Biology Procedures And Expectations

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Biology Procedures And Expectations

  1. 1. “, ‘| in ’. IO ‘J . . 7.“ bj ectives: What scientists contributed to the discovery of DNA? What is the structure and function of DNA and RNA? How does DNA replicate? What is transcription and translation?
  2. 2. i X—ray photograph taken by Roseland Franklin L . _ f i I . 1:“ : “~fi. ~. _ F. I f ‘ 2*. 3”‘. — -‘J’--—-1 ‘ W] “ «I1 I I WV“-1:’ ‘fr -' i ". :_ "it I T l ~‘ . - Ar _ i ‘, l ‘ v : ’'-'71. ~ ‘- J an! -IE ‘T. -1 V’ L. _ y 1 , 'l 9*‘ Rosalind Franklin, and her colleague Maurice. ‘ 1? Wilkins, in 1950 X-Rayed DNA to determine the basic structure. In 1953 Scientists Watson and Crick used evidence from other scientists to determine the structure of DNA. L‘. ; 1
  3. 3. Structure of DNA Monomers = nucleotides Each nucleotide contains 3 basic parts: “ 3113:: base ) — a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) - — a phosphate group — and one of four nitrogen bases Millions of these bases combine to form DNA!
  4. 4. DNA structure — nitrogen bases ‘The 4 different bases are °Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. ‘They pair to form the ladder—like structure that is DNA ‘A pairs with T ‘ C pairs with G
  5. 5. What Does DNA Stand For? D = Deoxyribose sugar NA = Nucleic Acid ~. — »* A ~« ~-~ ‘G T zonrrrr ~ ’: rt : "l: 'J In» r; r"l: “r . - . ..J' A. . 4. '44. J. ‘ .1 *r- .1 . <.«. ~ -J ‘. ./:1.-J
  6. 6. DNA structure — nitrogen bases :7 | r 1. I! H . m .3 U I av. .. .H . I in film _| 0 ¢ 920 1.0 9.. . 0 0 0.. .0 030 Q, ‘ 0 0 010 0.. .0 0.‘. 0 0 9.3 9.3 03.. 9 0 9.. .0 9:0 O. ..O O 0 0.. .0 5,0 .40 .2;; .:. :____. ._: .;: .;. _.. _.__. _:_; .:E.2. W.0.0.0,.0.o.0r.0r. ..,0ro.0 ,0 0 or0.¢,0,.0,.0.0,0_0,.0. 0 0,0 0,000 A,6.6.0.0.§. O.§,0,0 0.0 00.0.00 )3l: >,1- unfit: lung .1 as .3439 Allzv 49 A An 4: .3439 Alli? 49 . _9V .1 An! .1.. - irxf r_x_: x.. .:. fx 2 . . w. -A’--a‘, -*_‘-A'-‘a‘, -*, ‘:--- w __ w. I R ‘I I I. I c I A 1 A A v lrr u1_ , _ Au 1 Ac II _ I r A ; _ j A _ j 2 . A _ _ . T _ Ir 1 A v A V A . v A V A v A
  7. 7. GUANINE 9 The double helix looks like .5 cvrosms a double twisted <: Jladder THYMINE ADENINE DNAthe Molecule of Life i This is further if: 4, . coll chromosomes twisted and packed into 6, “ ct chromosomes in D QIKAE if ' I the nucleus. {I l
  8. 8. Draw your own DNA strand *Use the format on the left L > T -‘ *Strand should be 8 base pairs long . ~ g *Include a key telling what A, G, C, T, S, and P stand for *A, G, C, and T can be in any order, but must be paired correctly!
  9. 9. The 2 strands unzip, exposing the nucleotides )- The free “floating” nucleotides pair with the exposed nucleotides, forming 2 identical .
  10. 10. Replicate your own DNA strand 9 ‘Use scissors to cut your DNA in half (normally enzymes do this 1019) éc % ‘Tape or glue your 2 new strands. ¢ ¢ ‘Draw in the missing Nucleic Acids to complete your two strands.
  11. 11. Chromosome Number of Various Organisms Organism Number of chromosomes Ponicrllrum Mosquito Saccharomyces (yeast) cn , /i / , i Houselly 1? - , ‘ ‘ , .. I Garden pea 14 Corn ?0 Adder's tongue fern 1,262 . ’ W T 7 W‘ is i‘ 26 7 46 Orangutan 48 Dog . . ' 78

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