Honors Biology 1st Semester Exam Study Guide

7,839 views
7,284 views

Published on

It was too large to email so i posted it here.

i copied most of the slides from a website:

http://www.biologyjunction.com/powerpoints_dragonfly_book_prent.htm

if you want to look at it but i added stuff that wasnt on the slides that lawrence told us to know

1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • wonderful
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,839
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
96
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Honors Biology 1st Semester Exam Study Guide

  1. 1. 3–2 Energy Flow Honors Biology 1st Semester Exam Study Guide Slide PowerPoint 1 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  2. 2. 3–2 Energy Flow Feeding Relationships Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic level. Sun < Primary Producer < Primary Consumer < Secondary Consumer < Tertiary Consumer < Quatenary Consumer Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy. Slide 2 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  3. 3. 3–2 Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids How efficient is the transfer of energy among organisms in an ecosystem? Only about 10 percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level. Slide 3 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  4. 4. 3–2 Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids 0.1% Third-level Energy Pyramid: consumers Shows the relative 1% Second-level amount of energy consumers available at each trophic level. 10% First-level consumers Only part of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level. 100% Producers Slide 4 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  5. 5. 3–2 Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids Biomass Pyramid: 50 grams of Represents the amount of living human tissue organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the 500 grams of pyramid. chicken 5000 grams of grass Slide 5 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  6. 6. 3–2 Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. Slide 6 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  7. 7. 3–2 Energy Flow Feeding Relationships Food Chains A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. Slide 7 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  8. 8. 3–2 Energy Flow Feeding Relationships In some marine food chains, the producers are microscopic algae and the top carnivore is four steps removed from the producer. Small Fish Zooplankton Squid Algae Shark Slide 8 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  9. 9. 3–2 Energy Flow Feeding Relationships Food Webs Ecologists describe a feeding relationship in an ecosystem that forms a network of complex interactions as a food web. A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together. Slide 9 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  10. 10. 3–2 Energy Flow Feeding Relationships This food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community. Slide 10 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  11. 11. 3–2 Energy Flow Producers Autotrophs Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. These organisms are called autotrophs. They harness energy through: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis Because they make their own food, autotrophs are called producers. Slide 11 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  12. 12. 3–2 Energy Flow Consumers Heterotrophs Many organisms cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are also called consumers. Slide 12 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  13. 13. 3–2 Energy Flow Consumers There are many different types of heterotrophs. •Herbivores eat plants. (cows, rabbits) •Carnivores eat animals. (snakes, dogs, owls) •Omnivores eat both plants and animals. (humans) •Detritivores feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter. (snails, crabs, earthworms) •Decomposers break down organic matter. (bacteria, fungi) Slide 13 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  14. 14. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Cycles All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients. Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. Slide 14 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  15. 15. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen. Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans. Slide 15 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  16. 16. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles CO2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis Volcanic activity feeding Respiration Erosion Human Decomposition activity Respiration CO2 in Ocean Uplift Deposition Photosynthesis feeding Fossil fuel Deposition Carbonate Rocks Slide 16 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  17. 17. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles The Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. Such bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes. They convert nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. Slide 17 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  18. 18. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles N2 in Atmosphere Synthetic fertilizer Atmospheric manufacturer Decomposition nitrogen fixation Uptake by Reuse by producers Uptake by consumers Reuse by producers consumers Decomposition Decomposition Bacterial excretion excretion nitrogen fixation NO3 and NO2 NH3 Slide 18 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  19. 19. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. Slide 19 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  20. 20. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down. Slide 20 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  21. 21. 3–2 Energy Flow Nutrient Cycles Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. Organisms Land Ocean Slide 21 of 41 Sediments End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  22. 22. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Biomes are defined by a unique set of abiotic factors—particularly climate—and a characteristic assemblage of plants and animals. Slide 22 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  23. 23. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes 60°N 30°N 0° Equator 30°S 60°S Tropical rain forest Temperate grassland Temperate forest Tropical dry forest Desert Northwestern coniferous forest Tropical savanna Temperate woodland Boreal forest and shrubland (Taiga) Tundra Mountains and Slide ice caps 23 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  24. 24. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are home to more species than all other biomes combined. The tops of tall trees, extending from 50 to 80 meters above the forest floor, form a dense covering called a canopy. Slide 24 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  25. 25. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes In the shade below the canopy, a second layer of shorter trees and vines forms an understory. Organic matter that falls to the forest floor quickly decomposes, and the nutrients are recycled. Slide 25 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  26. 26. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: hot and wet year-round; thin, nutrient-poor soils Dominant plants: broad-leaved evergreen trees; ferns; large woody vines and climbing plants Slide 26 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  27. 27. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: sloths, capybaras, jaguars, anteaters, monkeys, toucans, parrots, butterflies, beetles, piranhas, caymans, boa constrictors, and anacondas. Geographic distribution: parts of South and Central America, Southeast Asia, parts of Africa, southern India, and northeastern Australia Slide 27 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  28. 28. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Tropical Dry Forest Tropical dry forests grow in places where rainfall is highly seasonal rather than year-round. During the dry season, nearly all the trees drop their leaves to conserve water. A tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year is called deciduous. Slide 28 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  29. 29. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: generally warm year-round; alternating wet and dry seasons; rich soils subject to erosion Dominant plants: tall, deciduous trees; drought- tolerant plants; aloes and other succulents Slide 29 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  30. 30. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: tigers, monkeys, elephants, Indian rhinoceroses, hog deer, great pied hornbills, pied harriers, spot-billed pelicans, termites, snakes and monitor lizards Geographic distribution: parts of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Australia, and tropical islands Slide 30 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  31. 31. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Tropical Savanna Tropical savannas, or grasslands, receive more rainfall than deserts but less than tropical dry forests. They are covered with grasses. Compact soils, fairly frequent fires, and the action of large animals prevent them from becoming dry forest. Slide 31 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  32. 32. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: warm temperatures; seasonal rainfall; compact soil; frequent fires set by lightning Dominant plants: tall, perennial grasses; drought- tolerant and fire-resistant trees or shrubs Slide 32 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  33. 33. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, jackals, aardvarks, elephants, giraffes, antelopes, zebras, baboons, eagles, ostriches, weaver birds, and storks Geographic distribution: large parts of eastern Africa, southern Brazil, and northern Australia Slide 33 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  34. 34. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Desert All deserts are dry, defined as having annual precipitation of less than 25 centimeters. Deserts vary greatly, some undergoing extreme temperature changes during the course of a day. The organisms in this biome can tolerate extreme conditions. Slide 34 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  35. 35. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: low precipitation; variable temperatures; soils rich in minerals but poor in organic material Dominant plants: cacti and other succulents; plants with short growth cycles Slide 35 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  36. 36. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: mountain lions, gray foxes, bobcats, mule deer, pronghorn antelopes, desert bighorn sheep, kangaroo rats, bats, owls, hawks, roadrunners, ants, beetles, butterflies, flies, wasps, tortoises, rattlesnakes, and lizards Geographic distribution: Africa, Asia, the Middle East, United States, Mexico, South America, and Australia Slide 36 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  37. 37. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Temperate Grassland Temperate grasslands are characterized by a rich mix of grasses and underlaid by fertile soils. Periodic fires and heavy grazing by large herbivores maintain the characteristic plant community. Slide 37 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  38. 38. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: warm to hot summers; cold winters; moderate, seasonal precipitation; fertile soils; occasional fires Dominant plants: lush, perennial grasses and herbs; most are resistant to drought, fire, and cold Slide 38 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  39. 39. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: coyotes, badgers, pronghorn antelopes, rabbits, prairie dogs, introduced cattle, hawks, owls, bobwhites, prairie chickens, mountain plovers, snakes, ants and grasshoppers Geographic distribution: central Asia, North America, Australia, central Europe, and upland plateaus of South America Slide 39 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  40. 40. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Temperate Woodland and Shrubland This biome is characterized by a semiarid climate and mix of shrub communities and open woodlands. Large areas of grasses and wildflowers are interspersed with oak trees. Slide 40 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  41. 41. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Communities that are dominated by shrubs are also known as chaparral. The growth of dense, low plants that contain flammable oils makes fires a constant threat. Slide 41 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  42. 42. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: hot, dry summers; cool, moist winters; thin, nutrient-poor soils; periodic fires Dominant plants: woody evergreen shrubs; herbs that grow during winter and die in summer Slide 42 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  43. 43. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: coyotes, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions, black-tailed deer, rabbits, squirrels, hawks, California quails, warblers, lizards, snakes, and butterflies Geographic distribution: western coasts of North and South America, areas around the Mediterranean Sea, South Africa, and Australia Slide 43 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  44. 44. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Temperate Forest Temperate forests contain a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees. Coniferous trees, or conifers, produce seed- bearing cones and most have leaves shaped like needles. These forests have cold winters that halt plant growth for several months. Slide 44 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  45. 45. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes In autumn, the deciduous trees shed their leaves. Soils of temperate forests are often rich in humus, a material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter that makes soil fertile. Slide 45 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  46. 46. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: cold to moderate winters; warm summers; year-round precipitation; fertile soils Dominant plants: broadleaf deciduous trees; some conifers; flowering shrubs; herbs; a ground layer of mosses and ferns Slide 46 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  47. 47. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: Deer, black bears, bobcats, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, numerous songbirds, turkeys Geographic distribution: eastern United States; southeastern Canada; most of Europe; and parts of Japan, China, and Australia Slide 47 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  48. 48. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Northwestern Coniferous Forest Mild, moist air from the Pacific Ocean provides abundant rainfall to this biome. The forest is made up of a variety of trees, including giant redwoods, spruce, fir, hemlock, and dogwood. Because of its lush vegetation, the northwestern coniferous forest is sometimes called a ―temperate rain forest.‖ Slide 48 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  49. 49. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: mild temperatures; abundant precipitation during fall, winter, and spring; relatively cool, dry summer; rocky, acidic soils Dominant plants: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, redwood Slide 49 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  50. 50. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls, bobcats, and members of the weasel family Geographic distribution: Pacific coast of northwestern United States and Canada, from northern California to Alaska Slide 50 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  51. 51. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Boreal Forest Dense evergreen forests of coniferous trees are found along the northern edge of the temperate zone. These forests are called boreal forests, or taiga. Slide 51 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  52. 52. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Winters are bitterly cold. Summers are mild and long enough to allow the ground to thaw. Boreal forests occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Slide 52 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  53. 53. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: long, cold winters; short, mild summers; moderate precipitation; high humidity; acidic, nutrient-poor soils Dominant plants: needleleaf coniferous trees; some broadleaf deciduous trees; small, berry- bearing shrubs Slide 53 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  54. 54. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: lynxes, timber wolves, members of the weasel family, small herbivorous mammals, moose, beavers, songbirds, and migratory birds Geographic distribution: North America, Asia, and northern Europe Slide 54 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  55. 55. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Tundra The tundra is characterized by permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen subsoil. During the short, cool summer, the ground thaws to a depth of a few centimeters and becomes soggy and wet. In winter, the topsoil freezes again. Cold temperaturs, high winds, the short growing season, and humus-poor soils also limit plant height. Slide 55 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  56. 56. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Abiotic factors: strong winds; low precipitation; short and soggy summers; long, cold, and dark winters; poorly developed soils; permafrost Dominant plants: ground-hugging plants such as mosses, lichens, sedges, and short grasses Slide 56 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  57. 57. 3–2 Energy Flow The Major Biomes Dominant wildlife: birds, mammals that can withstand the harsh conditions, migratory waterfowl, shore birds, musk ox, Arctic foxes, caribou, lemmings and other small rodents Geographic distribution: northern North America, Asia, and Europe Slide 57 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  58. 58. 3–2 Energy Flow Levels of Organization Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Individual Slide 58 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  59. 59. 3–2 Energy Flow Levels of Organization A species is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. Populations are groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. Communities are assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area. Slide 59 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  60. 60. 3–2 Energy Flow Levels of Organization An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. A biome is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. The highest level of organization that ecologists study is the entire biosphere itself. Slide 60 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  61. 61. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions Competition Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. A resource is any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space. Slide 61 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  62. 62. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions Direct competition in nature often results in a winner and a loser—with the losing organism failing to survive. The competitive exclusion principle states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time. Slide 62 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  63. 63. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions The distribution of these warblers avoids direct competition, because each species feeds in a different part of the tree. 18 Feeding height (m) 12 Cape May Warbler 6 Bay-Breasted Warbler Yellow-Rumped Warbler 0 Slide 63 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  64. 64. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions Predation An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism is called predation. The organism that does the killing and eating is called the predator, and the food organism is the prey. Slide 64 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  65. 65. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions Symbiosis Any relationship in which two species live closely together is called symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships include: • mutualism • commensalism • parasitism Slide 65 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  66. 66. 3–2 Energy Flow Community Interactions Mutualism: both species benefit from the relationship. Commensalism: one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Parasitism: one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it. Slide 66 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  67. 67. 3–2 Energy Flow Exponential Growth Exponential Growth Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially. Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. The population becomes larger and larger until it approaches an infinitely large size. Slide 67 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  68. 68. 3–2 Energy Flow Exponential Growth Exponential Growth Slide 68 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  69. 69. 3–2 Energy Flow Logistic Growth Logistic Growth As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows or stops. Logistic growth occurs when a population's growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth. Slide 69 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  70. 70. 3–2 Energy Flow Logistic Growth Logistic growth is characterized by an S- shaped curve. Slide 70 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  71. 71. 3–2 Energy Flow Density-Dependent Factors Density-Dependent Factors A limiting factor that depends on population size is called a density-dependent limiting factor. Slide 71 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  72. 72. 3–2 Energy Flow Density-Dependent Factors Density-dependent limiting factors include: • competition • predation • parasitism • disease Slide 72 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  73. 73. 3–2 Energy Flow Density-Dependent Factors Density-dependent factors operate only when the population density reaches a certain level. These factors operate most strongly when a population is large and dense. They do not affect small, scattered populations as greatly. Slide 73 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  74. 74. 3–2 Energy Flow Density-Independent Factors Density-Independent Factors Density-independent limiting factors affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size. Slide 74 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  75. 75. 3–2 Energy Flow Density-Independent Factors Examples of density-independent limiting factors include: • unusual weather • natural disasters • seasonal cycles • certain human activities—such as damming rivers and clear-cutting forests Slide 75 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  76. 76. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Designing an Experiment The process of testing a hypothesis includes: • Asking a question • Forming a hypothesis • Setting up a controlled experiment • Recording and analyzing results • Drawing a conclusion Slide 76 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  77. 77. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Asking a Question Many years ago, people wanted to know how living things came into existence. They asked: How do organisms come into being? Slide 77 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  78. 78. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Forming a Hypothesis One early hypothesis was spontaneous generation. For example, most people thought that maggots spontaneously appeared on meat. In 1668, Redi proposed a different hypothesis: that maggots came from eggs that flies laid on meat. Slide 78 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  79. 79. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Setting Up a Controlled Experiment manipulated variable responding variable Slide 79 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  80. 80. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Redi’s Experiment Uncovered jars Covered jars Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, Location, temperature, time Slide 80 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  81. 81. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Redi’s Experiment Manipulated Variable: Several Gauze covering that keeps days pass. flies away from meat Responding Variable: whether maggots appear Maggots appear. No maggots appear. Slide 81 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  82. 82. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Drawing a Conclusion Scientists use the data from an experiment to evaluate a hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion. Slide 82 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  83. 83. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Experimental Design Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative: measured by appearance, by observations; cannot be measured by numbers Qualitative: measured by numbers Independent vs. Dependent Independent: variable you get to manipulate (usually graphed on x-axis) Dependent: variable you don’t get to manipulate that changes based on the independent variable (usually graphed on y-axis) Slide 83 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  84. 84. 3–2 Energy Flow Designing an Experiment Hypothesis vs. Theory vs. Law Hypothesis: possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question Theory: well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations Law: concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relation that expresses a fundamental principle of science Slide 84 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  85. 85. 3–2 Energy Flow Atoms Atoms The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom. Slide 85 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  86. 86. 3–2 Energy Flow Atoms Placed side by side, 100 million atoms would make a row only about 1 centimeter long. Atoms contain subatomic particles that are even smaller. Slide 86 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  87. 87. 3–2 Energy Flow Atoms The subatomic particles that make up atoms are •Nucleus Neutron: neutral (mass: 1) Proton: positive (mass: 1) •Outer Shell Electron: negative (mass: 1/1800) # protons = # electrons # protons = atomic # Slide # protons + # neutrons = mass # 87 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  88. 88. 3–2 Energy Flow Atoms The subatomic particles in a helium atom. Slide 88 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  89. 89. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Elements and Isotopes A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom. • C stands for carbon. • Na stands for sodium. Slide 89 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  90. 90. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes The number of protons in an atom of an element is the element's atomic number. Commonly found in living organisms: Slide 90 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  91. 91. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Isotopes Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as isotopes. Slide 91 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  92. 92. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties. Slide 92 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  93. 93. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Isotopes of Carbon 6 electrons 6 protons 8 neutrons Slide 93 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  94. 94. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Radioactive Isotopes Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time Slide 94 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  95. 95. 3–2 Energy Flow Elements and Isotopes Radioactive isotopes can be used: •to determine the ages of rocks and fossils. •to treat cancer. •to kill bacteria that cause food to spoil. •as labels or ―tracers‖ to follow the movement of substances within an organism. Slide 95 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  96. 96. 3–2 Energy Flow The Water Molecule A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Slide 96 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  97. 97. 3–2 Energy Flow The Water Molecule Water Molecule Slide 97 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  98. 98. 3–2 Energy Flow The Water Molecule Hydrogen Bonds Because of their partial positive and negative charges, polar molecules can attract each other. Slide 98 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  99. 99. 3–2 Energy Flow The Water Molecule Cohesion is an attraction between molecules of the same substance. Because of hydrogen bonding, water is extremely cohesive. Slide 99 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  100. 100. 3–2 Energy Flow The Water Molecule Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of different substances. Slide 100 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  101. 101. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH Acids, Bases, and pH A water molecule is neutral, but can react to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions. H2O   H+ + OH- Slide 101 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  102. 102. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH The pH scale Chemists devised a measurement system called the pH scale to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Slide 102 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  103. 103. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH The pH Scale At a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions is equal. Sea water Human blood Pure water Milk Normal rainfall Slide 103 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  104. 104. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH Acids An acid is any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. Slide 104 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  105. 105. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH Bases A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH- ions) in solution. Slide 105 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  106. 106. 3–2 Energy Flow Acids, Bases, and pH Buffers The pH of the fluids within most cells in the human body must generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5. Controlling pH is important for maintaining homeostasis. Slide 106 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  107. 107. 3–2 Energy Flow Macromolecules Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are: •carbohydrates •lipids •nucleic acids •proteins Slide 107 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  108. 108. 3–2 Energy Flow Carbohydrates What is the function of carbohydrates? Source of Energy Structure Slide 108 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  109. 109. 3–2 Energy Flow Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. Slide 109 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  110. 110. 3–2 Energy Flow Carbohydrates Different sizes of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Slide 110 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  111. 111. 3–2 Energy Flow Carbohydrates Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates that are used by living things as a source of energy. Starch Examples: Cellulose Starch Glycogen Glucose Slide 111 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  112. 112. 3–2 Energy Flow Lipids Lipids Lipids are generally not soluble in water. The common categories of lipids are: fats oils waxes steroids Slide 112 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  113. 113. 3–2 Energy Flow Lipids Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. Slide 113 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  114. 114. 3–2 Energy Flow Lipids Slide 114 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  115. 115. 3–2 Energy Flow Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides. Slide 115 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  116. 116. 3–2 Energy Flow Nucleic Acids Nucleotides consist of three parts: •a 5-carbon sugar •a phosphate group •a nitrogenous base Slide 116 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  117. 117. 3–2 Energy Flow Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information. ribonucleic acid (RNA) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Slide 117 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  118. 118. 3–2 Energy Flow Proteins Proteins Proteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • polymers of molecules called amino acids. Slide 118 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  119. 119. 3–2 Energy Flow Proteins Amino acids Slide 119 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  120. 120. 3–2 Energy Flow Proteins The portion of each amino acid that is different is a side chain called an R-group. Slide 120 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  121. 121. 3–2 Energy Flow Proteins The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins are stored in DNA. Protein Molecule Amino Acids Slide 121 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  122. 122. 3–2 Energy Flow Proteins Some functions of proteins: –Control rate of reactions – Enzymes –Used to form bones and muscles –Transport substances into or out of cells –Help to fight disease - antibodies Slide 122 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  123. 123. 3–2 Energy Flow Energy in Reactions Activation Energy Chemists call the energy that is needed to get a reaction started the activation energy. Slide 123 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  124. 124. 3–2 Energy Flow Enzymes Enzymes Some chemical reactions that make life possible are too slow or have activation energies. These chemical reactions are made possible by catalysts. Slide 124 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  125. 125. 3–2 Energy Flow Enzymes Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. Slide 125 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  126. 126. 3–2 Energy Flow Enzyme Action The Enzyme-Substrate Complex Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react, reducing the energy needed for reaction. The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as substrates. Slide 126 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  127. 127. 3–2 Energy Flow Enzyme Action An Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction Slide 127 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  128. 128. 3–2 Energy Flow Enzyme Action Regulation of Enzyme Activity Enzymes can be affected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction. • pH values • Changes in temperature • Enzyme or substrate concentrations Slide 128 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  129. 129. 3–2 Energy Flow The Discovery of the Cell Scientists Robert Hooke: looked @ slices of plant tissue and coined name ―cells‖ Anton van Leeuwenhoek: observed single-celled living organisms in pond water and called them Animacules. Also observed some bacteria. Mattheis Schleiden: looked @ plant material an concluded all plants are made of cells Theodor Schwann: looked @ various animal cells an concluded all animals are made of cells Rudolf Virchow: studied cellular reproduction an concluded that ―all cells must come from pre-existing cells‖ Slide 129 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  130. 130. 3–2 Energy Flow The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: •All living things are composed of cells. •Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. •New cells are produced from existing cells. Slide 130 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  131. 131. 3–2 Energy Flow Exploring the Cell Electron Microscopes Electron microscopes reveal details 1000 times smaller than those visible in light microscopes. Electron microscopy can be used to visualize only nonliving, preserved cells and tissues. Slide 131 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  132. 132. 3–2 Energy Flow Exploring the Cell Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) •Used to study cell structures and large protein molecules •Specimens must be cut into ultra-thin slices Slide 132 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  133. 133. 3–2 Energy Flow Exploring the Cell Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) •Produce three-dimensional images of cells •Specimens do not have to be cut into thin slices Slide 133 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  134. 134. 3–2 Energy Flow Exploring the Cell Scanning Electron Micrograph of Neurons Slide 134 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  135. 135. 3–2 Energy Flow Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. •Prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles •Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. •Bacteria are prokaryotes. •They are the same size as mitochondrion. Slide 135 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  136. 136. 3–2 Energy Flow Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell. Slide 136 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  137. 137. 3–2 Energy Flow Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes •Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. •Eukaryotic cells contain organelles and have a cell membrane. •Many eukaryotic cells are highly specialized. •DNA is in the chromosomes. •Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. Slide 137 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  138. 138. 3–2 Energy Flow Eukaryotic Cell Structures Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell •Have cell walls •Have •Have centrioles •Similar chloroplasts •Gain energy organelles •Use through eating photosynthesis for energy Slide 138 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  139. 139. 3–2 Energy Flow Eukaryotic Cell Structures Plant Cell Nucleolus Nucleus Smooth Nuclear envelope endoplasmic Ribosome (free) reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome (attached) Cell wall Golgi apparatus Cell membrane Chloroplast Mitochondrion Vacuole Slide 139 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  140. 140. 3–2 Energy Flow Eukaryotic Cell Structures Animal Cell Smooth endoplasmic Nucleolus reticulum Nucleus Ribosome (free) Nuclear envelope Cell membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome (attached) Centrioles Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Slide 140 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  141. 141. 3–2 Energy Flow Nucleus Nucleus The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules. Nucleolus: makes ribosomes Nuclear Pores/Envelope: allow things in/out of nucleus Slide 141 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  142. 142. 3–2 Energy Flow Nucleus The Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores Slide 142 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  143. 143. 3–2 Energy Flow Ribosomes Ribosomes One of the most important jobs carried out in the cell is making proteins. Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm. Slide 143 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  144. 144. 3–2 Energy Flow Endoplasmic Reticulum There are two types of ER—rough and smooth. Endoplasmic Assembles Reticulum components of cell membrane & some proteins Ribosomes Slide 144 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  145. 145. 3–2 Energy Flow Golgi Apparatus Golgi Apparatus Proteins are activated & transported in vesicles to their destination Slide 145 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  146. 146. 3–2 Energy Flow Vacuoles Vacuole Storage area of cells Animal cells have smaller ones than plant cells Vacuole Slide 146 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  147. 147. 3–2 Energy Flow Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria Produce energy through cellular respiration Powerhouse of the cell Mitochondrion Slide 147 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  148. 148. 3–2 Energy Flow Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Chloroplasts Chloroplast Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Slide 148 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  149. 149. 3–2 Energy Flow Cytoskeleton Centrioles Centrioles Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division Only in animal cells Slide 149 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  150. 150. 3–2 Energy Flow Cell Walls Cell Wall Cell walls are found in plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes. The protect and support and are located outside of the membrane. Slide 150 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  151. 151. 3–2 Energy Flow Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. The cytoskeleton is also involved in movement. The cytoskeleton is made up of: •Microfilaments: movement and support of cell •Microtubules: tracks to move organelles/vesicles Slide 151 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  152. 152. 3–2 Energy Flow Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Microfilament Ribosomes Mitochondrion Slide 152 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  153. 153. 3–2 Energy Flow Cell Membrane Cell Membrane The cell membrane regulates what enters & leaves the cell and also provides protection/support; is also selectively permeable A.k.a. plasma membrane, fluid mosaic model, phospholipid bilayer Made up of phospholipids: Slide 153 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  154. 154. 3–2 Energy Flow Cell Membrane Cell Membrane Outside of cell <Peripheral Protein Glycolipids Glycoprotein> Phospho- lipid Bilayer Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Integral Phosphate Protein Heads & Fatty Acid Tails Slide 154 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  155. 155. 3–2 Energy Flow Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Particles in a solution tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. This process is called diffusion. When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system, the system has reached equilibrium. Slide 155 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  156. 156. 3–2 Energy Flow Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Slide 156 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  157. 157. 3–2 Energy Flow Osmosis Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Slide 157 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  158. 158. 3–2 Energy Flow Osmosis How Osmosis Works Concentrated Dilute sugar sugar solution solution (Water (Water less more concentrated) concentrated) Sugar molecules Movement of Selectively permeable water membrane Slide 158 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  159. 159. 3–2 Energy Flow Osmosis Water tends to diffuse from a highly concentrated region to a less concentrated region. If you compare two solutions, three terms can be used to describe the concentrations: hypertonic (―above strength‖). hypotonic (―below strength‖). isotonic (‖same strength‖) Slide 159 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  160. 160. 3–2 Energy Flow Osmosis Osmotic Pressure Osmosis exerts a pressure known as osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane. Slide 160 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  161. 161. 3–2 Energy Flow Osmosis Osmotic Pressure Hypertonic: solution has higher solute concentration than cell Isotonic: concentration of solutes same inside & outside of cell Hypotonic: Solution has lower solute concentration than cell Examples: Blood in isotonic water = nothing Celery in salt water = hypotonic Slide 161 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  162. 162. 3–2 Energy Flow Facilitated Diffusion Glucose molecules Facilitated Diffusion •Diffusion of molecules thru protein channel •Requires energy •Requires concentration gradient Protein channel Slide 162 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  163. 163. 3–2 Energy Flow Active Transport Active Transport Sometimes cells move materials in the opposite direction from which the materials would normally move—that is against a concentration difference. This process is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy. Slide 163 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  164. 164. 3–2 Energy Flow Active Transport Molecular Transport In active transport, small molecules and ions are carried across membranes by proteins in the membrane. Energy use in these systems enables cells to concentrate substances in a particular location, even when diffusion might move them in the opposite direction. Slide 164 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  165. 165. 3–2 Energy Flow Active Transport Molecular Transport Molecule to be carried Active Transport Slide 165 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  166. 166. 3–2 Energy Flow Active Transport Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis is the process of taking material into the cell. Two examples of endocytosis are: • phagocytosis • pinocytosis During exocytosis, materials are forced out of the cell. Slide 166 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  167. 167. 3–2 Energy Flow Events of the Cell Cycle Reasons for Cell to Divide •Larger a cell becomes, more demands cell places on its DNA •Cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients & wastes across cell membrane Slide 167 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  168. 168. 3–2 Energy Flow Events of the Cell Cycle Cell Cycle Slide 168 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  169. 169. 3–2 Energy Flow The Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of four phases: • G1 (First Gap Phase) • S Phase • G2 (Second Gap Phase) • M Phase Slide 169 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  170. 170. 3–2 Energy Flow Events of the Cell Cycle Events of the Cell Cycle During G1, the cell • increases in size • synthesizes new proteins and organelles Slide 170 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  171. 171. 3–2 Energy Flow Events of the Cell Cycle During the S phase, •chromosomes are replicated •DNA synthesis takes place Once a cell enters the S phase, it usually completes the rest of the cell cycle. Slide 171 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  172. 172. 3–2 Energy Flow Events of the Cell Cycle The G2 Phase (Second Gap Phase) •organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced •Once G2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the M phase—Mitosis Slide 172 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  173. 173. 3–2 Energy Flow Mitosis Mitosis Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: (PMAT) •Prophase •Metaphase •Anaphase •Telophase Slide 173 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  174. 174. 3–2 Energy Flow Mitosis Mitosis Slide 174 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
  175. 175. 3–2 Energy Flow Mitosis Spindle forming Prophase Prophase is the first and longest phase of mitosis. The centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus. Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Slide 175 of 41 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

×