Estuary Notes
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Estuary Notes

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Estuary Notes Estuary Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 12 Estuaries Where Rivers meet the Sea
  • Estuaries
    • Semi-enclosed areas where fresh water and seawater meet and mix.
    • Interaction of land and sea!
    • Some of the most productive environments on earth!
    • Most affected by humans!
      • Harbors
      • Cities
    View slide
  • Value of Estuaries
    • Protected fertile habitat – Home for many!
    • Vital breeding and feeding grounds
    • Cities built near estuaries because of great fishing. (shrimp and crab)
    View slide
  • Cape Hatteras Estuary In N. Carolina
  • Milford Sound in New Zealand is a fjord – a finger-like inlet surrounded by sheer walls with a shallow entrance and deep basin resulting in stagnant, oxygen-depleted deep water.
  • 4 Types of Estuaries
    • Drowned River Valleys or Coastal Plain
      • Sea invaded lowlands
      • Most common
      • Chesapeake Bay
    • Bar-built
      • Sand builds up to form sand bars and barriers
      • Along Texas coast of Gulf of Mexico
  • 4 Types of Estuaries
    • Tectonic
      • Land sinks or earth moves
    • Fjords – Glacier Carved
      • Retreating glaciers cut deep valleys that are partially submerged
      • Common near Alaska
  • an IDEAL ESTUARY Isohaline are the same salt content water. How many are there?
  • High Tide Low Tide The Salt wedge moves in and out with the tide
  • Physical Characteristics of Estuaries
    • Salinity in a salt wedge
    • Substrate
      • Rivers carry nutrients into estuary by size and weight. Which travels farther?
      • Mud = silt and clay high in nutrients
      • Anoxic = low oxygen in mud b/c bacteria respiration.
      • Anaerobic bacteria thrive in mud. Why?
  • Physical Characteristics of Estuaries
    • Water temp varies. Why? When? So?
    • Exposed organisms during low tides.
      • Sun, Drying out, Predation
    • Low water clarity causes what problem?
  • Types of species living in an idealized estuary in relation to salinity. The width of the bars = relative numbers of species
  • The body fluids of estuarine animals responds in various ways to the salinity of the water. Osmoregulator = blood salinity stays the same. Osmoconformer=blood salinity will change with the water salinity.
  • Look at the shallow roots of this mangrove tree reaching above the mud to get oxygen. Why does mud not have much oxygen in it?
  • Cordgrass is an important component of salt water marshes
  • Pickle Weed is a common succulent plant in salt marshes around the world.
  • The Atlantic menhaden is an important commercial fish spawn offshore and larvae drift with tides into the estuary to grow.
  • The California horn snail is abundant on mudflats
  • Mudflat animals in temperate estuaries
  • Fiddler on the Mud What is this behavior for?
  • The daily tides play a crucial role in salt marshes. They help circulate detritus and nutrients and expose mudflat organisms to predation by shorebirds and other animals
  • A salt marsh near Atlantic Beach, NC. Many of these types of marshes have been filled in and destroyed.
  • A mudskipper from the mudflats of a mangrove forest in New Guinea. Its eyes can see in air.
  • An Oyster reef formed by the eastern oyster near Beaufort, NC are exposed at low tide.