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Cells Leech photoreceptor cells
Cells <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the cell theory and the discoveries that led up to it. </li></ul><...
 
Hooke
<ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the 1 st   microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed  p...
<ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed  cork  cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought cells looked like  small ...
<ul><li>Robert  Brown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed a  round  structure near the  center  of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Mattias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>German  botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Stated,  “ All Plants are made of cells” </...
<ul><li>Rudolf Virchow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German  Physician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Said, “ All cells come from preexist...
<ul><li>The Cell Theory States </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the ...
The yolk from bird eggs is one cell.
 
Prokaryotic verses Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Simple cells </li></ul><ul><li>Includes bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus ...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up view of the cell membrane Structure The Cell Membrane Description “ The Gatek...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoplasm Structure Cytoplasm Description “ The Storehouse” Function Holds...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoskeleton Structure Cytoskeleton Description Support Function System mi...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Cilia Description Hair-like structures Function Movement/feeding
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Flagellum Description Whip-like tail made of microtubules Function...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Ribosomes Description “ protein fa...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of Mitochondria cytoplasm Structure Mitochondria Description “ powerhouse” Fu...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleus Description “ The Brain” Function Contains hered...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleolus Description RNA Function Makes RNA
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nuclear Membrane (envelope) Description “ Nuclear Gateke...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus squiggles cytoplasm Structure DNA Description Chromatin normally, ...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of rough E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of smooth E.R. cytoplasm Structure Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Description “...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of golgi cytoplasm Structure Golgi  Bodies Description Stacks of sacs/shipper...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of lysosome with digested matter. cytoplasm Structure Lysosomes Description “...
Eukaryotic Structures and Functions vacuole cytoplasm Structure Vacoules Description Membrane bound sacs Function Membrane...
Cell Organization <ul><li>Cell specialization – cells are uniquely suited to perform particular functions within the organ...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
<ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organizatio...
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Cells2008 2009

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Transcript of "Cells2008 2009"

  1. 1. Cells Leech photoreceptor cells
  2. 2. Cells <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the cell theory and the discoveries that led up to it. </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the structure and function of various cell organelles </li></ul><ul><li>To compare and contrast plant and animal cells. </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the various forms of transport that occur in cells. </li></ul>Leech photoreceptor cells
  3. 4. Hooke
  4. 5. <ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the 1 st microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed pond water and made detailed observations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed cork cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought cells looked like small rooms in a monastery . </li></ul><ul><li>Was NOT looking at living cells. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Robert Brown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed a round structure near the center of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now called the nucleus </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Mattias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>German botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Stated, “ All Plants are made of cells” </li></ul>Theodor Schwann Stated, “ All animals are made of cells ”
  8. 9. <ul><li>Rudolf Virchow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Physician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Said, “ All cells come from preexisting cells.” </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The Cell Theory States </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from preexisting cells. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The yolk from bird eggs is one cell.
  11. 13. Prokaryotic verses Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Simple cells </li></ul><ul><li>Includes bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Circular DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Typical cells </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all plants, animals, fungi, and protists (1 celled organisms) </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus </li></ul>
  12. 14. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up view of the cell membrane Structure The Cell Membrane Description “ The Gatekeeper” Function Controls what gets in and out of the cell
  13. 15. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoplasm Structure Cytoplasm Description “ The Storehouse” Function Holds the organelles/gives the cell shape
  14. 16. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoskeleton Structure Cytoskeleton Description Support Function System microtubules that hold organelles
  15. 17. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Cilia Description Hair-like structures Function Movement/feeding
  16. 18. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Flagellum Description Whip-like tail made of microtubules Function “ movement”
  17. 19. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Ribosomes Description “ protein factories” Function Make proteins/ some attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum
  18. 20. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of Mitochondria cytoplasm Structure Mitochondria Description “ powerhouse” Function Change the chemical energy into compounds the cell can use.
  19. 21. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleus Description “ The Brain” Function Contains heredity information
  20. 22. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleolus Description RNA Function Makes RNA
  21. 23. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nuclear Membrane (envelope) Description “ Nuclear Gatekeeper” Function Controls what enters and leaves nucleus through pores
  22. 24. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus squiggles cytoplasm Structure DNA Description Chromatin normally, thicken into chromosomes during reproduction Function Contains the DNA/information the defines an individual
  23. 25. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of rough E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Description “ transports” Function Transports the proteins made by the ribosomes; pinches them off into vacoules
  24. 26. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of smooth E.R. cytoplasm Structure Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Description “ stores” Function Makes fats and breaks down toxins
  25. 27. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of golgi cytoplasm Structure Golgi Bodies Description Stacks of sacs/shippers Function Modifies and Packages up proteins made at on the ER.
  26. 28. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of lysosome with digested matter. cytoplasm Structure Lysosomes Description “ cleanup crews” Function Digests foreign materials and breaks down worn out organelles.
  27. 29. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions vacuole cytoplasm Structure Vacoules Description Membrane bound sacs Function Membrane forms around food or water particles that are brought into the cell.
  28. 30. Cell Organization <ul><li>Cell specialization – cells are uniquely suited to perform particular functions within the organism (I.e. react to environment, to move, to make energy…) </li></ul>
  29. 31. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>
  30. 32. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>The Cell is the basic unit of structure and function
  31. 33. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization Tissues- groups of similar cells with similar functions.
  32. 34. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization Example #1 Blood is a connective tissue that is responsible for transport in many organisms. Blood from a toad
  33. 35. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Example #2 Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue. Human Cartilage
  34. 36. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Most animals contain 4 tissue types Muscle Smooth muscle of the small intestine
  35. 37. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Most animals contain 4 tissue types Nervous A neuron from the spinal cord.
  36. 38. Cell Organization- levels of organization <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Most animals contain 4 tissue types Epithelial (covers organs and membranes) Epithelial tissue covers the small intestine
  37. 39. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization . Organs- a group of tissures that work together to perform a particular function
  38. 40. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples Human Heart
  39. 41. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples lungs
  40. 42. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization . A group of organs working together to perform a particular function.
  41. 43. <ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples These organs make up part of the human digestive system.
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