International Practices In Safety Norms for                                 Mobile Networks                               ...
Radio Signals are a form of Electromagnetic Fields                         Radio signals are not x-rays.© GSM Association ...
WHO International EMF Project                         www.who.int/emf© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012           ...
International Commission on Non-Ionizing RadiationProtection         Partner of the World Health Organization.         I...
Safety Thresholds for RF ExposureExposure                           Adverse effects threshold                             ...
International Guidelines Protect Everyone  ‘…The main conclusion from the WHO reviews is that EMF  exposures below the lim...
ICNIRP Supported by WHO and ITU         …endorses the guidelines          of the International           If such limits ...
WHO Recommended Limits Are Widely Adopted  Australia              Singapore      Taiwan        S. Korea  Japan            ...
Exposure Reduces Rapidly with Increased Distance                          Distance doubles                                ...
WHO - Wireless Networks (May 2006)          ‘…RF exposures from base stations…lower or comparable to RF exposures        ...
Typical Maximum Public Exposures - Networks                              2%                                  ‘…there is no...
Base Stations - Systematic Review     ‘…our review does not indicate an association between any health      outcome and r...
Evidence Subject to Regular Expert Review‘In summary, although a substantial amount of research has beenconducted in this ...
Electrohypersensitivity      46 provocation studies, 1175 IEI-       EMF volunteers.                                     ...
Precautionary Measures = Increased Concern            Study conducted in Australia, Brazil, India, Japan, Germany, The   ...
Health Benefits          About a quarter of UK calls to ambulances come from mobile phones.              –      ‘Mobile p...
Policy Responses to Public Concern         Adopt the international (ICNIRP) limits that provide          protection for a...
Thank You      Contact: Dr Jack Rowley      Job title: Senior Director       Research & Sustainability      email addre...
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International Practices In Safety Norms for Mobile Networks

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Presentation made at the Government of Rajasthan seminar 'Ensuring Public Health & Safety in the Mobile Industry' in Jaipur on 2 June 2012.

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International Practices In Safety Norms for Mobile Networks

  1. 1. International Practices In Safety Norms for Mobile Networks Jack Rowley, PhD, Senior Director Research & Sustainability GSM Association ‘Ensuring Public Health & Safety in the Mobile Industry’ Jaipur, India 2 June 2012© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012
  2. 2. Radio Signals are a form of Electromagnetic Fields Radio signals are not x-rays.© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 High intensity radio signals cause heating. 1
  3. 3. WHO International EMF Project www.who.int/emf© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 2
  4. 4. International Commission on Non-Ionizing RadiationProtection  Partner of the World Health Organization.  ICNIRP is an independent group of international experts responsible for providing scientific advice to international bodies, national authorities and the public on possible health effects of non ionizing radiation and for assisting in the development of protection policies.  ICNIRP Recommendations: – Evaluation of all scientific evidence. – Include substantial safety factors. – Protective of all persons (young, old, sick) from all established hazards. www.icnirp.org© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 3
  5. 5. Safety Thresholds for RF ExposureExposure Adverse effects threshold www.icnirp.org 10% 2% © GSM Association 2012 J. Rowley, June 2012 Worker Public Limit Limit 4
  6. 6. International Guidelines Protect Everyone ‘…The main conclusion from the WHO reviews is that EMF exposures below the limits recommended in the ICNIRP international guidelines do not appear to have any known consequence on health.’© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 WHO Standards and Guidelines 5
  7. 7. ICNIRP Supported by WHO and ITU  …endorses the guidelines of the International  If such limits do not exist, Commission on Non- or if they do not cover the Ionizing Radiation frequencies of interest, Protection (ICNIRP) and then ICNIRP limits encourages Member (Appendix I) should be States to adopt these used. international guidelines.© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 WHO Standards and Guidelines 6
  8. 8. WHO Recommended Limits Are Widely Adopted Australia Singapore Taiwan S. Korea Japan USA Hong Kong Canada Brazil Israel New Zealand France UK France Costa Rica Ghana Portugal Denmark Finland Germany Ireland Botswana Kenya Netherlands Peru Ecuador Norway Turkey Austria Hungary Czech Rep. Latvia Nigeria Malta Sweden Slovakia Cyprus Estonia Argentina Colombia Sweden Paraguay Chile Malaysia Honduras India Croatia Mauritius Pakistan Philippines Tanzania S. Africa Thailand Venezuela Bolivia Spain Zambia Brunei Iran Cambodia Lebanon Iceland Suriname Rwanda© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 7
  9. 9. Exposure Reduces Rapidly with Increased Distance Distance doubles Public limit Exposure reduces by 4 Worker limit Small fraction of limit© GSM Association 2012 Compliance zones near to the antennas.J. Rowley, June 2012 8
  10. 10. WHO - Wireless Networks (May 2006)  ‘…RF exposures from base stations…lower or comparable to RF exposures from radio or television broadcast transmitters.’  ‘…Given the widespread presence of base stations in the environment, it is expected that possible cancer clusters will occur near base stations merely by chance...’  ‘Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing scientific evidence that the weak RF signals from base stations and wireless networks cause adverse health effects.’© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 WHO fact sheet 304, May 2006 9
  11. 11. Typical Maximum Public Exposures - Networks 2% ‘…there is no scientific basis for establishing minimal distances between base stations and areas of public occupancy, as has been suggested in some countries. There are many sources of exposure to RF fields, and it would in practice have little impact on people’s overall exposure.’ Less than 0.02%© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 Public Mobile UK HPA, 2004 Limit Network 10
  12. 12. Base Stations - Systematic Review ‘…our review does not indicate an association between any health outcome and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure...’ Evidence strong for acute effects. Less evidence available on long-term exposures and children.© GSM Association 2012 Röösli et al., 2010.J. Rowley, June 2012 11
  13. 13. Evidence Subject to Regular Expert Review‘In summary, although a substantial amount of research has beenconducted in this area, there is no convincing evidence that RFfield exposure below guideline levels causes health effects inadults or children.’© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 Health Protection Agency, 2012 12
  14. 14. Electrohypersensitivity 46 provocation studies, 1175 IEI- EMF volunteers.  ‘…The symptoms are certainly real…there is no scientific basis Symptoms not caused by EMF. to link EHS symptoms to EMF exposure. Further, EHS is not a ‘…support the role of the nocebo medical diagnosis, nor is it clear effect in triggering acute that it represents a single symptoms in IEI-EMF sufferers.’ medical problem.’© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 Rubin et al., 2010. 13
  15. 15. Precautionary Measures = Increased Concern  Study conducted in Australia, Brazil, India, Japan, Germany, The Netherlands, South Africa, UK and USA. – ICNIRP recommends limits, however, in some countries debate continues. ◄ Less concern More concern ►Base station informationPrecautionary limitsProtect sensitive areasMinimise exposure © GSM Association 2012 All precautionary measures increased concern. J. Rowley, June 2012 Wiedemann, 2011 14
  16. 16. Health Benefits  About a quarter of UK calls to ambulances come from mobile phones. – ‘Mobile phone compared to landline reporting of emergencies resulted in significant reductions in the risk of death at the scene.’ – Equivalent to 137 fewer deaths at scene per 100,000 patients.  Mobile healthcare opportunity: – Health lines, monitoring, emergency, data, remote diagnostics, counterfeit drugs, maternal care, rural care, disease rates and many more.© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 Wu et al., 2012. 15
  17. 17. Policy Responses to Public Concern  Adopt the international (ICNIRP) limits that provide protection for all persons against all established hazards.  Establish a program to assess compliance of antenna sites and demonstrate that compliance is being monitored.  Communications by trusted agencies using clear information.© GSM Association 2012J. Rowley, June 2012 16
  18. 18. Thank You Contact: Dr Jack Rowley Job title: Senior Director Research & Sustainability email address: jrowley@gsm.org Tel: +353 86 806 0849 Website: www.gsma.com/health © GSM Association 2012 J. Rowley, June 2012 17

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