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Mobile Communications: Addressing Electromagnetic Field Concerns and Environmental Sustainability

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Mobile Communications: Addressing Electromagnetic Field Concerns and Environmental Sustainability presented at IIT Delhi Department of Management Studies, 9 January 2014

Mobile Communications: Addressing Electromagnetic Field Concerns and Environmental Sustainability presented at IIT Delhi Department of Management Studies, 9 January 2014

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  • 1. Mobile Communications: Addressing Electromagnetic Field Concerns and Environmental Sustainability Jack Rowley, PhD, Senior Director Research & Sustainability GSM Association IIT Delhi, India 9 January 2014 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014
  • 2. The GSMA in numbers © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 1
  • 3. Contents  Growing demand for mobile communications  Electromagnetic fields: – –  Environmental topics: – – –  Concerns about using mobile phones. Concerns about living near masts. Energy use. Lifecycle issues. Enabling effects. Summary. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 2
  • 4. The mobile revolution © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 3
  • 5. More internet and more use indoors 120x more data © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 79% indoors OFCOM, 2012; ITU, 2012 4
  • 6. GSMA Mobile Economy India 2013 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.gsmamobileeconomyindia.com/ 5
  • 7. Globally deployed mobile technologies • Total connections, excluding M2M, stand at 6.6 billion in 2012 globally. • Total unique mobile subscribers stands at 3.2 billion in 2012 globally. • About 1.5 billion unconnected due to lack of mobile coverage. Wireless Intelligence, 2012 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 6
  • 8. Evolution of mobile technologies Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 7
  • 9. Mobile phones need nearby antenna sites    Phones are low power devices. Adaptive power control reduces interference and extends talk-time. Higher data rates. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 8
  • 10. Available data rates reduces with increasing distance Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 9
  • 11. Many types of antenna sites © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 10
  • 12. Contents  Growing demand for mobile communications  Electromagnetic fields: – –  Environmental topics: – – –  Concerns about using mobile phones. Concerns about living near masts. Energy use. Lifecycle issues. Enabling effects. Summary. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 11
  • 13. Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014  Radio signals are not x-rays.  High intensity radio signals cause heating.  RF energy absorption assessed by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) with units of W/kg. 12
  • 14. WHO International EMF Project www.who.int/emf © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 13
  • 15. Hazards of radiofrequency (RF) exposure  Established: – Behavioural changes in response to heating. – Cataracts • – (very intense exposures). Microwave hearing • © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 (radar pulses).  Not established: – Cancer. – Fertility. – Electro hypersensitivity. – Symptomatic complaints. – Animals, plants – … 14
  • 16. Safety thresholds for RF exposure Exposure Adverse effects threshold www.icnirp.org 10% www.who.int/emf 2% © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 Worker Limit Public Limit Typical Levels 15
  • 17. Evidence subject to regular expert review http://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/mobile-and-health/scienceoverview/reports-and-statements-index/ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 16
  • 18. Nordic authorities – December 2013 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.nrpa.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=240 17
  • 19. Nordic authorities – December 2013 (1/3)  ‘The overall data published in the scientific literature to date do not show adverse health effects from exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below the guidelines or limits adopted in the Nordic countries. However, epidemiological studies on long-term exposure to radio waves from mobile phones are still limited, especially studies on children and adolescents.’ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.nrpa.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=240 18
  • 20. Large body of relevant research n = 981 n = 45 (children) (8 January 2014) © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.emf-portal.de/overviews.php?l=e 19
  • 21. Nordic authorities – December 2013 (2/3)  ‘Since 2011, a number of epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours and other tumours of the head have been published. The overall data on brain tumour and mobile phone use do not show an effect on tumour risk. There is still limited data regarding risks of long-term use of mobile phones, longer than approximately 13-15 years. It is too early to draw firm conclusions when it comes to risk for brain tumours for children and adolescents, but the available literature to date does not show an increased risk.’ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.nrpa.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=240 20
  • 22. Mobile phone epidemiology (1/3) INTERPHONE – Cumulative time of use • glioma • meningioma The INTERPHONE Study Group, 2010 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 21
  • 23. Mobile phone epidemiology (2/3)    Meta-analysis of 47 eligible studies. ‘Overall, the results of our study detract from the hypothesis that mobile phone use affects the occurrence of intracranial tumors.’ Continue to monitor. Lagorio et al, 2013 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 22
  • 24. Mobile phone epidemiology (3/3) USA – subscribers and brain tumour rates Inskip et al, 2010 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 23
  • 25. Nordic authorities – December 2013 (3/3)   ‘Since exposure of the general public, including children, to radio waves from the wireless local area networks and base stations is far below the exposure limits, there is no need to further limit exposure from these radio wave sources.’ ‘Recent surveys have shown that despite the sharp increase in applications using wireless technology, the level of radio wave exposure in public outdoor areas as well as indoor in schools, offices and dwellings is far below the exposure limits.’ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.nrpa.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=240 24
  • 26. Exposure reduces rapidly with increased distance Distance x 2 Exposure ÷ 4 Public limit Worker limit Less than 1% of limit Compliance zones near to the antennas. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 25
  • 27. Mobile networks levels similar to other radio sources 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ICNIRP (100%) Level (% ICNIRP) 9.22 0.06 0.01 0.41 3.93 Average Baby monitors Average WLAN access DECT cordless urban, TV and (20 cm) urban, base point (20 cm) phone (20 cm) radio stations © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 Based on Valberg et al., 2007 26
  • 28. No significant change in average exposure Rowley & Joyner, 2012 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 27
  • 29. Epidemiology – base stations  National study:  6,985 subjects, 76,890 base station antennas.  Assessed mother’s exposure during pregnancy.  Distance, base station power, modelled power density.  ‘There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother’s exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.’ Elliott et al., 2010. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 28
  • 30. Epidemiology – broadcast transmitters    Ecological studies of broadcast transmitters Australia, UK, USA. Case-control studies of broadcast transmitters in South Korea and Germany. Investigations of reported illness clusters. –  ‘…it is expected that possible cancer clusters will occur near base stations merely by chance.’ – WHO (2006) No hazards found among populations living near high power broadcast transmitters. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 Hocking et al., 1996. Ha et al, 2007. Schuz et al., 2008. 29
  • 31. IARC classification for RF – May 2011 © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://monographs.iarc.fr 30
  • 32. WHO – September 2013 ‘While an increased risk of brain tumours from the use of mobile phones is not established, the increasing use of mobile phones and the lack of data for mobile phone use over time periods longer than 15 years warrant further research of mobile phone use and brain cancer risk.’ ‘Studies to date provide no indication that environmental exposure to RF fields, such as from base stations, increases the risk of cancer or any other disease.’ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 31
  • 33. Established Risk Obey the law. Drive safe. Don’t text. Stay in control. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 http://www.michellehenry.fr/tel.htm 32
  • 34. Contents  Growing demand for mobile communications  Electromagnetic fields: – –  Environmental topics: – – –  Concerns about using mobile phones. Concerns about living near masts. Energy use. Lifecycle issues. Enabling effects. Summary. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 33
  • 35. Energy and greenhouse gas emissions  Total global electricity and diesel energy consumption by all mobile networks was approximately 120 Terawatt hours (TWh) in 2010. – –  Almost 80 TWh of the energy consumption was from grid electricity, and just over 40 TWh was from diesel generators used in off‐grid and unreliable grid locations. –  Energy costs of $13 billion; Responsible for 70 Mt CO2e. Typical generator efficiency is 20%. Total network energy consumption by mobile operators showed no growth from 2009 to 2010. – Increased energy per connection in emerging markets. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 GSMA, Mobile’s Green Manifesto 2012 34
  • 36. GSMA Mobile Energy Efficiency Benchmarking Diesel usage kWh per connection Electricity usage A B C D E F G H I J K L Country  GSMA mobile energy efficiency (MEE) benchmarking: – – – Network is more than 70% of operator energy usage. Energy is 15-25% of network opex. Typical site 3.2 kW, best in class 1 kW. www.gsma.com/mee © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 35
  • 37. MEE participants are located in 145 countries Greenland Alaska Norway Iceland Finland Great Germany Britain Belarus Ireland Poland Ukraine France Romania Italy Turkey Greece Portugal Spain Lebanon Syria USA Morocco Mexico Belize Guatemala Russia Sweden Canada Algeria Bahamas Cuba Dominic. Rep. Mauritania Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua El Salvador Venezuela Guyana Costa Rica Panama Surinam Colombia Fr. Guyana Ecuador Senegal Guinea Sierra Leone Mali Niger Burkina Faso Liberia Ivory Coast Peru Bolivia Paraguay Egypt Chad Cameroon Ghana Gabon Yemen Sudan Nigeria Angola Mongolia Kyrgyzstan Somalia Uganda North Korea Japan South Korea China Bhutan Bangladesh Myanmar Kenya Taiwan Laos Vietnam Cambodia Thailand Ethiopia D. R. of Congo Philippines Malaysia Indonesia Papua New Guinea Tanzania Zambia Mozambique Zimbabwe Namibia Botswana South Africa Chile Oman Eritrea Congo Brazil Uzbekistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Afghanistan Iraq Iran Qatar Nepal Pakistan Saudi U.A.E Arabia India Israel Libya Kazakhstan Madagascar Australia Lesotho Uruguay Argentina New Zealand Participant in MEE © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 36
  • 38. GSMA Mobile Energy Efficiency Benchmarking and Optimization Services   Networks are compared against four Key Performance Indicators: 1. Energy consumption per mobile connection 2. Energy consumption per unit mobile traffic 3. Energy consumption per cell site 4. Energy consumption per unit of mobile revenue Unique analytical approach allows MNOs to compare their networks against one another and against their peers on a like-for-like basis – Variables outside the MNO’s control, e.g. population distribution and climate, are ‘normalised’ using regression techniques – Quantifies potential efficiency gains, typically 10% to 25%. .  If all networks with above average energy consumption were improved to the sector average the potential energy cost saving for mobile operators would be $1 billion per annum at 2010 prices. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 37
  • 39. Options to reduce energy consumption  Cooling: – –  Energy efficiency of network equipment: – – – – –  Increase free cooling, increase number of outdoor versus indoor sites. Use temperature resistant batteries. Activate energy saving features. More efficient rectifiers. Newer equipment. Single RAN – LTE+3G+2G on same hardware. Site sharing. Reduction in diesel consumption: – – Generator‐battery hybrids. Green power solutions. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 38
  • 40. GSMA Green Power for Mobile program © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 Target = 118,000 green deployments or 20% of total off-grid sites 39
  • 41. Mobile phone lifecycle © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 40
  • 42. Universal charger solution © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 41
  • 43. UK - charger out of the box Over 100 million unused chargers in the UK alone. 70% of customers already have the suitable charger for their new phone. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 42
  • 44. Reducing phone environmental impacts Supply chain. Conflict-free minerals. Design. Fair price. Closing the loop. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 43
  • 45. Mobile phone recycling  A 2008 survey of 6,500 people in 13 countries reported: – – – – – 44% kept their old phone; 25% gave it to friends or family; 16% sold their used phone (especially in emerging markets); 3% are recycled and; 4% are thrown in to landfill.  Kenya – 10 authorised repairers but 2,000 to 4,000 informal.  Local sorting – export for safe materials recovery.  Financial and environmental sustainability. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 44
  • 46. Materials recovered from recycled phones • Over 90% of the materials can be recovered. • Recycling 50,000 handsets can remove the need to mine 110 tonnes gold ore, 213 tonnes of silver bearing ore or 11 tonnes of copper sulphide ore. • For every tonne of mobile phone materials recovered 10 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions are avoided. www.mobilemuster.com.au/ © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 45
  • 47. GSMA Mobile’s Green Manifesto 2012  Footprint of mobile industry. – Total network CO2e emissions estimated at 70 million tonnes (Mt) for 2010: • • –  <0.2% of the global total; lower than the emissions of Austria. Expect emissions per connection to fall by 40% by 2020. Enabling role of mobile. – – – 4 to 5 times own footprint. Smart applications. Mobile M2M connections could enable savings equivalent to taking four million cars off the road. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 www.gsma.com/environment 46
  • 48. GSMA Mobile’s Green Manifesto 2012 www.gsma.com/environment © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 47
  • 49. Summary    Growing demand for wireless communications means expansion of mobile networks. No established health risks from the radio signals of mobile phones or antenna sites. Mobile industry continues to work on reducing its own footprint and expanding enabling effect in other sectors. © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 48
  • 50. धन्यवाद्  Contact: Dr Jack Rowley  Job title: Senior Director Research & Sustainability  email address: jrowley@gsma.com  Website: www.gsma.com © GSM Association 2014 J. Rowley, January 2014 49