1. Robert Mills Gagné
Dr. P. Chen
2. About Robert Gagné...
• He was...
o born on August 21, 1916 in North Andover,
o educational psychologist and Instructional theorist
o received his Ph.D. from Brown University in 1940.
o a Professor at Connecticut College (1940-1949),
Pennsylvania State University (1945-46), and Florida
o the Research Director for the U.S. Air Force (1949-58)
3. Gagné's 3 Theories of Instruction
Nine Events of
4. Gagné's Nine Events of Instruction...
2.Informing learners of the objective
3.Stimulating recall of prior learning
4.Presenting the stimulus
5.Providing learning guidance
9.Enhancing retention and transfer
5. 1. Gaining attention...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Reception
• Focus learner attention
• Motivate learner
• Lesson Set: Provide students with realia to get them
interested and motivated in lesson
6. 2. Informing the learner of the objective...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Expectancy
• Set goals for learner
• Simple statement
• Lesson Objective: Students should be told prior to lesson
what will be expected of them by the end of the lesson.
7. 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Retrieval
• Question or activity to stimiluate prior knowledge
• Building Background Knowledge: Building on students pre-
existing knowledge allows for a stronger understanding of
8. 4. Presenting the stimulus...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Selective Perception
• Activity that presents information/content of what is being
• Present information for all learning styles
• Lesson: Teach step-by-step, utilizing multimedia and other
resources for better understanding.
9. 5. Providing learning guidance...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Semantic Encoding
• A cue or strategy to promote encoding
• Present information for students long term understanding
• Provide examples, guide instruction for maximum
• Guided Instruction: Students learn, teacher is there for
support and guidance.
10. 6. Eliciting performance...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Responding
• Opportunity to practice or perform what is being learned
• Students chance to show what they have learned by
demonstrating understanding of lesson
• Teacher observes students as they respond to information
11. 7. Providing feedback...
Corresponding Cogntive Process: Reinforcement
• Provide immediate feedback
• Help students correct any misunderstanding about
• Opportunity for positive reinforcement and chance for
students to understand strengths and weaknesses
• Consistent feedback enhances and reinforces learning
12. 8. Assessing performance...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Retrieval
• Assessing student learning and understanding
• Students demonstrate mastery of material
• Individual activities provide students with opportunities to
use what they have learned and apply it
13. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer...
Corresponding Cognitive Process: Generalization
• Provide examples or activities to help prompt students
understanding beyond what has already been taught
• Apply learning to real life situations
14. Gagn's Instructional Principles...
• Different instruction is required for different learning
• Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that
constitute the conditions of learning.
• The specific operations that constitute instructional events
are different for each different type of learning outcome.
• Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to
be learned and a sequence of instruction.
15. Learning Outcomes
• Verbal Information
• Intellectual Skills
• Cognitive Strategies
• Motor Skills
Image - http://wikigrup1final.wikispaces.com/file/list?o=20
Info - http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html
Textbook - Reiser, Robert A., and John V. Dempsey. Trends
and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, Second
17. Discussion Questions
1. According to Gagne’s theory, why is the first event of
2. Why are Gagné's five major categories of learning/learning
outcomes important to his nine events of instruction?
3. Gagné accounted for different learning styles, why are learning
styles important to consider when designing instruction?
4. As educators, do you agree with Gagné's Nine Events of
5. Setting goals is an important part of Gagné's theory of
instruction, how do you express goals to your students?