Genetics Vocabulary Self-Pollination- When ______________ from a plant ______________________ an egg from the same plant (this is how pea plants normally reproduce.)
Genetics Vocabulary Cross-pollination- produces _______________ that are the offspring of two different plants . Pollen from one plant is dusted onto the ____________ of another. This allow scientists to manipulate which plants reproduce together.
Genetics Vocabulary True-breeding- if allowed to self- pollination ______________ peas would produce offspring ______________ to themselves. Tall pea plants only reproduce with tall for many generations
Gregor Mendel, a monk in the Czech Republic, is considered the "Father of Genetics", based upon experiments he conducted using garden peas. He helped lay down the principles of modern genetics.
Mendel was given a garden of pure bred pea plants.
He studied various traits in pea plants
The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Short Phenotype = Genotype = TT X tt
The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T T t t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Short X Tall Phenotype Genotype TT X tt
The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Mendel Crossed a two heterozygous Tall pea plants Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Tall Phenotype = Genotype = Tt X Tt
The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T t T t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Tall X Tall Phenotype Genotype Tt X Tt
Trait Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Dominant Recessive Tongue Roller ( R ) Nonroller ( r ) Taster ( T ) Non-Taster ( t ) Free Earlobes ( E ) Attached Earlobes ( e ) Dimples ( D ) No Dimples ( d ) No 2 nd joint finger hair ( F ) 2 nd joint finger Hair ( f )
Two Trait Cross Mendel determined that alleles assort independently from each other, even when multiple traits are studied. Phenotype= 9:3:3:1 Genotype = 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1
The British Royal Family Human traits are difficult to study for several reasons. Unlike some organisms, which produce slowly and only a few offspring at one time. Thus human traits must be studied through population sampling and pedigree analysis. A pedigree is a diagram that shows the phenotype of different generations. Royal family tree