1. Principles of EditingIn- Camera Editing RichardIn-camera editing is a method of film making that involvesshooting every scene of the video in the order that it will be shown. No alternate angles canbe filmed because the way this technique works is unlike the usual method of filmingvarious shots and swapping round the order it just joins all the clips together to make onelong video. Modern professional video cameras can do this without the use of a computer.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPJ2t2ypTHgvFollowing the Action:JameelWhat following the action is basically the camera movements following every bit of action in eachscene or shot and also filmed with a wide shot instead of a tight shot. Down below is an example offollowing the action technique.http://youtu.be/RtWkewqIFDMMultiple points of viewRichardmultiple points of view are many different camera anglesused to show the characters feelings and situation. As in the beginning all films used onlyone shot until around 1900 when the idea was invented of cutting the film to jump fromshot to shot. As opposed to today’s digital method this used to be done by literally cuttingthe film reel using a splicer and threading it with another machine to view it.Shot variation JameelWhat shot variation is where images/filmcontinuously slow motion by editing. This type oftechnique ‘slow motion’ is being used in a lot of films nowadays especially in action filmbecause it is very suitable for that genre as you can see below that is an action film and itmatches very well near the when he dodges the bullet and it attract the audience’sattention because they can see the bullets very closely because it is running in slow motionand they get to watch the character dodge them in a very gymnastic way witch is veryentertaining that’s why the type of technique is very popular. The link below shows you aexample of shot variation.http://youtu.be/KNrSNcaYiZgManipulation of diegetic time and space Richardediting is the element in film that reallycaught people’s eye and managed to land film where it is today. The thing that everyone
2. Principles of Editinglikes about editing is the ability to create things in films that can’t happen in real life, sotherefore the film allows the audience to escape real life. The first edits in films were thingslike introducing colour, cuts and slowing down and speeding up scenes.Film JameelThroughout the years of editing it has changed a lot from how editors used to edit and how they editthese days. Back in the day they used to use splicers as and editing technique and what splicers is, isa cutting machine where they used to actually cut the film. In our days editing cuts are done digitallyon computer on software that is well known called adobe premiere this is a much easier andprécised way of editing cuts and it has a lot of great features of editing settings on the software. Thelink blow is a video of a splicing machine and a video of the editing software.http://youtu.be/ib8RBPsM4lIhttp://youtu.be/lHJQaJ5URNw Softwaresplicer machineAnalogue JameelBasically the difference between analogue and digital editing is analogue is editing all the spokenwords in the film so it is going to have effect with voice and text editing digital editing is the actualshot in the film so the moving picture basically, that is the difference between the two tiles digitaland editing. Down below I have an example of analogue editing.http://youtu.be/aHw6JtS9xGYDigitalRichardDigital video editing is essentially just the edits made to a video in the modern day. Manyadvanced digital editing features are available now such as composting video. Digital editingdescribes editing using a computer and programs like Adobe premiere pro. This is a farbetter way of editing than the traditional Linear editing or analogue editing because of howmuch more efficient and higher quality the outcome is. An example of someone using adigital editing program is: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkKSeeLRVjsStorytelling Richardstorytelling is a technique involved in film editing that all editors use in their own way nomatter how the outcome looks. Storytelling in editing involves portraying each scene and
3. Principles of Editingcharacter in the scene as how the editor wants. So for example if they wanted a dramaticscene the editor could use sharp cuts, slow motion and lots of explosions or they couldportray the same scene as comic using different editing techniques.Development of Drama JameelThe drama has developed a lot in the past century’s because film makers now have a lot of newgadgets like colour mode lightingsoftware’s props instruments etc… the reason why this is wellimportant and has changed the development of drama over the recent years is because now theyhave lighting and sound to change the mood of the act and the audience this is well important indrama because drama you can do it on stage live and on camera in the cinemas this is the reasonwhy drama has to have that effect so it can change the audience is mind and not wanting them to nowhat is going to happen next. Down below is an example of dramahttp://youtu.be/Mq0YpvD9168Relationship to genre Richard in eachdifferent genre many different editing techniques are used to emphasize and work with thechosen film genre. For example an action film naturally contains a lot of action; car chases,fights and explosions. Editing techniques that can be worked into this film style are thingslike slow motion edits on the fight scenes, Jump cuts throughout the high action scenes andsome sort of rock music to keep up the pace of the action. This can be contrasted withsomething like a love scene where long camera frames will be used accompanied by slowmusic and the camera might pan round the people as they kiss to show how in love theyare. There are lots of other editing techniques used in other genres to fit in to andemphasize the genre. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg5AypnkqSgCreating MotivationJameelFrom my point of view in my own opinion I would think the creating motivation is where you put abuilding up audio sound with the video of someone running for example with great sound choicewith it and then it would motivate the viewers/audience and make them wanting to do the samething. That’s what I think. For example if you put a song with some one play football it will make theaudience want to play football because it sounds and looks inspiring with the heavy music. Below isa link I have good example of motivation.http://youtu.be/afeakRuday8Combining shots into sequencesRichard
4. Principles of EditingOne of the most basic things that editing is used for is taking a selection of shots and joiningthem together in various ways to assemble a sequence that looks however the editorchooses it to.Creating paceJameelBasically what creating pace is creating pace and how you do that in editing is basically you can do itmany ways but I’m going to talk about the two ways you can do it is buy adding music into the shotand you can also do it by cutting in between shoots that’s the basic and most common way an editordoes it. The reason why they have this is because obviously I have explained it earlier on creatingpace but in other words it does it in a steady pace to make the film as perfect as possible. Downbelow is an example of creating pace… as you can see in the video you can pretty much tell whatcrating pace is it is doing things on different shots that match perfectly.Seamless RichardSeamless editing is editing that creates action that flows smoothly acrossshots and scenes whilst establishing a sense of story for the viewer. This kind of editing isessentially the same as continuity editing. Seamless editing is used at some point in almostevery film but as the point of it is to be unnoticeable observing it isn’t always easy. Anexample of seamless editing isContinuity RichardContinuity is where each type of shot has been smoothed out so it’s not cutting through the film soyou do not miss a single second this is better and more attractive to the audience because they wantto know what is going on they what more information. Nowadays all films use continuity editingbecause it is a whole lot better and easier to watch and like I said before you would not miss asecond. Below is a link, in the link is an example of montage editinghttp://youtu.be/OofNBvo-ABUMotivatedMotivated editing is the most unnoticeable type of cut and it is very unusual and often
5. Principles of Editingdifficult for a motion picture to include examples. Basically a motivated edit is when you cutto a scene or object that isn’t in the previous frame. A correct motivated edit is not suddenand out of place. Motivated edits are often used in scenarios such as a conversation wherethe other person’s reaction is needed. Or if there is a specific object that someone is lookingat and the camera would jump to the object.MontageJameelMontage editing is where several shots have been edited into a sequence which creates space, timeand information. Down below is a video example of montage editing. This example shows us that theactor is training but even that it shows he is training for 2 minutes and forty for seconds he is reallytraining fir over a couple of months because the editors do this because we are not going to watch afilm for months are we, no… so they get us to think that he has been training for a long time with allthese cuts this editing technique is as similar to the creating pace technique.http://youtu.be/DP3MFBzMH2oJump CuttingJameelBasically the meaning of jump cuttings is in the name. What jump cut is where one shot jumps toanother very quickly in a discontinuity way. For this reason jump cuts is considered the same ascontinuity editing because it gives that same appearance of continuous time and space. Downbelow is a link of a short video that explains the jump cuts technique.http://youtu.be/HVlZjJfXYfUParallelJameelParallel editing is where two things are happening simultaneously then end up coming together. Thisis great because it lets the audience know what is going on and they are going to meet up/. Downbelow is a link of an example to what is parallel editing.http://youtu.be/t0HNc7ne6e8180RuleRichard The 180degree rule is a technique used in cinematography that helps keep the audience’s attentionon the action during normal everyday scenes. The rule implies that whilst a scene is going on
6. Principles of Editingsuch as a conversation the filming has to go on from strictly one side of the conversationwhere the people stay facing the same way. This rule exists because if the camera switchedsides the people would appear to keep facing different ways even though they haven’tmoved and this would confuse and distract the audience. Here is a short demo of the 180degree rule. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBPw9C57TuU&feature=relatedSplicing JameelTo be honest the clue is really in the name splicing all it is you splicing the part or rough edits thatyou do not want in the sequence. Down below is a link of a video that has an example of filmsplicing.http://youtu.be/MZx1HdgHBroTransitions- dissolve, fade, wipeRichardTransitions are used to smoothly move from onescene to the next without the jump being out of place and too fast or dramatic. Commonlyused transitions are things like Fade in/out, dissolve wipe and such things. Each differenttransition is used in different places during a film to make the scene jump look smootherand also convey a meaning to the audience.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3bup_zehvBoThis is an example of Fade in and fadeout. This shows how the scene can change without the audience picking up on thestrangeness of the jump. Fades can also be used to signify things like days ending orsomeone passing out to the audience.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usXca7W_jvMthis is an example of the wipe transitionsused in star wars 3. This shows how the transitions can not only effectively change the scenebut it looks impressive and can easily fit into the style of the film for example here the comicbook style transition works with the film to blend in and switch scene naturally.CutawaysJameelBasically what cutaway is when one person is talking about something to another person and thenthe person talking thinks of something else that happened to him in the past so basically a flashback.
7. Principles of EditingThis technique is great in a movie because in a viewer’s point of view they get to see what is was likein the past for the character for example this has happened to me once I was watching a film andthen there were two characters having a conversation about their life and what they could havebeen and then one of them reminisces to back when he was young so it cuts from him to shot whenhe was a young kid. This is the reason why I think this type of technique is very exclusive in the filmmaking most film makers use this type of technique in their movies. Down below is an examplevideo link of this technique.http://youtu.be/cedS0Kb54IkPoint of view shotRichardA point of view shot is a shot that is used in a great deal of filmswe see today. In some films the point of view shot can be used throughout the whole filmfor example in films such as Clover field and Rec. The point of view shot is used to make theaudience feel more a part of the film and usually creates a feeling of tension and suspenseby allowing the audience to feel like in the characters shoes.Shot-reverse-shotJameelA shot reverse shot is a type of technique where one character is looking at the other and the othercharacter is looking back this will make the audience think they are looking at each over. I think thisis a great technique because it gives the viewer’s more information on what’s going on the reasonwhy this is because it gives the audience more shots on who they are looking at nowadays you seethis technique more often in the movies. Down below is a ink of an example to this technique.http://youtu.be/D0wM30ytS6MProviding and Withholding informationRichard
8. Principles of EditingMake the narrative more dramatic by giving the audience more information or taking awayinformation. an example of the two is in 2 dramas, one is murder she wrote in which at thestart of ever show you see someone being killed or someone planning to kill someone andthe dramatic question is will Jessica find out who did in .it also gives a dramatic ironybecause the audience knows who did it. The other show which does the opposite isdiagnosis murder, in this show it doesnt show you who killed the person rather it just showsyou the person dead and you have to find out along with the characters who did.Editing RhythmJameelRhythm editing is basically is basically the length of time each shot is on screen this is a greattechnique because the editing has to be properly paced in perfect timing on screen for each shot soit keeps the rhythm going that’s what gives the perfect shots paced in perfect timing which in theaudiences/viewers point of view it will be looking at its top perfection this is why I think rhythmediting is very important in film making. Down below is a video link that shows rhythmic editing.