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Organic Chemistry Teacher

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  • 1. Organic Chemistry
  • 2. Organic Chemistry Objectives
      • To describe the difference between monomers and polymers.
      • To list the basic elements found in living things.
      • To describe the general structure of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
      • To describe enzymes and discuss their importance to all living things.
  • 3. Elements Found in Living Things
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    These are the most basic components of all living things. They can be combined in an infinite number of ways to form the major components of all living things!
  • 4. Percentage of elements found in animals
    • Hydrogen = 10%
    • Oxygen = 63%
    • Carbon = 19%
    • Nitrogen = 4%
    Why is there so much hydrogen and oxygen?
  • 5. Percentage of elements found in Plants
    • Hydrogen = 10%
    • Oxygen = 77%
    • Carbon = 12%
    • Nitrogen = <1%
  • 6. Organic Compounds
    • Compounds found in living things that contain Carbon.
    • May also contain Hydrogen, oxygen, and Nitrogen
    Methane Amino acid
  • 7. Forming Organic Compounds
    • Formed by the process of polymerization – the forming of large compounds with many smaller parts.
    • Small molecules = monomers
    • They combine to make…
    • Large molecules = polymers
  • 8. Forming Organic Compounds through polymerization monomer monomer monomer monomer monomer polymer
  • 9. Dehydration synthesis
    • Joins monomers together by removing a water
    • “ De ” = loss “ hydration ” = water
    • Every time 2 monomers join a water is removed.
    • The water is added to break molecules in a process called hydrolysis .
  • 10. Did you know? Silly Putty is one big long polymer formed from many smaller monomers
  • 11. Carbohydrates
    • Commonly called sugars and starches.
    • “ Carbo” for carbon, “Hydrates” for water
    • Made of CHO
    • Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 2:1 Ratio (twice much hydrogen as oxygen, just like H 2 O).
  • 12. Carbohydrates
    • Monomers = Monosaccharides
            • Glucose
            • Fructose
            • Galatose
    They combine to make other, larger carbohydrates
  • 13. Disaccharides
    • Two monosaccharides combine to form Disaccharides
      • Glucose + glucose  maltose (malt sugar) + water
      • Glucose + fructose  sucrose(table sugar) + water
      • Glucose + galactose  lactose (milk sugar) + water
    What do you notice that all Carbohydrates have in common?
  • 14. Disaccharides
    • Two monosaccharide combine to form Disaccharides
      • Glucose + gluc ose  malt ose (malt sugar) + water
      • Glucose + fruct ose  sucr ose (table sugar) + water
      • Glucose + galact ose  lact ose (milk sugar) + water
    They all end in -ose
  • 15. Polysaccharides
    • “ poly” = many; “saccharides” = sugar
    • Formed by dehydration synthesis
    • Storage form of glucose (energy) in organisms.
    • 1000’s of glucose molecules join to form one polysaccharide!
  • 16. Polysaccharides – glucose storage
    • Plants = 2 forms
    • Starch – storage form , digestible by humans
    • Cellulose - same as starch, but different bonds- can not be digested by humans
    The stringy part of celery is mostly cellulose
  • 17. Polysaccharides – glucose storage
    • Animals – store glucose as glycogen
    • Glycogen is a highly branched molecule made of 1000+ molecules of glucose.
    • This is our short term storage of the glucose molecule
  • 18. Lipids
    • Organic compounds that are oily or waxy
    • Form cell membranes
    • Chemical messengers
  • 19. Formation of Lipids Monomers = fatty acids (2 or 3) and glycerol (1) Formed through dehydration synthesis
  • 20. Fatty Acids
    • 2 types
      • Saturated; solid fat; more tightly packed
      • Unsaturated; liquid fat; loosely packed; healthier; may prevent heart disease.
  • 21. Fats and Energy
    • Fats are your bodies long term storage of glucose
    • Produce more energy/gram than carbohydrates
  • 22. Proteins
    • Contain nitrogen
    • Monomers = 20 different amino acids, combine to form 1000’s of different proteins!
    • The bond that joins two amino acids is a peptide bond.
    • Have a very specific shape when formed.
  • 23. Amino acids- monomers of proteins Four sample amino acids. What do they have in common? How are they different? What do you think is removed every time two amino acids are joined?
  • 24. Protein Shapes Based upon their sequence of amino acids, proteins will fold into very intricate and unique shapes.
  • 25.
    • Protein’s are very sensitive to heat
    • If your body temperature gets above a certain level, your proteins “denature.” In other words they change shape, and stop working.
    Did You Know?
  • 26. Protein in your body BONES HORMONES BLOOD ENZYMES LIGAMENTS
  • 27. Enzymes – special proteins
    • Facilitate all reactions that happen in cells
    • With out them reactions would occur very slowly
    • Enzymes are reusable!
    • Diagramed in the lock and key model.

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