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American Expansionism






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    American Expansionism American Expansionism Presentation Transcript

    • Overseas Expansion Chapter 22
    • American Expansionism
      • The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned European countries to stay out of “Latin” America – this opened much of the South American market for US influence only
      • The idea US expansion stopped during the Civil War – in fact, expansion was one of the causes that led up to the Civil War
      • After the Civil War, the US quickly became a heavily industrialized nation
      • The U.S. was producing more goods than it could use
      • This surplus led the U.S. to look for new markets abroad
    • American Expansionism
      • The search for raw materials and markets drove the idea of imperialism – when one nation has political and economic control over another
      • European nations such as England and France had already carved up Africa and parts of Asia into colonies and " spheres of influence”
      • Secretary of State William Seward believed the should expand in the Pacific Ocean in its effort to reach Asia
      • He arranged for the purchase of the Midway Islands and Alaska
    • American Expansionism
      • The purchase of Alaska was known as “ Seward’s Ice Box ” until gold was discovered in the 1890’s
      • The Midway Islands that would serve as a stopping place for US ships headed to China
      • Hawaiian sugar plantations were very profitable - eventually most of the business came under the control of the US
      • In 1893 US planters staged a revolt and overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and in 1898 the US annexed the islands
      • In 1898 the US annexed part of the Samoa Islands – they would serve as a stopping place for US ships headed to Australia
    • American Expansionism
      • The US’s ultimate goal was China
      • China was divided up into “ spheres of influences ” by several European countries – sections of a country where a foreign nation has political and economic powers
      • The chinese staged a revolt known as the Boxer’s Rebellion – the rebellion was crushed, but led to the Open Door Policy
      • The Open Door Policy which allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely and other nation’s spheres – US gained much with this agreement
    • Spanish - American War
      • In the late 1800’s, Cuba led many unsuccessful revolts against Spanish rule
      • This attracted US attention: businesses were worried about US investments in Cuba and newspapers printed graphic details about the atrocities committed against the Cuban people
      • Newspapers tried to out do each other with shocking stories. “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.” William Randolph Hearst
      • This type of sensational, biased, and sometimes false reporting became known as yellow journalism
    • Yellow Journalism A satire drawing of Hearst and Pulitzer pushing the Spanish-American war.
    • Spanish - American War
      • In January of 1898, the US sent the battleship the Maine to the Havana harbor to protect US citizens and property
      • 3 weeks later the ship blew up
      • Newspapers quickly came up with the slogan “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain”
      • In April the US declared war on Spain
      • The first place the US attacked was the Philippines – within a matter of hours the Spanish navy was destroyed
    • Remember the Maine
    • Spanish - American War
      • The US then turned its attention to Cuba - after taking Cuba, the US attacked Puerto Rico
      • By August the war was over - “US Secretary of State called it “a splendid little war”
      • The war lasted 4 months and about 400 soldiers were killed in battle
      • Cuba became an American protectorate - independent yet under the control of the US
      • Platt Amendment – part of Cuban constitution that gives US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and control of Guantanamo Bay
    • Spanish - American War
      • Puerto Rica and Guam became American territories
      • The US paid Spain $20 million for Philippine Islands
      • US occupation of the Philippines led to the Philippine – American War – ultimate the US had to pull out (1946)
      • Anti-Imperialists League - not everyone in the US supported the war
    • Uncle Sam Picking Apples
    • United States and Latin America
    • Greater America
    • Latin America
    • U.S. & Panama Canal
      • US controlled territory in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans – US wanted to build a canal connecting the two oceans
      • Panama was an isthmus – a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land
      • When Colombia refused to sell or rent the land to the US – the US supported the Panamanians in rebelling against Colombia
      • Two weeks later the US signed a treaty with the newly created Panama for the construction of the Panama Canal
      • These events upset many of the countries in Latin America, and caused them to mistrust the US
      • The canal opened in August of 1914
    • Policing the Western Hemisphere
      • Teddy Roosevelt’s philosophy was “Speak softly and carry a big stick” – he believed US should respond to problems with military force rather than threats
      • America should exercise “an international police power” to preserve order and prevent the world from falling into anarchy
      • Instability in the Carribbean and South America (revolts) caused Roosevelt to worry about European intervention
      • Roosevelt Corollary – America has the right to act as a “policeman” in Latin America in cases of wrongdoing or when a nation seemed “unstable”
    • Dollar Diplomacy in the Western Hemisphere
      • William Howard Taft replaced Teddy Roosevelt as president of the US
      • He did not want to “police” Latin America and hoped to change US foreign policy by “substituting dollars for bullets.”
      • American investments would bring stability to trouble areas as well as power and wealth to the US
      • Linking business interest to political interest was known as Dollar Diplomacy
      • This policy helped build roads,railroads, harbors, and stimulated trade
      • However, when American businesses were endangered often led to military intervention
      • Which in turn led to resentment
    • Walk Softly
    • Dollar Diplomacy