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Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
Problem Solving   J Wixson
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Problem Solving J Wixson

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This is a short seminar in problem solving that I presented to SME Chapter 85 on April 15, 2010.

This is a short seminar in problem solving that I presented to SME Chapter 85 on April 15, 2010.

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  • 1. Productive Problem Solving
    James Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    President, Wixson Value Associates, Inc.
    (208) 520-2296
    jrwixson@wvasolutions.com
    http://wvasolutions.com
    1
  • 2. What you will Learn
    What is productive problem solving?
    What are some of the impediments to successful problem solving?
    What essential things are needed for productive problem solving?
    What are some of the methods of productive problem solving?
    What works best?
    2
  • 3. PRODUCTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
    It’s the Problem, NOT the process that’s King
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Apollo XIII
    5
    Intro
    Houston, we have a problem Part 1
    Houston we have a problem Part 2
    Houston, we have a problem Part 3
    Getting Them Back
    CO2 Filter Problem
    Success!!!!
  • 6. 15 Minute Apollo 13 Problem Solving Exercise
    Break into teams of 3-4 people
    List your observations of what you saw. (10 min)
    How would your team go about solving the problems presented? (10 min)
    Pick a spokesperson.
    Present your findings to the group.(5 min)
    6
  • 7. Some Famous Quotes about Problems
    Henry FordThere are no big problems, there are just a lot of little problems.
    Theodore RubinThe problem is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem.
    Albert EinsteinIt's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer.
    Billy GrahamHot heads and cold hearts never solved anything.
    Denis WaitleyDon't dwell on what went wrong. Instead, focus on what to do next. Spend your energies on moving forward toward finding the answer.
    Unknown AuthorWorry is like a rocking chair - it gives you something to do but won't get you anywhere.
    John DeweyA problem well stated is a problem half solved.
    Norman Vincent PealeHow you think about a problem is more important than the problem itself - so always think positively.
    7
  • 8. John Dewey once said, "A problem well-stated is half solved.“
    8
    Problem Solving
  • 9. “A good problem statement often includes: (a) what is known, (b) what is unknown, and (c) what is sought.” - Edward Hodnett
    9
    Problem Solving
  • 10. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    PROBLEM SOLVING
    An organized effort for developing
    UNIQUE and RELEVANT
    resolutions for opportunities
    or
    undesirable situations
  • 11. Productive Problem Solving
    Productive Problem Solving (PPS) is usually applied to larger problems involving significant resources, but, can be tailored to fit smaller problems.
    PPS follows a structured methodology that leads to root cause solutions and corrective actions.
    PPS works best with an interdisciplinary team lead by a skilled facilitator.
    PPS minimizes the impediments to problem solving.
    PPS can be used in Kaisen workshops to solve difficult problems with the process.
    11
  • 12. Impediments to Problem Solving
    Poor communication
    Poor understanding of the problem
    “Jump to solution” without analyzing the problem
    Fear of reprisal
    A "Yes, but'' attitude
    Intellectual defensiveness closed to new ideas
    Fear of being perceived as being incompetent
    Fear of one's ideas being unaccepted
    Inability to be objective about the problem
    12
  • 13. Impediments to Problem Solving
    Inability to be creative, imaginative or "off the wall'' in developing alternative solutions
    Being inflexible or too serious to have fun while problem solving
    Being so chronically immersed or emotionally "stuck'' in problems that no feelings or emotions can be elicited
    Resentment about having to solve the problem; blaming others for causing the problem; no desire to own up to the problem yourself
    Believing that problems are the concerns of others, not me; therefore, why waste my time in trying to solving them
    13
  • 14. Essential things needed for productive problem solving
    A clear description of the problem.
    A description of the limiting (or negative) factors involved in the problem.
    A description of the constructive (or positive) factors involved in the problem.
    Sufficient data regarding the scope, location, size and seriousness of the problem.
    A clear delineation of the "ownership'' of the problem. Whose problem is it: mine, yours, the other guy's, my boss', my spouse's, my child's, my parents', my teacher's?
    A clear description of the scope of the problem: How extensive a problem is it? How long has this problem existed? How many people are affected? What else is affected by this problem?
    A clear description of the consequences if the problem were not solved: What is the possible impact on my family, job, marriage, school performance, life in this community, company etc., if this problem isn't solved? What is the worst possible thing that could happen if this problem isn't solved?
    14
  • 15. Essential things needed for productive problem solving
    A list of brainstormed solutions to the problem, with each alternative analyzed as to its reality, its benefits and the consequences for following each one.
    A system of ranking each solution to finalize the decision-making process. A rating system for analyzing each solution is developed, e.g., 100 percent chance of success, 75 percent chance of success, 50 percent chance of success.
    Determination to follow through on the solution decided upon jointly. This involves full motivation to "take the risk'' and pursue the solution to its fullest
    Management support and buy-in
    Empowerment to solve problems and confidence in the solution
    Adequate allocation of resources (time and people)
    15
  • 16. Nine Key Steps to Productive Problem Solving
    Understand the problem environment
    Define the problem
    Identify what’s required
    Identify what’s available (resources)
    Isolate functions/activities needing improvement
    Identify success criteria
    Generate alternative solutions given the resources at hand, and what resources may be needed.
    Analyze risks, hidden assumptions, and unexpected impacts
    Select the best solution
    16
  • 17. Tips for productive problem solving
    Five-dimensional thinking or looking at a problem from five different dimensions:1. What is the size or extent of the problem?2. How would really be affected if the problem was left unattended or unsolved?3. How are you functioning in handling the problem-solving process?4. What do your five senses tell about the problem, i.e., what you see, hear, touch, smell and taste?5. What does the world of reality look like from within the problem?
    17
  • 18. Some Problem Solving Methodologies
    Drill Down method
    Straw Man Approach (Trial and Error)
    Heuristic method (Rules of Thumb)
    5 Whys
    Kepner-Tregoe Situation Analysis, Problem and Decision Making methods (Is, Is-Not method)
    Deming's PDCA, or PDSA method
    Six Sigma’s DMAIC method
    Value Analysis/Value Engineering
    18
  • 19. Don’t forget: The Scientific Method
    Make Observations
    Collect data
    Define problem
    Hypothesize
    Test with experiment
    Analyze Results and Draw Conclusion
    Apply solutions
    19
  • 20. Brainstorming Tips
    Express all ideas.
    Deem no idea too wild to be considered.
    Quantity is important; every idea that comes to mind should be included.
    Getting together with others to brainstorm is desirable.
    Criticism or negative evaluation regarding any idea is forbidden until brainstorming is completed.
    20
  • 21. Productive Problem Solving Method
    Define the problem
    Gather Information related to the problem
    Map the process using flow chart, VSM or FAST Model
    Identify what elements contribute to the problem
    Assign scores to each element that might be contributing to the problem
    Brainstorm potential causes to the high scoring elements.
    Score potential causes
    For high scoring potential causes, breakdown further using the 5 why technique
    Validate most likely root causes
    Develop solutions to resolve the root causes
    21
  • 22. Work to Solve Root Causes
    22
  • 23. Use FAST to Study the System
    23
  • 24. The Technical FAST Model
    HOW
    WHY
    INDEPENDENT FUNCTION (SUPPORTING)
    DEPENDENT FUNCTION
    OBJECTIVES OR SPECIFICATIONS
    MINOR CRITICAL PATH
    INDEPENDENT FUNCTION
    INPUT
    OUTPUT
    (concept)
    OBJECTIVE OR HIGHER ORDER FUNCTION
    LOWEST ORDER FUNCTION
    BASIC FUNCTION
    DEPENDENT FUNCTION
    (AND)
    ACTIVITY
    (concept)
    ACTIVITY
    WHEN
    MAJOR CRITICAL PATH
    SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM UNDER STUDY
    LOWER ORDER FUNCTIONS
    HIGHER ORDER FUNCTIONS
    24
  • 25. Overhead Projector FAST Model
    HOW
    WHY
    (concept)
    WHEN
    (concept)
    OBJECTIVES OR SPECIFICATIONS
    FACILITATE PORTABILITY
    ALLOW SAFETY
    OUTPUT
    INPUT
    CONVEY Information
    PROJECT IMAGE
    GENERATE LIGHT
    RECEIVE CURRENT
    TRANSMIT CURRENT
    CONVERT ENERGY
    GENERATE HEAT
    FOCUS IMAGE
    DISSIPATE HEAT
    SUPPORT IMAGE
    GENERATE NOISE
    AMPLIFY IMAGE
    25
  • 26. Example: Eat Cookie FAST Model
    26
    WHY?
    HOW?
    Drink Milk
    Satisfy Hunger
    Eat Cookie
    Make Cookie
    Buy Ingredients
    Choose Recipe
    Buy Cookbook
    Mix Dough
    Drive to Market
    WHEN
    WHEN
    Roll Dough
    Select Ingredients
    Mark B
    Purchase Ingredients
    Bake Cookie
    Drive Home
  • 27. Determine Defects
    HOW
    WHY
    Establish Container Integrity
    Follow Inspection Plan
    Write
    Inspection
    Plan
    Determine Condition
    Inspect Container
    Examine
    (Visually)
    Container
    Establish
    Integrity
    Criteria
    Verify
    Inspection
    Plan
    Identify Potential Problems
    Determine Disposition
    WHEN
    Determine
    Contents
    Define
    Container
    Integrity
    Develop
    Inspection
    Plan
    Identify
    Defects
    Know
    Problem
    Contents
    Verify
    Container
    ID.
    Validate
    Inspection
    Plan
    OUTPUT
    INPUT
    Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST)
    27
  • 28. Identifying Areas for Improvement
    • Identify key functions/activities where performance may be undesirable
    • 29. For the functions where performance is undesirable, brainstorm likely causes of failure.
    • 30. Next, rate these causes on a scale of 1-10 as to which are the most likely causes of the problem(s).
    28
  • 31. Identifying Most Likely Causes of The Problem(s)
    • After rating the likely causes of the problem(s), choose a cut-off point from which the most likely causes of failure will be addressed first (usually about 6 on a 10pt scale depending on the number of causes).
    • 32. For the most likely causes of the problem(s), brainstorm contributing factors to the causes of these problem(s).
    29
  • 33. Rating Potential Causes
    30
  • 34. Identifying Most Likely Causes of Failure
    31
  • 35. Identifying Alternatives
    • Given the most likely causes and their contributing factors, you are ready to start identifying potential alternatives for design, or improvements to the system.
    • 36. For each key function/activity that has been identified as not being performed, or performance is poor, brainstorm potential ways to perform, or improve the performance of these functions/activities.
    • 37. The identification of most likely causes of the problems with those functions/activities focuses the teams attention on the most needed improvements which facilitates brainstorming of superior ideas for improvement, or design of the new system.
    32
  • 38. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    Creativity
  • 39. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    IDEA vs. SOLUTION
    A solution requires justification & validation, and idea needs no justification.
    A solution is an end point, an idea is just the beginning.
    A solution is solid and self supporting, an idea is tender and must be built upon.
    DON’T KILL IDEAS WITH
    ROADBLOCKS!!
  • 40. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    PROBLEM SENSITIVITY(CHARACTERISTICS)
    Awareness of the problem
    Constructive discontent
    Need to discover the problem
    Resolving “What’s wrong with…”
    Adopting a questioning attitude
  • 41. 36
    IMAGINATION
    Imagination is more important than knowledge, for knowledge is limited, while imagination embraces the entire world.
    Albert Einstein
  • 42. 37
    Thought for the day:
    When you always do what you have always done - you always get what you have always gotten.
    Socrates
  • 43. 38
    IDEA vs. SOLUTION
    • A solution requires justification & validation, and idea needs no justification.
    • 44. A solution is an end point, an idea is just the beginning.
    • 45. A solution is solid and self supporting, an idea is tender and must be built upon.
    DON’T KILL IDEAS WITH
    ROADBLOCKS!!
  • 46. 39
    What is the next symbol in sequence?
  • 47. 40
    What is the next symbol in sequence?
  • 48. 41
    CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
    • Brainstorming
    • 49. Synectics
    • 50. Morphological Analysis
    • 51. Force Fit/Forced Relationships
    • 52. Brainwriting
  • 42
    CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES (continued)
    • Visualization/Visual Brainstorming
    • 53. Listing
    • 54. Lateral Thinking
    • 55. Divergent Thinking
    • 56. For more information on creativity, click here.
  • ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    What do you see?
  • 57. Rules for Brainstorming
    When brainstorming solutions to the problem, follow these rules:
    Express all ideas.
    Deem no idea too wild to be considered.
    Quantity is important; every idea that comes to mind should be included.
    Getting together with others to brainstorm is desirable.
    Criticism or negative evaluation regarding any idea is forbidden until brainstorming is completed.
    Record all ideas presented
    Time to let ideas “incubate” should be allowed.
    Select an appropriate meeting place
    44
  • 58. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    Brainstorming Concept
    Best Solutions - combination of ideas
    100 +
    75 - 80
    Off - the - wall ideas
    15 - 20
    Traditional Answers
    QUANTITY
    TIME
  • 59. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    1 st
    2 nd
    3 rd
    4 th
    5 th
    Evaluation Phase - Idea Screening
    GO, NO-GO
    CHAMPION
    GFI (Killer Trade)
    FORMAL TRADE-OFF STUDY (NGT, PAIRWISE COMPARISON, ETC.) MOCKUP AND PROTO TYPES IF NECESSARY
    CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE
  • 60. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    Evaluating Ideas
    NO GO
    • Scratch ideas that hold no interest.
    CHAMPION
    • Who will speak for the ideas and support them?
    GFI
    • Discuss pro/con and vote. GFI is team average.
    • 61. Combine ideas; add new ideas.
    • 62. Record all assumptions when voting.
  • ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    Evaluating Ideas
    Quantify performance characteristics.
    • Select top candidates using NGT, Pair-wise Comparison, Multi-voting, etc.
    • 63. Could use software such as Expert Choice®, or Criterium Decision Plus®
    • 64. Record all assumptions when voting.
    • 65. Determine & quantify customer acceptance criteria.
    • 66. Rate surviving ideas against norm & risk.
    • 67. Develop proposal scenarios.
  • Attribute Weighting
    49
  • 68. ©James R. Wixson, CVS, CMfgE
    Criteria Weighting - Paired Comparison Example
  • 69. 51
  • 70. Problem Solving Templates
    52
  • 71. Project Charter
    Be concise and to the point!
    By permission: LSSHC
    53
  • 72. Project Charter
    54
  • 73. Attributes
    Establish Proposal Attributes
    Team proposals are evaluated against key characteristics / attributes that are important to the success of the project using a Product Performance Profile.
    The 4 steps in developing the Product Performance Profile are:
    1. Select attributes
    2. Scale attributes
    3. Rank attributes
    4. Display attributes in a Product Performance Profile
    J. J. Kaufman Assoc, Inc.
    55
  • 74. Attributes
    Attribute Selection Guidelines
    Select project attributes that best identify those key characteristics that are important to the market success of the project and in support of the business goals.
    Requisites for selecting project attributes:
    • All attributes should be independent of each other.
    (E.g., “Ease of manufacture“ directly affects “Unit Cost”)
    • Attributes should be scale able, rather than binary.
    (That is, attributes should be acceptable within a range of “goodness” rather than being out of compliance.)
    • Attributes can be mixed to reflect business as well as market value adding characteristics.
    Select a minimum of 5 to 8 maximum attributes
    • Too many – difficult to balance in determining trade-off options
    • 75. Too few – may place too large a weight difference between attributes
    56
  • 76. ATTRIBUTEDEFINITIONS
    57
  • 77. Attribute Rating Guidelines
    A “Paired Comparison” process is used to determine the relative importance of the selected attributes and assign a percentage (weight) value to the attributes.
    Attributes are evaluated in pairs asking “Given a snapshot of the current condition of the project, which is more important of the two attributes being evaluated?”
    Or, “If you are given a sum of money to invest in improving one of the attributes which one would you use the funds to improve?”
    Determine the degree of importance by asking “Is the degree of importance separating these attributes low, medium or high?”
    When the weighting is calculated, validate the ranking by ask “Does the ranking seem reasonable?” If not, reconcile concerns.
    J. J. Kaufman Assoc, Inc.
    58
  • 78. Paired Comparison Tool
    59
    Go to Tool
  • 79. Rank and Rate Template
    60
  • 80. Workshop Team Members
    61
  • 81. Issues/Concerns
    62
  • 82. Issues/Concerns
    63
  • 83. 4 Questions – Problem/Opportunity Definition
    What is the problem we are about to resolve?
    Why do you consider this a problem?
    64
  • 84. 4 Questions – Problem/Opportunity Definition
    Why do we believe a solution is necessary?
    What are the consequences of not solving this problem?
    65
  • 85. Rating Potential Causes (Example)
    66
  • 86. Rating Potential Causes
    67
  • 87. Identifying Most Likely Causes of Failure (Example)
    68
  • 88. Most Likely Causes
    69
  • 89. Ideas to Fix the Problem ________:
    70

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