Taxonomy
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  • 1. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Objectives:
    • Describe Linnaeus's role in developing the modern system of naming organisms.
    • Summarize the scientific system for naming a species.
    • List the seven levels of biological classification.
    • List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms.
    • Summarize the biological species concept.
  • 2. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy
    • A Simpler System Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature, the two-word system of naming organisms.
    • Common names can be misleading Activity
    • Scientific Names Scientific names are written in Latin and give biologists a common way of communicating, regardless of the language they speak. The scientific name of an organism consists of its genus name followed by a second name, which identifies its species.
  • 3. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Scientific Names count.
    • Human = Homo sapiens
    • Dog = Canis familiaris
    • Pansy = Viola tricolor
    • Leopard – Panthera pardus
    • Lion = Panthera leo
    • Panthar = Panthera pardus
    • Cat = Felis catus
    • Spanish Lynx = Felis Pardina
    What do you notice all scientific names have in common?
  • 4. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Classifying Organisms
    • Categories of Classification The modern system of classification includes the following eight groups: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
    • Classification of the Honeybee Each category of classification is based on characteristics that are shared by all the organisms in the category. The European honeybee is classified as: Eukarya, Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis , and mellifera .
    What is the Honeybee’s scientific name?_____________________________________
  • 5. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Objectives:
    • List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms.
    • Summarize the biological species concept.
    • Relate analagous structures to convergent evolution.
    • Describe how biologists use cladograms to determine evolutionary histories.
  • 6. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species?
    • Species Species were traditionally defined according to their appearance and structure.
    • Biological Species The biological species concept defines species according to their sexual reproductive potential.
  • 7. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species? continued
    • Evaluating the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept cannot be used to classify asexually reproducing species.
    • Number of Species The number of the species in the world is much greater than the number described.
  • 8. Section 2 Mythical Organisms Activity • Pegasus stands 6 ft tall, has a horse’s body, a horse’s head, four legs, and two wings. • Centaur stands 6 ft tall, has a horse’s body with a human torso, a male human head, and four legs. • Griffin stands 4–6 ft tall, has a lion’s body, an eagle’s head, four legs, two wings, fur on its body, and feathers on its head and wings. • Dragon can grow to several hundred feet, has a snake-like body, from 1 to 3 reptile-like heads, four legs, scales, and breathes fire. • Chimera stands 6 ft tall, has a goat’s body, snake’s tail, four legs, a lion’s head, fur on its body and head, scales on its tail, and breathes fire. • Hydra is several hundred feet long, has a long body with four legs and a spiked tail, 100 snake heads, scales, and is poisonous.
  • 9. Section 2 Mythical Organisms Activity Identify the characteristics that you think are the most useful for grouping the organisms into separate groups Classify the organisms into at least three groups based on the characteristics you think are most important