Food from the Sea “ Give a man a fish, you feed him for a day… Teach him how to fish, and you feed him for life!” Seaweeds, Jellyfish, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Turtles, Worms, Crabs, Oysters… Finfish = fish harvested = 84% world catch
What percentage of the world’s food comes from the ocean?
Even at 1% world total It is one of the world’s most important protein sources! Finfish =16% of protein eaten around the world!
Figure 17.02 World Human Population Growth! Domestication of Animals and Plants Better Sanitation Advances in Medicine Projection: 8.9 Billion by 2050
Major Marine Fishing Areas of the World Boundaries are established by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Numbers in millions of tons!
What are the world’s major fishing areas? Bering Sea, Newfoundland, Coast of Peru, SW and NW Africa
What makes a good fishing spot? Rich WIDE continental shelf. Easy to harvest demersal (bottom) species. Primary production is higher over the shelf supporting abundant life! Good upwelling of nutrients in these major fishing areas too!
Protein deficiency is a major cause of disease and death in poor developing countries
6 Major Fishing Nations Decline in world total China may overstate for promotion Peru’s catch is up and down due to anchovy up and down populations
Increased demand for seafood in affluent countries and growing population increases pressure on food resources from the sea. More effective gear Use of satellites to find fish Increased efficiency Long range vessels
Examples of Fishing Methods
Examples of Fishing Methods
Which country / culture eats more fish on average per person? Japan or United States
Japan average of 159 lb. of fish per person every year United States average of 46 lb . of fish per person per year
Major Food Species Clupeoid Fishes Small plankton-feeding fish in huge schools Herrings, Sardines, Anchovies
Herrings Sardines Anchovies
Fish Protein Concentrate or Fish Flour odorless powder for protein supplement Fish Meal Feed for poultry, livestock or farmed fish Fish Oil margarine, cosmetics, paints, fertilizers, pet food Wow! 1/3 of fish catch
Demersal Cold Water Species come in 2 nd ! Cods, Pollock, Alaskan Walleye, Haddock, Flatfish are all caught with trawls dragged on bottom! Many of these “cheap fish” are being over-fished!
Cod Fish What a Halibut!
King Fish = Salmon Valuable Catch in the North Pacific!
Tuna One of the most important open-ocean fish that cross the tropical oceans. High Priced Fish for affluent countries - Canned or Raw Caught with high-tech equipment on boats, long lines and gill nets.
Mollusks are next most valuable group of marine food after fish. The Octopus is valued as a delicacy
Other Eaten Fish! Seaweeds (in Far East) Sea Urchins for their gonads or roe (in Japan) Roe can be called UNI (eaten raw) Sea Turtles for eggs Seals and Whales
Theoretical Population Growth Chart
Figure 17.09b Rate of Growth is related to Population Size and is highest at Intermediate Abundances
Renewable Resource! Replace Themselves
Even though they are RENEWABLE… THEY ARE NOT INEXHAUSTIBLE!
Sustainable Yield Catch is large enough to prevent the population from growing but not so large as to reduce it!
Fishing Rights for a country used to extend only 3 miles offshore, but now extend 200 miles offshore! 90% of the Ocean’s fisheries are within a country’s control. But – The open ocean is common property!
Figure 17.13 Lobster Krill or Tuna Crab is a potentially new human food
Milkfish being harvested from a brackish-water pond in the Philippines.
An Oyster Farm in New Zealand
A Japanese Flounder (Halibut) grown at a mariculture facility in Hawaii
Greenpeace Artificially red salmon flesh on sale doesn’t reveal the rampant destruction that this industry causes in regions where the fish are produced. Expanding at a rapid rate, fish farming now accounts for over 30 percent of all fish protein consumed annually in the world. But it is single-handedly responsible for the destruction of countless ecosystems and the fishing communities that rely upon them, in some of the most vulnerable marine environments on the planet.
Drawback of mariculture Pollution! Thousands of fish in ponds or pens with huge amounts of feces, urine, uneaten food and poor water quality and harmful algal blooms with toxic chemicals. Antibiotics, pesticides, and synthetic pigments and colors. Destruction of natural resources to make these farms too!
Saltwater and freshwater crocodiles grown together in New Guinea for their valuable skin. Its also a way to dispose of chicken offal.
Genetic Engineering Biotechnology alters DNA to produce faster-growing more disease-resistant or better-tasting fish. Some of these escape and breed with wild populations!
Sponge from Fiji being grown for chemicals that kill worms and human parasites.
Ocean Mining Seabed is source of many minerals New technologies help to make it feasible as land ores become exhaused
Other resources from the Sea! Recreation Sport Fishing Oil and Gas Aquarium Trade Desalination Plants Minerals (Table salt) Energy
OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion circulates ammonia or liquids that when evaporate power turbine generators.
Potential sources of electricity from the sea include tides, waves, currents, and the temperature difference between surface and deep layer (OTEC)