal government in 1948 – Result of the effectiveness of groups such as Tuskegee Airmen during WWII
  10. 10. Sweatt v. Painter  NAACP won a case involving the right of Herman Sweatt, an African American, who wanted to attend the Law School at UT-Austin – Texas argued that its constitution prohibited integrated education – Created a separate law school for Blacks – Thurgood Marshall argued the case for NAACP  Supreme Court ruled that the separate school failed to qualify as “separate but equal” in facilities with other future lawyers and Sweatt was allowed to attend with White students – Isolated from peers they would work with in future
  11. 11. Desegregation in Schools  Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) – Supreme Court overturned Plessy and said segregation was now illegal. – Linda Brown was denied admission to a whites only school that was only 6 blocks from her home. She had to be bused for miles to the all black school. Filed suit. – Thurgood Marshall argued successfully for Brown. – Marshall later became the 1st African American to the Supreme Court – Southern schools resisted ruling.
  12. 12. Little Rock Nine      White Citizens Councils formed to stop segregation. Little Rock Central High School (1957) – 9 black students wanted to enroll. They were met with violence and chants such as “Lynch them.” Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus sent Arkansas National Guard to prevent them from entering – One of many governors in the South to favor segregation 10,000 National Guards sent to school by Pres. Eisenhower to protect students. Faubus tried to shut down the school at the end of the year but forced to keep it open by the Supreme Court
  13. 13. Photos of Little Rock Nine
  14. 14. Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks challenged the city’s segregation laws and refused to move to the back of the bus reserved from African Americans.  Thousands of African Americans participated in the bus boycott that lasted almost a year.  By December 1956 the Supreme Court ordered the end of segregated buses. 
  15. 15. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1956
  16. 16. Martin Luther King, Jr. Leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott  Selected as President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).  African American Christian churches were vital in organizing civil rights protests.  King followed in the nonviolent steps of Gandhi.  – Civil disobedience: non-violent tactics to promote your stance  King’s strong belief in Christianity inspired him to denounce injustice while loving his enemies.
  17. 17. Sit-in Movement  Black students led sit-in’s at southern colleges.  SNCC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Led student protests especially lunch counters. Eventually facilities were integrated.
  18. 18. Lunch counter sit-ins
  19. 19. Civil Rights Act of 1957    Passed in 1957, Eisenhower passed this law to increase African-American voting in the South – Many Southern states made African Americans pass literacy tests or pay poll taxes (pay to vote) Created the Civil Rights Commission and a Civil Rights Division on the U.S. Justice Department. – Federal courts now have the power to register African American voters Act was ineffective because of complex voting laws but set the pattern for more civil rights legislation
  20. 20. 1950s Culture and Laws    GI Bill: established veterans’ hospitals, provided for vocational rehabilitation, low-interest mortgages available and granted stipends covering tuition and living expenses for veterans attending college or trade Baby Boom: record number of babies born (3.4 million) during the 1950s Interstate Highway Act of 1956: authorized the construction of a 41,000 mile network that would go across the nation – 3 reasons why built: eliminate traffic, make coast to coast travel easier, and make it easier to escape a large city in case of an atomic attack
  21. 21. Legacy of Civil Right Movement Schools are integrated today.  African American studies have been established in universities across the U.S.  More African Americans in leadership roles in businesses, education, and politics.  Large numbers of African Americans are graduating from high school and colleges.  Discrimination in the workplace has lessened.  First African American president elected in 2008 
  22. 22. 1950s Culture and Laws   Suburbs: grew from the result of the baby boom and GI Bill since it was cheaper to city in the outskirts of a city – Levittown, NY was the first – Ex: Mesquite, Lancaster, Plano Rock ‘n’ Roll: musical art form that came from the Great Migration – – –  Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry made the art form popular Many adults thought it was the “devil’s” music Led to other musical art forms today (rap, pop, techno) Consumerism: growth of franchises – Person owns a chain of stores or businesses

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