North Carolina Native Societies (Presentation Overview)
Prehistoric Cultural Sequence
Arrival in North Carolina
Late Woodland/ Mississippian Period
The Historic Period
Cultural Sequence of North Carolina Prehistory
There are four major prehistoric cultural periods of North Carolina Native American societies:
12,000 (or more) to 9,500 years BP (Before Present)
ca. 9,500 to 4,000 years BP
4,000 to ca. 400 years BP (varies across the state)
ca 700 to 250 years BP
Arrival of the First Americans
Land bridge formed twice:
People most likely first crossed the land bridge during its second formation.
Native Americans arrived in North Carolina most likely from the west, 12,000 or more years ago.
Dates: 12,000 (or more) to 9,500 years BP
Climate: cooler and wetter than today, with temperatures from 5 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit lower on the average, and more abundant rain, though spread more evenly through the year. Sea level was over 100 feet lower than today.
Vegetation: spruce-pine parklands and near tundra conditions in the mountains and foothills; oak-beech-hickory-hemlock forests in the piedmont and coastal plain.
Artifacts: fluted and unfluted (Clovis, Hardaway, and possibly Palmer) spear points and knives; scrapers made on large flakes for working hides, wood, and bone; baskets may also have been used.
Settlements: poorly understood, but probably small camps of seasonally-mobile family groups who hunted deer, elk, bear, and possibly caribou. No evidence exists for hunting of extinct animals like the mastodon or ground sloth. Gathering of plant foods was probably important.
Three Types of Paleoindian Evidence
Stone spear points and tools
Bones of animals hunted and eaten
Traces of campsites
Paleoindian Artifacts The Atlatal, or Spear Thrower
Dates: ca. 9,500 to 4,000 years BP.
Climate: gradual changes; temperatures and rainfall similar to today, with some evidence of a particularly warmer and drier period ca. 6,500 BP.
Vegetation: similar to today, with deciduous forests and developing pine forests, especially in the coastal plain. Swamp communities developed as sea level rose.
Artifacts: variety of stone projectile points (Kirk, bifurcates, Stanly, Morrow Mountain, Guilford, Halifax, Savannah River, and others), knives, scrapers, drills and others. Ground stone tools, including axes and atlatl weights, were developed, along with carved stone bowls (soapstone). Baskets, nets, mats, canoes and other items of wood or other perishable materials were also probably common, but have not survived at sites.
Settlements: many Archaic period sites are known, ranging from small hunting camps to large base camps or small villages; stone quarries are also known. Campsites are assumed to have been occupied seasonally to take advantage of the seasonally available plants and animals. Group sizes may have ranged from single families to several families (bands).
Archaic Artifacts Polished Stone Axe from Nash County, 5000-3000 BP (above); polished bannerstones for atlatal weights (below). Changes in spear points during the Archaic Period
Comparative Camps Paleoindian Short-Term Camp Archaic Base Camp
Barber Creek Site (Pitt County)
Being dug by Dr. Randy Daniel, Anthropology, ECU.
A stratified site, from ca. 11000 BP to 3000 BP, from Paleoindian or early Archaic period to early Woodland period.
See http://www.news.ecu.edu/releases/stratified_site.html and http://www.news.ecu.edu/releases/barber_site02.html for more.
Dates: 4,000 to ca. 400 years BP (varies somewhat across the state)
Climate: essentially the same as today, with some minor fluctuations.
Vegetation: same as today, with the addition of virgin forests and better soil conditions before disturbance by European-style farming practices.
Artifacts: first use of the bow and arrow; introduction of pottery vessels for cooking and storage; development of agricultural practices (corn, beans, squash, sunflowers). Small triangular arrowheads are common, along with many varieties of pottery. Earthen burial mounds were used, but were not common.
Settlements: large and small camps are common, as are larger and permanently occupied villages with substantial houses of wood or wattle and daub with thatched roofs. Some seasonal movements to collect available plants or hunt animals were still common.
Woodland Artifacts Pottery vessel from Haywood County, 1700 BP Partially reconstructed Swannanoa Pot
Woodland Housing Typical Woodland house made of poles and bark.
Late Woodland/Mississippian Period
Dates: ca 700 to 250 years BP.
Climate: much like today.
Vegetation: much like historically documented forest types, with localized modifications due to burning for agriculture or hunting.
Artifacts: similar to the more generalized Woodland period items, with the addition of new ceramic designs and art motifs, and the construction of elaborate temple mounds and political centers.
Settlements: probably much like the settlements of the Woodland cultures, plus villages associated with the temple mounds.
( Note: Mississippian groups appear to have been limited to the southern and western portions of the state, and may, in some instances, have been intrusive to otherwise Woodland level cultures. Both the later Woodland and Mississippian peoples often built stockades or palisades around their villages.)
Late Woodland/Mississippian Artifacts Pottery vessel from Rockingham County, ca. 800 BP. Colington cooking pot.
Mississippian Buildings Archaeological traces of a round house at the Wall site along the Eno River. A platform mound such as might have been at the Town Creek site. The Pisgah village at the Warren Wilson site.
Native American Society in Historical North Carolina
The term historical is used generally to denote the period after Europeans arrived and encountered Native Americans
The division between pre-historic and historical is based on periods when there were not and when there were written records.
First encounters between Native Americans and Europeans in what is now North Carolina:
Spanish explorers in the Piedmont and Mountains
Hernando de Soto Expedition (1540)
Juan Pardo Expeditions (1566-1568)
See, for example, the Wikipedia article on Jora to get an idea of these encounters < http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joara >.
The Roanoke Colonies along the Outer Banks(1580s)
Algonquian peoples on the Coastal Plain
John Lawson’s journey through North and South Carolina (1701)
Saw such places as Occaneechi Town in present-day Orange County.
Interactions with Europeans
Five major tribal/linguistic groups interacted with the first European explorers and settlers:
Some Native American Settlements on Early European Maps
Selected Native American Place Names in North Carolina
Tribes Recognized by the State in Present-Day North Carolina
The only tribe in North Carolina with Federal Recognition are the Cherokee
The Lumbee have sought full national recognition for many years.
There is a bill for recognition in the Congress.
It has passed the House of Representatives and is in the Senate, where no action has been taken.