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Estuary Notes

Estuary Notes






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    Estuary Notes Estuary Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12 Estuaries Where Rivers meet the Sea
    • Estuaries
      • Semi-enclosed areas where fresh water and seawater meet and mix.
      • Interaction of land and sea!
      • Some of the most productive environments on earth!
      • Most affected by humans!
        • Harbors
        • Cities
    • Value of Estuaries
      • Protected fertile habitat – Home for many!
      • Vital breeding and feeding grounds
      • Cities built near estuaries because of great fishing. (shrimp and crab)
    • Cape Hatteras Estuary In N. Carolina
    • Milford Sound in New Zealand is a fjord – a finger-like inlet surrounded by sheer walls with a shallow entrance and deep basin resulting in stagnant, oxygen-depleted deep water.
    • 4 Types of Estuaries
      • Drowned River Valleys or Coastal Plain
        • Sea invaded lowlands
        • Most common
        • Chesapeake Bay
      • Bar-built
        • Sand builds up to form sand bars and barriers
        • Along Texas coast of Gulf of Mexico
    • 4 Types of Estuaries
      • Tectonic
        • Land sinks or earth moves
      • Fjords – Glacier Carved
        • Retreating glaciers cut deep valleys that are partially submerged
        • Common near Alaska
    • an IDEAL ESTUARY Isohaline are the same salt content water. How many are there?
    • High Tide Low Tide The Salt wedge moves in and out with the tide
    • Physical Characteristics of Estuaries
      • Salinity in a salt wedge
      • Substrate
        • Rivers carry nutrients into estuary by size and weight. Which travels farther?
        • Mud = silt and clay high in nutrients
        • Anoxic = low oxygen in mud b/c bacteria respiration.
        • Anaerobic bacteria thrive in mud. Why?
    • Physical Characteristics of Estuaries
      • Water temp varies. Why? When? So?
      • Exposed organisms during low tides.
        • Sun, Drying out, Predation
      • Low water clarity causes what problem?
    • Types of species living in an idealized estuary in relation to salinity. The width of the bars = relative numbers of species
    • The body fluids of estuarine animals responds in various ways to the salinity of the water. Osmoregulator = blood salinity stays the same. Osmoconformer=blood salinity will change with the water salinity.
    • Look at the shallow roots of this mangrove tree reaching above the mud to get oxygen. Why does mud not have much oxygen in it?
    • Cordgrass is an important component of salt water marshes
    • Pickle Weed is a common succulent plant in salt marshes around the world.
    • The Atlantic menhaden is an important commercial fish spawn offshore and larvae drift with tides into the estuary to grow.
    • The California horn snail is abundant on mudflats
    • Mudflat animals in temperate estuaries
    • Fiddler on the Mud What is this behavior for?
    • The daily tides play a crucial role in salt marshes. They help circulate detritus and nutrients and expose mudflat organisms to predation by shorebirds and other animals
    • A salt marsh near Atlantic Beach, NC. Many of these types of marshes have been filled in and destroyed.
    • A mudskipper from the mudflats of a mangrove forest in New Guinea. Its eyes can see in air.
    • An Oyster reef formed by the eastern oyster near Beaufort, NC are exposed at low tide.