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  1. 1. Classification of Organisms Section 1: Categories of Biological Classification Section 2: How Biologists Classify Organisms
  2. 2. Categories of Biological Classification Objectives: <ul><li>Describe Linnaeus's role in developing the modern system of naming organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the scientific system for naming a species. </li></ul><ul><li>List the seven levels of biological classification. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy <ul><li>A Simpler System Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature, the two-word system of naming organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Names Scientific names are written in Latin and give biologists a common way of communicating, regardless of the language they speak. The scientific name of an organism consists of its genus name followed by a second name, which identifies its species. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Scientific Names <ul><li>Common Name </li></ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul><ul><li>Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger </li></ul><ul><li>Jaguar </li></ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>Genus, Species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Canis familiaris </li></ul><ul><li>Felis catus </li></ul><ul><li>Felis pardina </li></ul><ul><li>Panthara tigrus </li></ul><ul><li>Panthara pardus </li></ul><ul><li>Cambarus zophonaetes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Scientific Names <ul><li>Common Name </li></ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul><ul><li>Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger </li></ul><ul><li>Jaguar </li></ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>Genus, Species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Canis familiaris </li></ul><ul><li>Felis catus </li></ul><ul><li>Felis pardina </li></ul><ul><li>Panthara tigrus </li></ul><ul><li>Panthara pardus </li></ul><ul><li>Cambarus zophonaetes </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Name Rules: </li></ul><ul><li>Genus name capitalized 3. Underlined (or italic) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd name lower case </li></ul>
  6. 6. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>Each group will be given a list of 6 related organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the internet, determine the scientific name of each organism and write in your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Find a detailed picture of each organism. Type their common and scientific name after the picture </li></ul><ul><li>Print off one copy for each group member. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sample Dichotomous Key <ul><li>1a.Bean round Garbanzo bean </li></ul><ul><li>1b.Bean elliptical or oblong Go to 2    </li></ul><ul><li>2a.Bean white White northern </li></ul><ul><li>2b.Bean has dark pigments Go to 3    </li></ul><ul><li>3a.Bean evenly pigmented Go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>3b.Bean pigments mottled Pinto bean     </li></ul><ul><li>4a.Bean black Black bean </li></ul><ul><li>4b.Bean reddish-brown Kidney bean </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dichotomous Key Rules of Thumb <ul><li>Start with the most general characteristics and progress to increasingly more specific characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Indent each couplet or leave a space between each couplet to make the key easier to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Use measurements when possible, avoiding descriptors like large or small if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Use characteristics that are found year-round, not seasonal if at all possible (sometimes the point of a key is identifying organisms based on seasonal characteristics, such as flowers). If your key is seasonal, indicate it in the title of the key.  </li></ul><ul><li>Start the choices in the pair with the same word , if possible. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dichotomous Key Assignment <ul><li>Find high quality pictures of your organisms online (Google-images) and cut and paste them into a word document. Place the organisms scientific name and common name underneath </li></ul><ul><li>Design a dichotomous key that corresponds to the organisms. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dichotomous Classification Key <ul><li>Has a key which presents the user with two opposite categories about a trait. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads the user to further pairs of statements. </li></ul><ul><li>By going from one set of statements to another its classification group is determined. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Categories of Biological Classification Classifying Organisms <ul><li>Categories of Classification The modern system of classification includes the following eight groups: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification
  13. 13. <ul><li>Classification of the Honeybee Each category of classification is based on characteristics that are shared by all the organisms in the category. The European honeybee is classified as: Eukarya, Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis , and mellifera . </li></ul>
  14. 14. How Biologists Classify Organisms Objectives: <ul><li>List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the biological species concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate analagous structures to convergent evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how biologists use cladograms to determine evolutionary histories. </li></ul>
  15. 15. How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species? <ul><li>Species Species were traditionally defined according to their appearance and structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Species The biological species concept defines species according to their sexual reproductive potential. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species? continued <ul><li>Evaluating the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept cannot be used to classify asexually reproducing species. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Species The number of the species in the world is much greater than the number described. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How Biologists Classify Organisms History <ul><li>Cladistics Cladistics focuses on sets of unique or derived characteristics found in a particular group of organisms to reconstruct an evolutionary history. </li></ul>