Cities During
Industrialization

• Business and industrialization centered on the cities. The increasing
number of factori...
Immigration
• Roughly 10 million European immigrants
settled in the U.S. between 1860 and 1890.
• The transition to Americ...
Why did Political Bosses
Emerge?
Chicago, 1890

• Populations in major cities such
as New York and Philadelphia
doubled, a...
Political Machines
• Local politics during this era were marked by “machine politics”,
because the system and the party, r...
Political Machines
(cont)
• In U.S. politics, a political organization that controls enough votes to
maintain political an...
Operations of
Political Machines
• "What tells in holdin' your grip on your district is to go right down
among the poor fa...
Example of a
Political Machine
Tammany Hall, located at Fourth Avenue and East 17th
Street in New York City, ca. 1943.
Tammany Hall
• Tammany Hall was the name given to
the Democratic political machine that
dominated New York City politics f...
Tammany Hall (cont.)
• Throughout the 1830s and 1840s, the society expanded its
political control even further by earning ...
Thomas Nast
was the most
important
political
cartoonist in
19th-century
America, known
for exposing
government
corruption.
The ‘Brains.’
The Boss.
-‘Well, what
are you going
to do about
it?’” Harper’s
Weekly,
October 21,
1871, page
992.

Taken f...
Positive Aspects of
Political Bosses
• Political bosses ran a “welfare state” for urban poor. They helped the
unemployed f...
Why don’t we have
Political Bosses today?
• No place for them in cities that are more organized and
well planned out to ha...
Assignment
• You are working in the campaign office for a political machine.
Either you or someone you work for is running...
20 whose the_boss
20 whose the_boss
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  • Who’s the Boss?
     
    The term political boss is many times associated with William Marcy Tweed better knows as “Boss Tweed” of New York City. During the Gilded Age, he was an alderman (representative) to New York City’s legislative body. He was never the mayor of the city. He did control the Tammany Hall political machine-- the most powerful machine of all urban machines. Political machines offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
     
    The name Tammany was from a club designed to help the poor in the late 1700s. The nickname “Tiger” was coined for the work of the Tammany Hall machine or “Tweed Ring” as it was sometimes called. The “Tiger” bribed the police, elected officials, and anyone who would take money (graft).
     
    The new immigrants to New York City actually benefited from “The Tiger” in getting started in America. The members of the political machine spoke to them in their own languages, helped them in find jobs and housing, and in return the immigrants pledged them their votes. All of this was for a price. City improvements were not addressed. The overcrowded tenements, traffic congestion, air pollution, and unsanitary conditions were the norm rather than the exception for the 700,000 people of the city.
     
    The living conditions of the city were so poor and the graft and corruption so high that the famous cartoonist Thomas Nast of the New York’s Harper’s Weekly began drawing political cartoons of Tweed’s corruption. Boss Tweed offered Nast half a million dollars to stop drawing the cartoons. Nast declined to accept and kept on drawing.
     
    Because of the public’s outrage, Tweed was arrested along with other member of the ring and charged with fraud. He was sent to jail and died in jail at the age of 55.
    Political corruption occurred on the national level as well as the local. The idea of rewarding friends with political jobs started in the early 1800s (spoils system) and continued on into the Gilded Age. The desire for power and money during this time led many elected officials to give government jobs to those of the same party who had helped them get elected. Patronage, as it was commonly called, became a problem as more and more unqualified and corrupt workers were hired for government jobs.
    As the Gilded Age saw more and more corruption an end to the system of patronage was deemed necessary. A cry from the public to give government jobs to more qualified people regardless of their party was heard throughout the nation. Thus, the civil service (government administration) was born. President Chester A. Arthur pushed through the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883. This act created a civil service commission to give government jobs based on merit and not politics. After the passage of the act, the politicians did not have jobs to offer for votes and money, and as a result, they began having trouble gathering financial support. More and more politicians began seeking the support of wealthy business leaders to fill this void.
     
    To continue learning more about politics in the Gilded Age, please read in your textbook pp. 267 and 271. When finished reading, please complete the graphic organizer on------
  • http--www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com-Images-DBImages-4195-419511w.jpg
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  • 20 whose the_boss

    1. 1. Cities During Industrialization • Business and industrialization centered on the cities. The increasing number of factories created a need for labor, convincing people in rural areas to move to the city, and drawing immigrants from Europe to the United States. As a result, the United States transformed from a farming to an urban nation.
    2. 2. Immigration • Roughly 10 million European immigrants settled in the U.S. between 1860 and 1890. • The transition to American life was difficult for immigrants. They lived in dirty, crowded conditions in tenements. Tenements had few windows, limited plumbing and electricity, and tiny rooms often packed with people. People living in the tenements experienced disease, high infant mortality, and high levels of pollution. • Immigrants, also faced discrimination in the workplace from native workers who resented the immigrants’ willingness to accept lower wages and work in worse conditions.
    3. 3. Why did Political Bosses Emerge? Chicago, 1890 • Populations in major cities such as New York and Philadelphia doubled, and in the case of Chicago quadrupled, due to the migration of farmers and immigrants. • Municipal (city) governments were unprepared to handle the population growth of cities. Many city governments took a laissez-faire (hands-off) approach. For example, systems for sanitation, sewer, roads, etc. were not built for populations that large. • Political bosses took advantage of the situation for their own political gain.
    4. 4. Political Machines • Local politics during this era were marked by “machine politics”, because the system and the party, rather than individuals, held power. • In virtually every region of the U.S., local officials, or “machines,” bribed people, especially immigrants, for votes by providing political and economic benefits such as offices, jobs, and city contracts. • “Machines” were presided over by “party bosses,” professional politicians who dominated city government. These bosses often controlled the jobs of thousands of city workers and influenced the activities of schools, hospitals, and other city-run services. • Machine politics thrived on corruption, which contributed to the system’s collapse around the turn of the twentieth century.
    5. 5. Political Machines (cont) • In U.S. politics, a political organization that controls enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of its community. • The rapid growth of cities in the 19th century created huge problems for city governments, which were often poorly organized and unable to provide services. • Enterprising politicians were able to win support by offering favors, including patronage jobs and housing, (BETTERING URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE) in exchange for votes. • Though machines often helped to restructure city governments to the benefit of their constituents, they just as often resulted in poorer service (when jobs were doled out as political rewards), corruption (when contracts or concessions were awarded in return for kickbacks), and aggravation of racial or ethnic hostilities (when the machine did not reflect the city's diversity). • Reforms, suburban flight, and a more mobile population with fewer ties to city neighborhoods have weakened machine politics.
    6. 6. Operations of Political Machines • "What tells in holdin' your grip on your district is to go right down among the poor families and help them in the different ways they need help. I've got a regular system for this. If there's a fire in Ninth, Tenth, or Eleventh Avenue, for example, any hour of the day or night, I'm usually there with some of my election district captains as soon as the fire engines. If a family is burned out, I don't ask whether they are Republicans or Democrats, and I don't refer them to the Charity Organization Society, which would investigate their case in a month or two and decide they were worthy of help about the time they are dead from starvation. I just get quarters for them, buy clothes for them if their clothes were burned up, and fix them up till they get things runnin' again. It's philanthropy, but it's politics, too – mighty good politics. Who can tell how many votes one of these fires bring me? The poor are the most grateful people in the world, and, let me tell you, they have more friends in their neighborhoods than the rich have in theirs.” - George Washington Plunkitt
    7. 7. Example of a Political Machine
    8. 8. Tammany Hall, located at Fourth Avenue and East 17th Street in New York City, ca. 1943.
    9. 9. Tammany Hall • Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic political machine that dominated New York City politics from the 1854 through the election of LaGuardia in 1934. • The Tammany Society of New York City was founded in 1786 as a fraternal organization whose primary activities were social. By 1798, however, the society's activities had grown increasingly politicized. Eventually Tammany emerged as the central supporter of Jeffersonian policies in the city of New York.
    10. 10. Tammany Hall (cont.) • Throughout the 1830s and 1840s, the society expanded its political control even further by earning the loyalty of the city's ever-expanding immigrant community. • The society helped newly arrived foreigners obtain jobs, find a place to live, and even earn citizenship so that they could vote for Tammany candidates in city and state elections. • William M. "Boss" Tweed was a famous political boss of Tammany Hall. His corrupt reign led to an attempt at reform in the early 1870s.
    11. 11. Thomas Nast was the most important political cartoonist in 19th-century America, known for exposing government corruption.
    12. 12. The ‘Brains.’ The Boss. -‘Well, what are you going to do about it?’” Harper’s Weekly, October 21, 1871, page 992. Taken from http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/cgaweb/nast/keller
    13. 13. Positive Aspects of Political Bosses • Political bosses ran a “welfare state” for urban poor. They helped the unemployed find jobs, provided food and coal to widows, and organized entertainment in neighborhoods. All of these items were contingent upon the poor voting for the political machine’s candidate. • Who benefited? • Immigrants, working poor • Political bosses gained political power • Improvements in Infrastructure • Public Libraries- world’s largest in Boston • Brooklyn Bridge and Central Park- New York City • 660 miles of water lines; 464 miles of sewer lines; 1,800 miles of paved streets
    14. 14. Why don’t we have Political Bosses today? • No place for them in cities that are more organized and well planned out to handle large populations. • No huge waves of immigrants all at one time.
    15. 15. Assignment • You are working in the campaign office for a political machine. Either you or someone you work for is running for a political office. Create a campaign flyer for the local candidate (or yourself). Remember who you are trying to target with your advertising and what types of incentives you can offer them for voting. What can you offer that would allow this group of people to consider voting for you. Include slogans, logos, pictures, the office, name of candidate, and other items for your campaign ad. • Use Microsoft Publisher to create your flyer. When you save the flyer, save it as your last name and as a “jpeg”. You will upload this file to the website when you are finished. • When finished with you ad, write a ½ page response of how your campaign ad would be different if you were running for a political office today. How would it be similar? Explain

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