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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)
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Complete guide to the nikon d700 (1st. edition)

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  • 1. Version 1.00Thom Hogan’sComplete Guideto the Nikon D7001st EditionBy Thom HoganbyThom PressThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 1
  • 2. Version 1.00Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700First Edition 2008Published in the United States bybyThom PressEmmaus, PA 18049http://www.bythom.com© 2008 Thom HoganAll Rights ReservedCopies of this work may not be distributed in any form or byany transmission method.All photographs by and © Thom HoganThis book is not sponsored by Nikon Corporation.Information, data, and procedures described herein arecorrect to the best of the author’s and publisher’s knowledge;all other liability is expressly disclaimed. Nikkor, Nikon, andSpeedlight are registered trademarks of Nikon Corporation,Japan. CompactFlash is a trademark of SanDisk Corporation.All other products or name brands are trademarks of theirrespective manufacturers.The author and publisher shall not be responsible for errorscontained herein or any damages in connection with thefurnishing, performance, or use of the material in this book. Inparticular, the author and publisher shall not be responsiblefor any damage to the sensor of the camera of any reader whofollows the cleaning instructions contained in this book. Theauthor and publisher shall not be responsible for damage tocamera electronics by anyone attempting to make their ownexternal power supply based upon the ideas presented in thisbook. It’s a sad commentary on our society that I even need toinclude this disclaimer.1st Edition, version 1.00: 9/24/08Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 2
  • 3. Version 1.00AcknowledgementsBecause the D700 is so close to the D3 in most aspects, thiswork is derived from my Complete Guide to the Nikon D3.That eBook was extensively reviewed and commented on bya number of readers, most notably Ron Armstrong, EdwinBodo, Matt Buedel, Eric Carlino, Shun Cheung, Al Hart,Yischon Liaw, Robert Lively, Robert W Von Mayr, JohnSchulte, Tom Vadnais, and Arthur Yeo. The D700 draft wasalso reviewed by Jay Abramson, Michele Arling, ShunCheung, Michael Erlewine, John Schmidt, Jerry Smith, and JimUnderwood. This work is better because of their efforts.Several Web sites proved useful in researching aspects of thisbook. While I mention others at appropriate points in theeBook, several need to be singled out for D700 users:• Phil Askey’s http://www.dpreview.com has some of the most thorough reviews of digital cameras (yes, even more thorough than the ones on my own site) and an ongoing forum that’s useful for getting answers to tough questions (select Nikon D3 – D1 / D700 from the Discussion Forums pop-up in the left navigation panel).• Nikonians http://www.nikonians.org is another of the “well-attended” public forums that are useful for Nikon D700 users. Click on Forums, then click on the D700 Users Group link.• Nikon Café http://www.nikoncafe.com is a relatively new moderated forum and has had a lively discussion of the D700. Click on Lighting and Flash, Cameras, and gear, and then click on the Nikon D700 forum link.• Nikon Gear http://www.nikongear.com is a moderated forum with notables such as Bjørn Rørslett involved. Click on FORUM at the top of the page, and then click on the The Nikon D700 forum link.• Photo.net http://photo.net has a moderated forum on all things Nikon. Click on the FORUMS tab at the top of the main page, and then click on the Nikon forum link.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 3
  • 4. Version 1.00About this eBookThis eBook was created using Adobe Acrobat directly frommy original files. I’ve tried to retain as many of thenavigational features as Acrobat allows (for example, theBookmarks section at the left is derived from the Table ofContents and is fully active—click on an entry and you’ll betaken to it). Curiously, trying to create a fully functional eBookusing Adobe’s tools is worthy of an eBook itself (most of thechapters would be centered on trying to get promised featuresto work, and how they keep changing between AcrobatProfessional versions, sometimes going backwards in ability).Your Rights versus MineI make my living documenting Nikon equipment. Thus, I haveregistered the Copyright for this work in order to protect myrights.That said, I have not enabled copy protection, forced you toenter a serial number, asked you to agree to a LicenseAgreement, or in any other way limited access to theinformation in this eBook. I trust you to honor my Copyrightand to follow a few simple guidelines: 1. Treat the CD you received as you would a printed book. 2. I grant those of you who purchased this eBook directly from Thom Hogan the specific permission to print or have printed by a third party a single copy of this eBook for your own private use. You may not resell that printed copy, and must destroy it if you sell or pass on the original eBook you received to someone else. Do not print a copy if you don’t agree with the previous sentence. 3. I grant everyone who purchases the eBook directly from Thom Hogan specific permission to create a backup copy of this eBook file for their own privateThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 4
  • 5. Version 1.00 use. However, you must destroy that backup copy and any other copies you have of this work, printed or electronic, if you sell or pass on the original eBook you received.It is a violation of Copyright law to distribute or sell copies ofthis work. It is also a violation of Copyright law to put thiswork in any public forum, send it to any newsgroup, place iton a Web site, or allow it to be accessed on any file sharingservice.This work is registered with the Copyright office. That meansthat punitive damages and legal fees can and will be soughtagainst anyone found illegally copying this work. Ignorance ofthe law and claims that someone else told you that you hadrights to resell this work 1 are not legal defenses.Printing the eBookOn to a more positive subject: if you’d like a hard copy of theeBook, you can print a copy for your personal use byselecting Print from the File menu.It’s possible to print on both sides of the paper and get a realbook-like experience by using the Print: Odd Pages Onlyand Print: Even Pages Only options on the Print dialog, butI don’t recommend this unless you’re good at keeping track ofpaper, know how to properly re-orient the paper for thesecond pass, and are sure that your printer won’t choke on apage somewhere. With some HP printer drivers, for example,you can print the odd pages, put the pages generated backinto the printer correctly oriented, then select Print: EvenPages Only and Print Back to Front, saving you the step ofreordering the pages before the second pass.1 I have not and will not pass rights for this work to other parties. Yes, other peoplefraudulently claim that they own the rights when they don’t. And they hear from mylawyer when they do. Don’t say you weren’t warned should you try this.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 5
  • 6. Version 1.00Some recent printers offer something called “duplex printing,”where the printer itself handles flipping the paper. That’s howI print my eBooks for myself on my HP Officejet, whichsupports duplex printing. Here’s the relevant dialog on myMac filled out correctly for this eBook:Since there are so many printers available and their dialogboxes all allow different printing options, I can’t help youfigure out the most economical or convenient way to printyour eBook 2. Yes, it even took me a few minutes to figure outhow to create front and back copies on my laser printer, so Iknow it’s a hassle. A complete set of step-by-step instructionsthat work for the three printers I have available are includedon the CD in a separate file, called PRINTING.PDF.Take the resulting pages to your copy shop, have them trimthe edges (the final page size is 5.5 x 8.5” unless you’ve letAcrobat rescale the book to fit the full page) and bind. ThiseBook is actually in three specific sections that could bebound separately (“Before You Take Pictures,” “ShootingPictures with Your D700,” and “After You’ve Taken Pictures2 Since I get the occasional question as to why I don’t publish a paper version, I’llexplain: paper versions turn out to be more expensive to produce in the smallquantities at which a niche publication like this sells. Producing this eBookelectronically allows me to create it on demand, reducing waste and cost, and tokeep it up to date as I learn new things about the camera. It also gives me a chance tocorrect the inevitable minor typos that somehow creep into every major production.On that last point: I keep a current errata list on my Web site. You’ll find the one forthis version of the eBook (1.00) at http://www.bythom.com/d700guideerrata.htm.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 6
  • 7. Version 1.00with Your D700”); I’ve tried to keep the instructions you’dwant while out shooting in the middle section.If you’re really the type that doesn’t like to struggle throughthe paper handling idiosyncrasies of your printer, mostKinko’s and similar copy shops can print, collate, and bind anice portable version of this book for you (show them thestatement on the back cover or on the previous page if theybalk at printing a Copyrighted work). Make sure they knowthat the final page size is 5.5” x 8.5”.Note: Kinko’s and other copy shops should actually refuse to make a copy of this eBook, as it is protected by Copyright. Show them the boxed area on the back cover of the eBook jacket, my Web page for the eBook, or Item #2 in the “Your Rights versus Mine” section where I grant you permission to print or have printed a copy for your personal use. If that doesn’t work, have them email me at thom_hogan@msn.com to verify that this is okay. If you encounter a copy shop that doesn’t ask you to show permission to reproduce a copyrighted work, or one that still refuses after being shown permission, I’d like to hear about it. If the former and the copy shop is a chain, it is probably violating direct court orders that mandate that they don’t do this. I’ve not put Digital Rights Management on this file to block all copying and printing, because it’s a hassle for the user. So, please respect my rights and help report those that willingly violate them.Note: Some Kinko’s now use a special piece of software to print from PDF files, such as the one for this eBook. Since that software first attempts to extract all text from the file and I have selected to block text extraction in Acrobat, this means that such software fails to work with this eBook. Kinko’s can still print it by simply running Acrobat, but this limits some of the fancier options they can do.This eBook is designed to help you get quality results fromyour Nikon D700. While I’ll try to provide introductorymaterial that should help even a photography novice get by,this eBook isn’t the place to learn what an aperture or shutterThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 7
  • 8. Version 1.00speed is (check out http://www.bythom.com/bookrecs.htm if youwant some recommendations for general photography books).Nevertheless, I will try to explain the concepts andterminology that are necessary to understand how a D700works. If you find something in this eBook unclear, or that I’veassumed knowledge on your part that you don’t have, don’thesitate to drop me an email asking for an explanation. Notonly will I answer your question, but it will give me someinsight on what I might want to change in future editions tomake the eBook even clearer.Besides dealing with the practical side of the camera andshowing you how all the basic functions work, I’ll alsoprovide you with some tips on how to squeeze every last bitof image quality out of your camera as well as how to makeup for some of its shortcomings.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 8
  • 9. Version 1.00Note on the First EditionWhile this is a first edition, the D700 is enough like earlierNikon DSLRs and the recent D3 that I’ve been able to re-purpose and rewrite portions of earlier eBooks—specificallythe D3 eBook, as the D700 shares quite a bit with thatcamera—which means that much of the information here hasbeen previously vetted.One thing I have done with my recent eBooks, though, iscompletely restructure them from my previous ones. With myeBooks on advanced Nikon bodies I’ve received feedbackfrom readers that indicates many of you want a tighter workwith more suggestions, and something that you can take withyou.So, to better serve my readers, I’ve made some changes fromthe way I put together the D2 series eBooks. In particular, I’veremoved the introductory material on DSLRs, added manymore suggestions on how to use various camera controls, andproduced a hard copy supplement entitled Thom Hogan’sD700 To Go. That supplement isn’t designed so much to beread as to be referred to for quick reference while outshooting.At the same time, there may still be some of you who arecoming to the D700 who want additional introductorymaterial. I’ve moved that to a separate PDF file on the CDentitled Introduction to DLSRs (INTROTODSLRS.PDF on theCD).But that’s not all. I’ve taken what used to be the “softwaresection” completely out of my eBooks and made it into acomplete eBook of its own entitled Introduction to NikonSoftware (NIKONSOFT200.PDF on the CD). This new eBookis also found on the CD you received and includes completedescriptions on the current Nikon software (if you’re aWindows user and don’t know how to find files on anAutostart disc, read the inside front cover of the disc package).By putting the software into a separate work, I’ve been able toThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 9
  • 10. Version 1.00expand it considerably and will now be able to keep it up todate separately from the cameras.Since I mentioned the change in structure earlier, let meelaborate on it so that you know what to expect in this work.This eBook is separated into three distinct sections:• Things you should know and consider before using the D700 (labeled “D700 Background” and starting on page <27>). In this section I cover how the D700 came to be, its specifications and capabilities, and how it differs from previous Nikon DSLRs. I also cover how to set up your camera for shooting. This section is up front because it’s the background material you need to get up to speed with the unique aspects of your camera.• Things you need to know while using the D700 (labeled “Shooting Pictures with Your D700” and starting on page <234>). This is the “how-to” section of the eBook. Here’s where I walk you through each feature of the camera as you’d use it. I’ll explain why you might use it, how to make that feature active, and what your options are. Yes, you may find a few things repeated in this section from the first, but in the interest of making for a complete “how-to” section, I’ve elected to repeat some set-up and other instructions. The separate Thom Hogan’s Nikon D700 To Go is a highly abbreviated version of this section.• Things you need to know and do after you’ve taken your pictures (labeled “After You’ve Taken Pictures with Your D700” and starting on page <768>). When you come back from shooting with your camera you still have things you may want to do, like print, view, or improve your images. Note that I don’t cover what you do on a computer with your images in this section—that’s reserved for the new Introduction to Nikon Software eBook that came with this one.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 10
  • 11. Version 1.00The structure of this eBook also mimics the order you’ll wantto follow as you master your new camera: initiation, use, andpost production.As I wrote earlier, this eBook incorporates a few bits andpieces from earlier eBooks I’ve written about Nikonequipment. It’s not easy keeping up with all the changesNikon keeps making to its DSLR lineup and software. So ifyou have any of my previous eBooks, you’ll find that mywords and explanations may have changed, even for featuresthat were common across many models. So don’t skip overanything—read everything here as it stands, not as you think itmight be.As I receive comments from readers of this eBook, I updatethe original file. Since I generate this eBook directly from myfiles, this means that I am usually able to keep the text nearlyerror-free while adding or modifying sections to make a pointmore clearly. Every now and then I make a full pass throughthe manuscript, augmenting what I’ve previously written withknowledge I’ve learned from using the camera, teachingworkshops, and from other sources. When I do that, I iteratethe “edition number.” And when I create a new edition, I offerlow-cost updates to people who bought the original eBook.So, if you do find an error or confusing wording, take a lookat http://www.bythom.com/d700guideerrata.htm to make surethat the problem hasn’t already been discovered; drop me anemail telling me about it if it hasn’t.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 11
  • 12. Version 1.00Table of ContentsACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................................................................... 3ABOUT THIS EBOOK ........................................................................................... 4 YOUR RIGHTS VERSUS MINE ........................................................... 4 PRINTING THE EBOOK .................................................................... 5NOTE ON THE FIRST EDITION............................................................................ 9TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................... 12CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS EBOOK ........................................................... 21INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 23D700 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................... 27 THE D700’S HISTORY ................................................................. 27 IS IT BETTER THAN FILM? .............................................................. 34 DEBUNKING S OME MYTHS ........................................................... 39 D700 BASICS .............................................................................. 43 D700 Design ........................................................................ 43 The D700 Sensor.................................................................. 48 Sensor Specifications (Size) ............................................................... 51 Sensor Specifications (Pixels) ............................................................ 52 Sensor Filtration ......................................................................... 53 Tonal Range ............................................................................... 64 Dynamic Range -- Dark v. Bright............................................... 70 Spectral Characteristics.............................................................. 74 Noise .......................................................................................... 75 Hot and Dead Pixels .................................................................. 83 Sensor Longevity ........................................................................ 84 Sensor Wrap-up ......................................................................... 86 EXPEED ................................................................................. 86 POWER ....................................................................................... 88 Changing Batteries ............................................................... 92 Charging Batteries ................................................................ 93 Battery Storage ..................................................................... 95 Clock Battery ........................................................................ 95 Alternate Power Sources ...................................................... 96 Battery Life.......................................................................... 100 Battery Notes...................................................................... 107 IMAGE S TORAGE ........................................................................ 109 Buffer Sizes ......................................................................... 112 CompactFlash..................................................................... 114 UDMA...................................................................................... 115 Solid-State CompactFlash ........................................................ 116 Using CompactFlash ................................................................ 119 Nikon-Approved Cards ............................................................ 122Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 12
  • 13. Version 1.00 How Much Card? .................................................................... 124 CompactFlash Troubleshooting ............................................... 125 Image Formats .................................................................... 129 Pixels ........................................................................................ 131 JPEG ......................................................................................... 133 Setting JPEG..................................................................................... 136 JPEG Rendering ............................................................................... 146 JPEG Artifacts .................................................................................. 148 JPEG Recommendation ................................................................... 153 TIFF Format .............................................................................. 154 Setting TIFF...................................................................................... 156 TIFF Recommendation .................................................................... 158 NEF Format .............................................................................. 159 Compressed NEFs............................................................................ 163 Why NEF?........................................................................................ 166 Setting NEF ...................................................................................... 168 NEF Recommendations ................................................................... 173 EXIF .......................................................................................... 174 IPTC.......................................................................................... 178 DPOF and PictBridge............................................................... 179 File Names and Folders...................................................... 180 Folders...................................................................................... 181 File Names ............................................................................... 188 File Number Sequence............................................................. 195 CAMERA SETUP.......................................................................... 197 How Menus Work .............................................................. 197 The SETUP Menu ............................................................... 200 Date, Time, and Language ....................................................... 204 Setting Date and Time ..................................................................... 205 Setting Language ............................................................................. 210 Programming a Comment ........................................................ 211 Copyright Information.............................................................. 214 Setting the LCD Brightness....................................................... 218 Set Up Recommendations Summary ....................................... 221 Viewfinder Adjustment....................................................... 222 Focus Screens........................................................................... 224 Resetting the Camera ......................................................... 224 Resetting Basic Settings............................................................ 224 Settings after Reset........................................................................... 225 Resetting Other Settings........................................................... 225 Settings after Reset........................................................................... 227 Resetting Custom Settings ........................................................ 227 The Last Resort Reset ............................................................... 227 Firmware Version ............................................................... 228SHOOTING PICTURES WITH THE D700 ........................................................ 234 CAMERA AND SHOOTING CONTROLS ......................................... 234 D700 Controls .................................................................... 235 Front View................................................................................ 235Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 13
  • 14. Version 1.00 Top View .................................................................................. 236 Back View ................................................................................ 237 Side View ................................................................................. 238 D700 Displays.................................................................... 239 D700 Top LCD......................................................................... 239 D700 Color LCD ...................................................................... 241 D700 Viewfinder...................................................................... 245 IMAGE QUALITY ........................................................................ 248 Approximate Maximum Images Per Card ....................................... 250 METERING AND EXPOSURE ......................................................... 257 Metering Methods .............................................................. 258 Center-weighted....................................................................... 265 Spot .......................................................................................... 266 Spot Meter Point.............................................................................. 268 Metering Compatibility ................................................................... 268 Setting the Metering Method ................................................... 268 So Which Metering System Should You Use? ................... 269 Metering with Digital Requires Care .................................. 271 Locking Exposure................................................................ 275 Options for Evaluating Exposure ........................................ 276 How to Interpret Histograms ................................................... 281 Exposure Modes ................................................................. 290 Flexible Program....................................................................... 293 Program Exposure Table (at ISO 200) ............................................. 294 ISO Sensitivity..................................................................... 295 Noise Reduction Settings ......................................................... 307 Auto ISO .................................................................................. 312 How ISO Values are Created ................................................... 317 ISO Operating Suggestions ...................................................... 317 Exposure Bracketing ........................................................... 321 D700 Exposure Bracketing Values Table (Exposures) ..................... 323 Exposure Compensation..................................................... 330 Active D-Lighting ................................................................ 333 White Balance .................................................................... 337 D700 White Balance Settings ................ D700 White Balance Bracketing Values Table ............................... 360 UniWB...................................................................................... 361 Picture Controls.................................................................. 363 Contrast Parameter .................................................................. 384 Hue Parameter ......................................................................... 386 Saturation Parameter................................................................ 388 Brightness Parameter................................................................ 389 LENSES AND FOCUSING .............................................................. 391 An Aside About Lenses ...................................................... 395 Lens Compatibility .............................................................. 398 Using DX Lenses................................................................. 402 Lens Differences When Using FX versus DX................................... 406Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 14
  • 15. Version 1.00 Lens Angle of View ......................................................................... 407 Setting Image Area ................................................................... 408 The Autofocus System........................................................ 411 Focus Mode (Single Servo, Continuous Servo, and Manual) .. 418 Single Servo versus Continuous Servo Autofocus ........................... 419 Autofocus Area Modes ............................................................ 422 Autofocus Summary................................................................. 424 Autofocus Settings Summary ........................................................... 424 Trap Autofocus......................................................................... 426 Autofocus Assist ....................................................................... 427 Lock-On (Focus Tracking) ....................................................... 429 The Pro Approach to Autofocus .............................................. 430 Adjusting Your Lenses ........................................................ 431 Chromatic Aberration Correction ...................................... 439 Vignette Correction ............................................................ 439 Manual Focus ..................................................................... 441 Depth of Field Preview....................................................... 443 FX Depth of Field ..................................................................... 445 20mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 445 24mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 446 28mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 446 35mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 447 50mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 447 70mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 448 85mm Lens (FX Format) .................................................................. 448 105mm Lens (FX Format) ................................................................ 449 DX Depth of Field .................................................................... 449 18mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 449 20mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 450 24mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 450 28mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 450 35mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 451 50mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 451 70mm Lens (DX Format) ................................................................. 451 Diffraction ................................................................................ 451 Other DOF Theories ................................................................ 453 Sharpening.......................................................................... 454 SHOOTING CONTROLS .............................................................. 462 Shutter Releases.................................................................. 462 Shutter Lag ............................................................................... 463 Shooting Method (and Frame Rate) .................................. 465 Self Timer ................................................................................. 468 Live View .................................................................................. 469 Using Hand-held Live View ............................................................ 474 Using Tripod Live View................................................................... 477 Frame Rate Troubleshooting .................................................... 481 Interval Shooting ................................................................ 482 Multiple Exposures and Overlays....................................... 490 Remote Control .................................................................. 493Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 15
  • 16. Version 1.00 Connecting to a GPS .......................................................... 493 Shooting Information Display (INFO Button) ................... 498 Virtual Horizon ................................................................... 501 D700 Menus....................................................................... 503 PLAYBACK menu ( icon) .................................................... 504 SHOOTING menu (õ camera icon)....................................... 505 Setting and Naming Shooting Menu Banks.................................... 509 CUSTOM SETTING menu ( pencil icon) ........................... 513 SETUP menu (Ø wrench icon) ................................................ 514 RETOUCH menu (folder icon) ................................................ 518 MY MENU (checked icon) ...................................................... 519 RECENT SETTINGS (file folder list icon).................................. 525 Error Messages.................................................................... 528 IMAGE REVIEW AND PLAYBACK ................................................... 535 Image Review ..................................................................... 535 Image Review Options............................................................. 536 Rotating Images........................................................................ 546 The PLAYBACK Menu ........................................................ 548 Deleting Images ....................................................................... 549 Image Recovery............................................................................... 554 Protecting Images..................................................................... 554 Dealing with Folders ................................................................ 555 Hiding Images .......................................................................... 558 Other PLAYBACK Menu Items................................................. 561 CUSTOM SETTINGS .................................................................... 561 #C Custom Settings Bank ................................................... 568 #R Reset Custom Settings for Current Bank....................... 573 #A1 Continuous Servo AF Priority ..................................... 575 #A2 Single Servo AF Priority .............................................. 578 #A3 Dynamic Area AF Customization............................... 579 #A4 Set Focus Lock-On Parameters................................... 582 #A5 Autofocus Initiation Method ...................................... 583 #A6 Focus Area Illumination.............................................. 585 #A7 Focus Point Selection Wrap ....................................... 586 #A8 Number of AF Points .................................................. 586 #A9 Autofocus Assist Illumination ..................................... 588 #A10 MB-D10 AF-ON Button Options ............................. 589 #B1 ISO Increment............................................................. 590 #B2 Exposure Control Increment ....................................... 591 #B3 Exposure Compensation Increment ........................... 592 #B4 Exposure Compensation Control ................................ 593 #B5 Center-weight Metering Circle Size ............................ 595 #B6 Meter Compensation .................................................. 596 #C1 Shutter Release Exposure Locking .............................. 598 #C2 Meter/Camera Active Time ........................................ 599Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 16
  • 17. Version 1.00 #C3 Self Timer Delay Setting ............................................. 601 #C4 Color LCD Active Time .............................................. 602 #D1 Sound Feedback Setting ............................................ 603 #D2 Grid Line Display in Viewfinder ................................. 604 #D3 Show Tips on Shooting Info Items ............................. 605 #D4 Continuous Low Shooting Speed............................... 606 #D5 Maximum Continuous Shots ...................................... 607 #D6 File Number Sequence............................................... 608 #D7 Shooting Info Display Style ........................................ 609 #D8 LCD Illumination Control ........................................... 610 #D9 One Second Shutter Delay ........................................ 611 #D10 Battery Type in MB-D10 .......................................... 612 #D11 Order Batteries are Used ......................................... 614 #E1 Flash Top Sync Speed ................................................. 615 #E2 Flash Low Shutter Speed Barrier ................................. 616 #E3 Flash Mode for Internal Flash...................................... 617 #E4 DOF Preview Triggers Modeling Flash ....................... 621 #E5 Exposure Bracketing Method ...................................... 622 #E6 Manual Exposure Mode Bracketing ............................ 623 #E7 Bracketing Order......................................................... 625 #F1 Power Switch Illumination Function ........................... 626 #F2 Direction Pad Center Button....................................... 627 #F3 Additional Direction Pad Control ............................... 630 #F4 Direction Pad Scrolling during Playback .................... 631 #F5 FUNC Button Setting .................................................. 631 #F6 DOF Preview Button Setting....................................... 637 #F7 AE-Lock Button Function ............................................ 641 Button Assignment Interdependencies .............................. 644 #F8 Shutter Speed and Aperture Lock ............................... 646 #F9 Command Dial Functions ........................................... 647 #F10 Pressing or Holding Buttons ..................................... 650 #F11 Lock Camera with No CompactFlash ....................... 651 #F12 Reverse the Manual Metering Bar ............................ 652 USING FLASH ............................................................................ 653 What Happens When Flash is Used .................................. 653 Flash Basics......................................................................... 654 Digital Flash Differences .................................................... 655 More Hidden Flash “Gotchas” .......................................... 658 Allowable Apertures in Program Mode ................................... 658 Flash Modes ....................................................................... 659 i-TTL Balanced Fill-Flash .......................................................... 659 Standard TTL ............................................................................ 662 High-Speed TTL (TTL FP)......................................................... 662 Summary of i-TTL Flash Modes....................................................... 663Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 17
  • 18. Version 1.00 Non-TTL Flash Modes .............................................................. 663 Setting Flash Options ......................................................... 667 Flash Option Interactions......................................................... 670 FV Lock..................................................................................... 670 Flash Exposure Compensation ........................................... 672 Flash Features Available using a D700 with Speedlights ................ 674 Controlled, Repeatable Flash Results................................. 675 Third Party Flash Units ....................................................... 679 Studio Flash ........................................................................ 679 D700 INTERNAL FLASH ............................................................. 680 Internal Flash Basics ........................................................... 682 To Set TTL on the Internal Flash .............................................. 682 To Set Manual Flash................................................................. 683 Internal Flash Guide Numbers (Feet)............................................... 685 Internal Flash Guide Numbers (Meters) .......................................... 685 To Set Repeating Flash............................................................. 685 Wireless Flash........................................................................... 688 EXTERNAL FLASH MODELS FOR THE D700 .................................. 699 SB-400 ................................................................................ 699 Specifications ........................................................................... 699 To Set TTL Flash ....................................................................... 699 SB-400 Usable Apertures and Flash Range in TTL mode (feet) ....... 701 SB-600 ................................................................................ 701 Specifications ........................................................................... 702 To Set TTL Flash ....................................................................... 702 SB-600 Usable Apertures and Flash Range in TTL mode (feet) ....... 704 To Set Manual Flash................................................................. 704 SB-600 Guide Numbers at ISO 100 (feet) ....................................... 705 SB-600 Guide Numbers at ISO 100 (meters) .................................. 705 SB-600 Guide Numbers at ISO 200 (feet) ....................................... 706 SB-600 Guide Numbers at ISO 200 (meters) .................................. 706 To Manually Set the Zoom Head............................................. 706 To Set Flash Exposure Compensation ...................................... 707 To Set Red-Eye Reduction........................................................ 707 SB-600 Notes ........................................................................... 708 SB-800 ................................................................................ 709 Specifications ........................................................................... 710 To Set TTL Flash ....................................................................... 711 SB-800 Usable Apertures and Flash Range in TTL mode (feet) ....... 712 To Set Manual Flash................................................................. 713 To Set Repeating Flash............................................................. 714 Maximum Number of Repeating Flashes at Each Power Setting ..... 715 To Manually Set the Zoom Head............................................. 716 To Set the Distance Scale to Feet or Meters ............................ 717 To Set Flash Exposure Compensation ...................................... 717 To Set Red-Eye Reduction........................................................ 718 SB-800 Notes ........................................................................... 718 Flash Troubleshooting ........................................................ 720Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 18
  • 19. Version 1.00 USING A D700 IN THE FIELD ...................................................... 722 The “Routine” .................................................................... 722 General Settings You Make Once............................................ 722 Things To Do Before You Head Out on a Shoot ..................... 722 Check Each Time You Turn the Camera On............................ 724 Settings You Change Rarely (and then only for a reason) ....... 725 Settings You Change Often ...................................................... 726 Things To Do After Each Shooting Session .............................. 727 Keeping Track of Batteries ................................................. 729 Maintaining Image Quality................................................. 730 Which Type of Photographer are You?.................................... 732 Dealing with JPEG.................................................................... 734 Custom Curves......................................................................... 735 Color Profiles and Color Spaces............................................... 735 Setting Color Spaces and Color Modes in the Camera.................... 740 Setting Color Spaces and Profiles in Your Software ........................ 740 Fine Tuning the Color ..................................................................... 743 Special Lighting Issues ........................................................ 745 UV and Infrared ....................................................................... 745 Ultraviolet ....................................................................................... 746 Infrared ............................................................................................ 747 Shooting Under Fluorescent Lighting....................................... 750 Other Field Shooting Issues................................................ 752 Keeping the Sensor Clean ........................................................ 752 It’s Not Just Static Cling ................................................................... 761 Worst Case Scenario ....................................................................... 762 Temperature Considerations.................................................... 762 Humidity .................................................................................. 763 White Balance Settings............................................................. 763 White Balance Color Temperatures ................................................ 764AFTER YOUVE TAKEN PICTURES WITH YOUR D700................................ 768 THINGS YOU DO AFTER THE SHOT IS TAKEN ............................... 768 THE RETOUCH MENU ................................................................ 769 D-Lighting ........................................................................... 770 Red-eye correction ............................................................. 773 Trim .................................................................................... 775 Monochrome...................................................................... 778 Filter Effects ........................................................................ 780 Color Balance ..................................................................... 783 Image Overlays................................................................... 786 Converting NEFs to JPEG in the Camera ........................... 792 TRANSFERRING YOUR IMAGES TO YOUR COMPUTER.................... 793 Connecting to a Computer................................................. 795 PRINTING YOUR IMAGES ............................................................ 796 Selecting Images to Print .................................................... 798 PictBridge Printing .............................................................. 801Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 19
  • 20. Version 1.00 Printing Resolution ............................................................. 803 Output on Commercial Printers......................................... 807 VIEWING YOUR IMAGES ............................................................. 808 Television Playback ............................................................ 808 Slide Shows ........................................................................ 812D700 ACCESSORIES........................................................................................ 815SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................. 819GETTING SERVICE ........................................................................................... 822QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.......................................................................... 827Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 20
  • 21. Version 1.00Conventions Used in this eBookIn this eBook I occasionally make comparisons between theD700 and previous Nikon models. In general, whenever thiseBook uses the term D1 or D1 series, I’m referring to theentire D1 family (i.e. the D1, D1h, and D1x). The same is trueof the D2 series (D2h, D2hs, D2x, and D2xs). Use of anindividual model name in the text indicates a model-specificfeature or characteristic. In tables, if there are differencesbetween the cameras, I’ve either added columns for eachcamera, or separated the information into model-specifictables.Why am I including some D1 and D2 information in thiseBook? Many readers own multiple DSLRs or have experiencewith previous Nikon models. Moreover, many D700purchasers followed the earlier camera developments butheld off buying one until Nikon came out with a camera thatwas less expensive. The introduction of the D700 was whatthey were waiting for, though the resulting camera is a bitdifferent from the earlier models they learned about. Finally, itis just good form to know how your camera compares againstother Nikon DSLRs.When software products are mentioned, including those thatNikon supplies with the camera, I try to identify the version Iused for this eBook when I introduce the product. I also noteany significant differences between versions that I think youshould be aware of. If I refer to a software programgenerically, as in “use the Unsharp Mask in Photoshop,” thisusually applies to the entire range of Photoshop versions.Specific instructions for software, as in “select RemoveRedeye in the JustDoIt menu,” are for the version current asof the publication of this eBook. Also, you’ll note that I use adifferent font to distinguish menu items or messages thatyou’ll see on the computer or camera screens—this makes iteasier for you to differentiate what I’m writing about fromwhat you should be seeing on your equipment.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 21
  • 22. Version 1.00Instructions that apply to using the camera are marked startingwith a õ. Anywhere you see that symbol, grab your D700and follow along!As I have with all my previous books and eBooks, I use myWeb site (http://www.bythom.com/d700guideerrata.htm) toreport any corrections or clarifications of information orinstructions (you’ll also find some helpful product reviews andgeneral articles). Write me at thom_hogan@msn.com if youhave any questions or comments.-ThomThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 22
  • 23. Version 1.00IntroductionYou’ve purchased a Nikon D700 and are looking for help ingetting the best possible pictures from it. Or perhaps you’reconsidering purchasing a D700 and want to know how itworks and what it is capable of. Welcome. You’ve come tothe right place.First a little background for the newcomers: I’ve been usingNikon cameras most of my life and for the last dozen yearshave spent much of my time creating articles, books, and aWeb site explaining the nuances of these cameras to others—successfully, I think (I hope you’ll agree by the time you finishreading this work).You probably fall into one of three categories: 1. You’ve never used an SLR3 type of camera before. Previously, you probably used either a 35mm or digital point-and-shoot type of camera. Those all- automatic, all-in-one cameras are small and convenient, but tend to be somewhat slower to shoot and limited in control. You probably decided to try a D700 to get away from one of those two traits: you’re hoping that the autofocus is fast and accurate, that there’s no delay between pressing the shutter release and the time the picture is taken, and that you can buy accessories that allow you to take pictures you can’t with your compact camera. I’ll cut to the chase: you’ll be happy with your D7003 SLR stands for Single Lens Reflex. That may not mean a lot to you yet; the key pointis that an SLR uses a mirror relay system (the “reflex” portion of the name) to let yousee exactly what the lens is zoomed and focused on. Yes, there used to be a TLR(Twin Lens Reflex), which is a system where you look through one lens via a mirrorsystem, and a second lens is used for taking the picture. The old Rolleiflex andYashicaMats are examples of a TLR.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 23
  • 24. Version 1.00 (though I’d be remiss if I didn’t point out that something like a D40, D60, D80, or D90 might be all that you need—the D700 goes far beyond the point- and-shoot capability and is more complex than what you may be looking for). But you’ve got a lot to learn, as SLRs tend to be more complex and sometimes require more decisions than do the automatic point and shoots. If you fall in this category, you’ll want to read this entire eBook very carefully—there’s really no section you can skip. You’ll also want to take a look at the separate PDF named DSLRINTRO.PDF supplied on the CD. 2. You’ve used a film SLR before, but are just now switching to a digital SLR (DSLR). You probably picked the D700 because it is one of Nikon’s top DSLRs, yet affordable. Your film SLR worked just fine, but you’re looking for the advantages that digital brings: instant review, no wait for developing and processing, no per-image costs, and convenience for emailing and sharing pictures. You’re probably a little worried about image quality—is a digital SLR like the D700 as good as an F5 or F6 shooting 35mm film? Again good news awaits you: yes, you’ll get all the conveniences you seek and give nothing up in image quality. If you fall into this category, you probably don’t need to read the separate DSLRINTRO PDF, and can just concentrate on this main file. But don’t skip over the “D700 Background” section that starts this eBook: there are some things that those of you who are new to digital need to know.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 24
  • 25. Version 1.00 3. You’ve used a digital SLR before, so the D700 is likely your new primary body and your older DSLR now your backup. You probably picked the D700 because it has been advertised as being as good as the currently top-of-the-line D3 in image quality and with virtually the same set of features, but at a much reduced price. The D700 indeed has impressive image quality with just about every feature you’d care to name, all wrapped in a professional caliber package. Or perhaps you currently have a D100 and decided it was time to upgrade to a new level of equipment (your D100 will become your backup body). Again, you’ll find that you’ve made a good choice (though the D300 might have been a perfectly adequate choice, since it shares many of the D700’s features and nearly equals its quality, at a much lower price). Your primary worry is whether you can get up to speed with your D700 as fast as possible. The good news is that you’ve already got a huge head start on the others, as the D700 doesn’t deviate from Nikon’s previous designs, it only expands on them—thus, you really only need to brush up on the new features and capabilities. If you fall into this category, you can probably skim through the “D700 Background” section (do make sure to pay attention to “The D700 Sensor” and “Camera Setup” chapters, though). You’ll want to read the section labeled “Shooting Pictures with your D700” (see page 234) very carefully, and depending upon your familiarity with Nikon’s software and workflow with Nikon DSLR images, you may want to also review the section labeled “After You’ve Taken Pictures with the D700” (see page 768), and the Introduction to Nikon Software eBook (NIKONSOFT200.PDF on the disc).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 25
  • 26. Version 1.00But don’t worry, it doesn’t matter which category you fit.You’ll find everything you need to know in this eBook (or inthe other materials included on the CD).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 26
  • 27. Version 1.00D700 BackgroundIn this section we’ll look at the D700 specifications, howit differs from previous Nikon DSLRs, and how to set upyour camera.We’ll also look at how the D700 is powered, how imagesare stored, and spend time looking closely at the sensorthat does the primary work.The D700’s HistoryThe Nikon D700 was an unexpected announcement in July2008. While an FX sensor in a smaller DSLR body had beenexpected for some time—Canon had produced one in the 5Dway back in 2005—the timing and specifications of theannouncement took most Nikon followers by surprise.The surprise was that the D700 is essentially a D3 in a smallerbody. Sure, there are some minor changes in specification,most notably the single card slot, a 95% viewfinder, and aslightly lower frame rate, but the bulk of D700 features areidentical to the D3.Actual shipments of the D700 began within three weeks ofthe announcement.The triple digit model numbers (e.g. D700) in the Nikon DSLRlineup are pro models, but not top-of-the-line pro models.Amazingly, the D700 comes remarkably close to the D3,though.Historically, here’s the basic lineage that leads to the D700:Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 27
  • 28. Version 1.00Blue models are film bodies, black and gray are digital. Thick lines are directlineage, thin lines are indirect lineage.I include the film SLRs in that lineage for a reason: The F4pioneered Nikon’s modern pro build, while the F5 pioneeredmany of the technologies—such as the CCD-based matrixmetering system—that distinguish the current models. Thecommon aspects to all the single digit models are a highquality build that stands up to abuse, features that introducenew technology into Nikon’s lineup, all wrapped in a bodywith an integrated vertical grip.As I noted earlier, the D700 announcement was a surprise.Most Nikon followers, including me, had been expecting ahigh resolution full frame sensor pro body to be announcednext. But the D700 is essentially a smaller D3 at a lowerprice. Given that the D3 had been out for only about a halfyear when the D700 suddenly appeared, this was aparticularly aggressive move on Nikon’s part. The D700lopped nearly US$2000 off the D3 price but little else. At theannouncement, it wasn’t clear why Nikon would do this.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 28
  • 29. Version 1.00I should note that the delay between each generation ofNikon’s pro cameras has been longer than that of the amateurcameras. The D1 was introduced in 1999, the D1h/D1x in2001, the D2h in 2003, the D2x in 2004, and then there wereminor tweaks to the D2h and D2x in 2005 and 2006 (theD2hs and D2xs, respectively). Looking at it another way, theD1 generation was launched in 1999, the D2 generation in2003, and the D3 generation in 2007, which represent fouryears of technology development per major iteration.Meanwhile, on the “junior” pro models, the D100 wasannounced in February 2002, the D200 in November 2005,the D300 in August 2007, and the D700 in July 2008. Again,there tends to be a multi-year development cycle, thoughthere seems to be some acceleration of that in recent history(down from three years to something more like two).Let’s recap the digital professional D-model cameras for amoment, which should reveal just how far Nikon has movedthe bar in a short period of time. First the single-digit models: D1 D2 D3Introduced 6/99 (D1) 7/03 (D2h) 8/07 2/01 (D1h/D1x) 9/04 (D2x) 2/05 (D2hs) 6/06 (D2xs)Sensor 2.6mp CCD (D1) 4 mp LBCAST 12.1mp CMOS 2.6mp CCD (D1h) (D2h, D2hs) 5.3mp CCD (D1x) 12.2mp CMOS (D2x, D2xs)Best Bit Depth 12-bit RAW, 8-bit 12-bit RAW, 12- 14-bit RAW, 16-bit ASIC rendering bit ASIC rendering ASIC renderingWrite Speed 2MB/sec, 21 frame 9.6MB/sec, 40 35MB/sec+, 60 buffer (D1) frame buffer (D2h) frame bufferShutter lag 58ms 37ms 41ms (74ms blackout)LCD 2” 130k dots 2.5” 211k to 235k 3” 920k dots dotsShooting Speed 3 to 5 fps 5 to 8 fps 9 fps (11 fps DX)Autofocus CAM1300 (5 CAM2000 (11 CAM3500 (51 sensor) sensor) sensor)Viewfinder 100% view 100% view 100% viewMajor added GPS support, Everything from D2features multiple exposure, plus AF calibration, WT-3 wireless, Active D-lighting, FUNC button Live View, WT-4Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 29
  • 30. Version 1.00Now the triple-digit models: D100 D200 D300 D700Introduced 2/02 12/05 8/07 7/08Sensor 6mp CCD DX 10mp CCD 12.1mp CMOS 12mp CMOS DX DX FXBest Bit 12-bit RAW, 12-bit RAW, 14-bit RAW, 14-bit RAW,Depth 8-bit ASIC 12-bit ASIC 16-bit ASIC 16-bit ASIC rendering rendering rendering renderingWrite Speed 2MB/sec, 6 9.6MB/sec, 37 35MB/sec+, 35MB/sec+, frame buffer frame buffer 60 frame 60 frame buffer bufferShutter lag 100ms 50ms 45ms 41ms (74ms blackout)LCD 1.8” 118k dots 2.5” 230k dots 3” 920k dots 3” 920k dotsShooting 3 fps 5 fps 6 fps (8 fps 5 fps (8 fpsSpeed with grip) with grip)Autofocus CAM900 (5 CAM1000 (11 CAM3500 (51 CAM3500 (51 sensor) sensor) sensor) sensor)Viewfinder 92% view 95% view 100% view 95% viewMajor multiple Everything Everythingadded exposure, WT- from the D200 from the D300features 2 wireless, list plus AF list FUNC button calibration, Active D- lighting, Live View, WT-4, sensor cleaningYes, you’re reading those tables correctly. In eight yearsNikon has quadrupled the resolution, doubled the number ofbits used to record tonal ramp values while rendering JPEGs,improved write speeds by 15x+, octupled the resolution of thecolor LCD and more than doubled its area, doubled or tripledthe continuous shooting speed, increased the number of AFsensors by 10x, and added a host of other features. That’s a lotof improvement.The curious things about the D700 announcement were theinclusion of sensor cleaning (not available in the D3 on whichthe camera is based), the 95% viewfinder (due to the sensorcleaning; more on that later), and the inclusion of a flash (theD700 is the highest specified Nikon DSLR that has had one).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 30
  • 31. Version 1.00These changes from the D3 left many scratching their heads—two are improvements over the D3, one is a step back.Overall, the D700 very closely resembles the D300 in sizeand shape. It even uses the same batteries and chargers, andshares the MB-D10 vertical grip. From a distance, the onlything that easily distinguishes the two from the outside is thelarger prism area on the top of the D700. The 10-pin and PCSync connectors have a slgihtly different cap design, whichyou’ll notice if you look closer. Look even closer and you’llfind a few others small changes: the inclusion of an INFObutton, a different card door design (no interlock), and a realbutton in the center of the Direction pad, for example. Otherthan those small things, externally the D700 and D300 arevery similar.Internally, the D700 is more like the D3, using the samedigital IO board, same sensor, and most of the sameelectronics.Thus, Nikon has cleverly used parts and ideas from both theD3 and the D300 bin.The primary differences between the D700 and the D3amount to these:• Viewfinder. The D3 has a 100% viewfinder, and uses the older pro style to display indicators over the focus screens. The D700 has a 95% viewfinder, and uses the newer consumer style LCD overlays on the focus screens. The slightly reduced viewfinder size apparently has to do with the inclusion of the sensor cleaning mechanism. The mountings for the cleaning mechanism pushed brackets forward of the shutter in a way that restricted how large the mirror could be, according to Nikon. The slightly smaller mirror dictates the 95% view. Meanwhile, the overlay technology provides the D700 with on-demand grid lines the D3 doesn’t have, but it also means that the D3’s bright red autofocus sensor indicators are nowThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 31
  • 32. Version 1.00 rendered in a less visible black and aren’t capable of the instant updating in some autofocus modes that D3 users get. Both changes—viewfinder coverage and display technology—are slight steps backward from the D3.• Body. The D700 is missing the integrated vertical grip and controls of the D3, though you can add these back by purchasing the optional MB-D10. The good news is that this makes the D700 smaller and lighter than the D3 in standard form. Also, when using the MB-D10 grip you have more battery flexibility and potentially more battery life—an EN-EL4a in the grip and an EN-EL3e in the D700 body give you more available watt hours (see “Power” on page 88). The bad news is that the size of the D700 with the MB-D10 mounted is actually larger than a D3, and the combination can be just as heavy. Also, the D3’s incorporation of a built-in grip provides it with room for an extra small LCD and a row of four more buttons for directly controlling things. The D700 has to forgo that and this changes the definitions of the three button cluster on the top left of the camera. Another key change is the CompactFlash storage. First, the D3 has two slots for cards and the D700 has only one. Second, the D3 has a card door interlock that prevents you from accidentally opening the door while shooting while the D700 does not have this feature.• Features. The D700 has a few feature differences from the D3 that should be noted. I’ve already mentioned the built- in sensor cleaning function. But the D700 also has a built- in internal flash, plus a dedicated INFO button and some important changes to how it is used. The information arrangement in the viewfinder is also different. Other feature changes are modest and not particularly worth noting at this point in the eBook.Everything in the imaging chain of the D3 and D700 areidentical, however. So if you need the same high imagequality out of a smaller, lighter body, the D700 is a perfectchoice.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 32
  • 33. Version 1.00Virtually every autofocus lens Nikon has made will work onthe D700, as will most manual focus lenses (with a meteringlimitation you’ll learn about).As the D700 is an FX body, its sensor is the same frame sizeas film, which is what most Nikon lenses were designed for.I’ll have much more to say about this in the section on “LensCompatibility” on page 398. The D700 also supports DXlenses (with the ability to automatically crop the image tomimic the smaller sensor size of a DX body).Nikon has made everything from fisheye (takes in 180degrees) to exotic telephoto, from macro (close up) to tilt andshift lenses (to control perspective). No compact point-and-shoot camera has the lens versatility that SLR cameras do.And few DSLRs have the usable lens choices available tothem that a D700 has, since every lens Nikon has made since1979 is fully compatible with the camera, something thatvirtually no other camera maker can claim.Next, let’s compare the D700 and the D300:• The big difference is the sensor. The D700 uses a larger FX sensor, and that sensor has a number of aspects that give it improved image quality over the D300, mostly at higher ISO values. It also can run at 14-bits while shooting NEFs without losing frame rate, unlike the D300.• The D700 viewfinder is bigger and brighter than the D300’s, the difference due to the larger sensor (frame) size. Likewise the shutter and mirror are bigger to cover the larger sensor area. The D300 has 100% coverage, though, while the D700 has only 95% coverage.• The D700 and D300 are approximately the same speed (5 fps versus 6 fps, both are 8 fps with the optional MB-D10 grip and the appropriate batteries (EN-EL4a or full voltage AA).In short, the D300, D700, and D3 are all very similar camerasin most respects. The D700 indeed slots in between the D300Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 33
  • 34. Version 1.00and D3 in terms of performance and featues, just as it does inprice.I’ve been shooting regularly with all the Nikon DSLRs sincethey came out, so I can safely say the following after using theD700 for even a short period: the D700 is a top notch DSLRthat is a bargain in price when compared to the very similarD3.Is it Better than Film?Some of you reading this may still be pondering whether ornot to make the big switch from 35mm to digital. The thingthat usually holds serious users back is their fear that thereisn’t enough resolution in digital cameras. The argument that35mm film provides more resolution than the D700, whilepotentially true in at least one aspect, is a bit misleading.The largest file a D700 generates contains about 12megapixels. While digital scans from 35mm film can producefar larger files, they don’t necessarily resolve more detail. Forexample, Nikon’s own midrange desktop scanner, theCoolscan 5000, generates files from 35mm film slides with afar higher pixel count and a slightly larger color depth than aD700 shot, but if you were to look at the finest detailrendered by each, you might be surprised to find that theD700 resolves that detail slightly better, and without revealinggrain patterns. That’s especially true at higher ISO values,where film grain becomes quite evident and masks detail.In practice, I don’t see major differences in resolutionbetween film and the D700 showing up in prints, especially atthe sizes most people print. Most of the amateur worldwouldn’t be able to tell the difference between well-producedprints from film or a D700. Even pros will have difficulty atthat task.Still, because the D700 only has 12mp when some competingpro cameras have more, almost everyone who ponderspurchasing a D700 at some point asks the same question: “isThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 34
  • 35. Version 1.00the resolution as good as 35mm film?” Some ask this questionin a slightly different way (e.g. “can I get professional resultswith a D700?”), but the issue is essentially the same: just howgood are the pictures taken with a D700 compared to thosewith a 35mm film camera?As I previously noted, on a pure pixel level 35mm film canstill win. Let’s look at the numbers more closely. The D700generates a maximum of 4288 x 2848 pixel images with 14bits of data per color channel. The Nikon Coolscan 5000,generates 5782 x 3762 pixel images with 16 bits of color dataper channel from a full 35mm film frame (expensive drumscanners generate even larger files). Thus, one would betempted to say that the D700 is, at best, slightly better thanhalf as good as 35mm film on a middle-of-the-line desktopscanner (12 megapixels versus 21 megapixels, with onlyseven-eighths the color information at any point). But thatwouldn’t be completely accurate4. I’ve looked at a lot ofCoolscan film scans and D700 images, and I have to say thatI’ll take the D700 images almost every time. If nothing else,they’re simply easier to work with. Also, acuity up to thebreaking point of the digital image is simply better.Let’s try another way of looking at the issue. Most pros tend tobelieve that the very best film can be scanned at up to about4000 dpi. Anything less than 3000 dpi leaves a small bit ofdetail behind; anything above that (e.g. 5000 dpi) doesn’tresolve any additional detail. The long axis of the D700’ssensing area is about and inch-and-a-half and it resolves 4288points in that distance. In other words, the D700 is working atsomewhere around 3000 dpi at the sensor, or almost the samevalue you could get from film in that same area scanned on agood desktop scanner.4 There’s also a school of thought—which I subscribe to—that believes that lack of“noise” in an image is more important than additional resolution. Our eyes andbrains are very sensitive to “detail,” but false detail (noise) can be very distracting. Todemonstrate this in action, one only has to compare an enlargement from a scan of agrainy film to one from a low-noise digital camera.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 35
  • 36. Version 1.00Still, the cleanliness of the digital detail versus the grain in thefilm detail makes things about a draw as far as I’m concerned.I’ve heard people describe the D700’s resolution as equal thatof film, perceptually, and I’d tend to agree it’s at least thatgood, probably better.Unfortunately, it’s not quite so simple to just state a resolution“number” like I just did earlier. Digital cameras do well up toa point, and then they “break down” in terms of resolvingobjects. If you photograph a black and white test chart (seeexample, below), you’ll find that the digital camera simplydoes far better than the film camera up to the point wheredigital sampling artifacts get in the way. In other words,there’s a difference between what happens when detail goesbeyond the resolving power of an analog device (film) and adigital one (a DSLR such as the D700).On such test charts, the digital camera generally has highercontrast and clarity up to the point where the pattern becomesclose to or slightly less than the sampling frequency. Notehow the big, diagonal lines above the “10” (top row) in theabove example are resolved well but as we get to smaller andsmaller versions (to the left) the lines start getting “beatfrequencies,” or false line reflections (very obvious in thediagonals above the “5” and “6”). (See also the exampleshown in “Sharpening,” on page 443).The anti-aliasing and Bayer filters digital cameras need (see“The D700 Sensor” on page 48), unfortunately, complicatecalculating exactly where the real resolution versus falseresolution changeover occurs. As you can see, once theThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 36
  • 37. Version 1.00samples are too small, it might look like detail is beingrecorded, but this is false detail—mostly artifacts5 that mimicdetail. Film, being purely analog in nature, has no suchproblems. At some point grain effects become visible andcompete with detail, but essentially film doesn’t have thesame kind of “break point” as does digital. Of course, if youscan the film digitally, all bets are off!We also have print technology to contend with. Most digitalcolor print technologies max out at slightly more than 300 dpi(dots per inch). Inkjet printers often only need about 240 dpi;even the top print technologies generally don’t benefit bygoing beyond 360 dpi). At 300 dpi, a D700 file generates aprint size approximately 9.5 x 14” (ISO A4). The re-samplingtechniques used in Photoshop (or used with a program suchas Genuine Fractals) can easily generate images twice theoriginal dimensions with invisible artifacts (essentiallyunnoticeable at viewing distances), so clean, detailed 19” x28” prints are easily obtainable using D700. That, by the way,is larger than the consumer Epson photo printers (R1800,R2200, R2400, R2880) can produce (they max out at 13” x19”).Note: Those of you who own an Epson or other inkjet printer probably read that last paragraph and said, “but wait, my inkjet says it prints at 1440 (or 2880) dpi.” A close reading of the Epson literature, however, shows that their printers don’t necessarily place that many dots every inch, but instead use a spray adjustment technique to simulate that resolution (the size of the dot is varied). When moving the paper the Epson technologies typically max out at increments of 1/720 of an inch. The practical physical resolution you need to give the Epson inkjets is about 288 dpi; beyond that and the actual gains are subtle and often5 Artifact, used in this context, means an unwanted visual side effect. Digital imagingis full of artifact-producing technologies—the analog-to-digital conversion,sharpening, noise, and JPEG compression, for example—but for the most part theseartifacts are extremely small and subtle and don’t impact image quality in ways thatmost people can see. Certainly you can’t see these artifacts by casual, arm’s lengthobservation.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 37
  • 38. Version 1.00 not at all visible. Other maker’s printers are similar. While it’s a bit out of the scope of this book, there is a reason why printers use higher dpi settings during printing. Note that you can present the printer with a 288 dpi image and still have it print at 1440 dpi—the printer driver does a very good job of creating the additional information, and with high quality papers you can usually see a small difference if you look closely. We’ll talk more about printing in the last section of this book.So, the question really should be addressed in a different way:how do you intend to use your images? If the answer is thatyou’re going to print them on an inkjet printer, virtually anydifference you see between a D700-generated image and ascanned 35mm film image is going to be subjective, notobjective. Most photographers I know say the D700 image isactually better, as the sampling artifacts of the camera’s sensorare less objectionable than those from desktop scanners, andthat’s especially true at higher ISO values, where the D700’sgraceful noise handling trumps film’s grain buildup. TheD700 image also tends to have less noise6 in the red and bluechannels than most low-cost desktop scanners and of courseresolves no grain; it just looks better, especially if you’recomparing ISO 800 from a D700 with ISO 800 film from afilm camera.In short, if you want the very best available resolution,consider going to a medium format camera (and paying theprice of doing so). As far as 35mm film versus digital goes, therace favors digital for moderate print sizes, due to the lack offilm processing and scanning costs. And yes, I’ve put mypocket book where my mouth is: with the introduction of theNikon D1x in mid-2001 I stopped using most of my film-6 I’ll detail what noise is and how it gets generated in the section entitled “Noise” onpage 75. Until then, think of noise as inaccurate detail.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 38
  • 39. Version 1.00based cameras and now shoot nearly all digital. I normallyuse a D700 or D300 in my shooting as I write this7.Debunking Some MythsIf you haven’t already purchased and started using a D700,you’ve probably been perplexed over some of the contentiousand sharply worded posts on some Internet forumsconcerning several D700 traits, or the rumors that seem tofloat through some photo shops. Indeed, you may havepurchased this book in an attempt to determine which claimsare true and which aren’t. Here’s my quick take (some ofthese things are revisited in detail later in the book):• It’s only 12mp. For some time Nikon has been lambasted by a group I call the “counters.” They count megapixels, compare the numbers, and declare a winner. Generally, quality of the megapixels never enters into their consideration; more is simply better. That’s not been Nikon’s philosophy. And many of us felt that the 12mp D2x produced images that held up well against the 16mp Canon 1DsII. The simple fact is that it takes quite a few additional megapixels to “double” resolution. To double the D700’s resolution, for example, you’d need ~50mp (8576x5764). And there’s a balance between megapixel count and quality of the underlying pixels. Higher megapixel counts (all else equal) produce noisier images and have more problems with other issues, such as diffraction, than do lower megapixel counts. The real trick is to get the balance right: adequate count and high quality. Bottom line: the D700 has adequate count and high quality. Enough said.7 Yes, those of you who read my Complete Guide to the D3 will have noted thedifference. The D700 has replaced the D3 in my bag. That’s mainly because theimage quality is the same but I need smaller and lighter bodies more than I need theextra card slot and frame rates that the D3 provides.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 39
  • 40. Version 1.00• The 95% viewfinder is a huge disappointment. I like a 100% viewfinder more than a 95% one, too. But I fail to see what all the complaints are about. If you need completely accurate framing there’s always Live View. While that won’t work for casual, impromptu shooters, such photographers generally aren’t the ones that want or need a 100% viewfinder in the first place. Bottom line: it’s not a deal breaker.• The Canon name a model is better. Nikon and Canon have both been producing interesting and quality products. As I write this, the Canon 1DIII provides slightly fewer megapixels than the D700 at a slightly higher price, the Canon 1DsIII provides not quite double the pixel count at a higher price, and the Canon 5DII provides not quite double the number of pixels at about the same price. I’ve used all of these cameras and would be happy with any of them; my personal choice would be the Nikon D700, with any of the Canon’s a close second (each for different reasons). In particular, the D700’s flash system is more reliable and I find its autofocus system more flexible. The high ISO results on the D700 seem more natural to me (and the D700 clearly does better than the 1DsIII). Most people find the Nikon user interface more approachable and direct. That’s not to bash the Canons— they are perfectly fine cameras in their own right. In most well trained users’ hands, though, neither a Nikon nor Canon DSLR is going to be “better.” The further we get into the digital age, the less tangible difference I see between the products of either company, at least when it comes to image quality. Sure, there are some small differences. The D700 tends to produce less chroma noise than the Canon models when noise is produced, the Canons tend to block up colors slightly at higher ISO values, while the D700 uses a noise suppression technique that produces small artifacts in absolute black that make it slightly less useful forThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 40
  • 41. Version 1.00 astrophotography. Bottom line: The visual differences aren’t strong enough to suggest one brand over another. My suggestion is to try both brands and go with the one you like better from a handling standpoint.Remarkably, there hasn’t been a lot of D700-bashing sincephotographers have started using them. Indeed, just theopposite: a lot of Canon pros who’ve sampled the D3 andD700 report liking the Nikons just fine. A small number haveeven switched brands because of things they liked about the12mp Nikon sensor’s imaging quality. The fact that therehaven’t been a lot of tangible complaints about the D700, butrather a lot of positive gushing, shows just how good aproduct Nikon created this generation. It’s good. Real good.Certainly if I were told I could only use a D700 for the nexttwo years, I wouldn’t have any complaints. Handled properly,the D700 can produce quite stunning images. Don’t believeme? Well, take a look at the image on the next page.On the other hand, there’s a lot to learn to master the D700and get stunning images. That’s why an eBook like this one isso important: I’ll deal with the abilities of a D700 in apractical and no nonsense manner, hopefully explainingalong the way why “digital” does not equate to “perfect” andhow you can use the D700 to consistently produce highquality images regardless of any of its minor imperfections.No such thing as a perfect DSLR exists—but you can perfectthe way you use your DSLR.The bottom line is that the D700 is one of Nikon’s mostcapable cameras ever, and with the right settings, producesstate-of-the-art digital images. My goal in this eBook is to helpyou do just that.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 41
  • 42. Version 1.00D700 NEF converted with Adobe ACR; f/13 at ISO 800; Tamron 28-300mm lens at 92mm handheld. Other than a bit of highlight recovery, I’veleft everything at the defaults during the conversion for a reason: we’re atISO 800 yet there’s still plenty of dynamic range to capture a contrastyscene, there’s no visible noise even at actual pixel view, and even aconsumer lens is resolving small detail a quarter of a mile away or more.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 42
  • 43. Version 1.00D700 BasicsIn this section we’ll look at the controls of the camera,how it is powered, how images are stored, and theimportant things you’ll need to set up before you first useyour D700.D700 DesignThe D700 design derives directly from the D3 and D300models that preceded it. Most of the differences between theD3 and D700 are external, most of the differences betweenthe D300 and D700 are internal.Essentially, the D700 has the digital heart of a D3. This meansthe latest autofocus system, a state-of-the-art card writemechanism, and a metering system has been tricked out inways not seen before the D3 appeared. Externally the D700body design is essentially that of the D300; the size, powersource, controls and menu system are basically the same. Theone external difference between a D300 and D700 comes inthe prism area, where the larger sensor size of the D700dictates a larger prism than the D300.From the front, the primary differences between the D700 (left) and D300(right) are the covers for the 10-pin and PC sync sockets (upper right) andthe bigger prism to cover the larger sensor area. Still, these cameras couldbe twins.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 43
  • 44. Version 1.00From the front, the D700 (left, mounted on MB-D10) and D3 (left) are alsohighly similar. The integrated vertical grip of the D3 makes it somewhattrimmer. Surprisingly, the addition of the integrated flash doesn’t really showup as a visible physical difference, though the white Autofocus Assist lampon the D700 is one clear giveaway that a flash is present.The D700 uses the same mount for interchangeable lensesthat Nikon has used since the first F-series camera, introducedback in 19598. While Nikon has made subtle improvementsto the mount to support electronic exposure calculations,autofocus, and vibration reduction, the physical attributeshave remained virtually unchanged. This allows D700 ownersto use virtually any manual focus or autofocus lens Nikon hasmade (for a list of the very few that can’t be used, see “LensCompatibility” on page 398).Another carryover: the D700 body can matrix meter witholder, non-CPU manual focus Nikkor lenses; note that youhave to manually set maximum aperture and focal length inorder to allow matrix metering on a D700 (see “Lenses andFocusing,” on page 391).The D700 features the “button and command dial” interfacefor most major controls that was first seen on the N8008 andF-801 in 1988. The D700 uses the version of the exposuresystem first found on the F5 and D1 series and refined in the8 Note that lenses made from 1959 through 1979 are generally pre-AI and won’twork without modification on a D700.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 44
  • 45. Version 1.00D2 series and pushed to new capabilities with the D3. TheD700’s exposure system is shared with the D300 and D3 andrecognizes both scenes and subjects (it is also connected tothe autofocus system). Speaking of the autofocus system andsharing: the D700 includes the state-of-the-art CAM3500FX9focusing module and all the new focusing capabilities that gowith it.The D700 has a similar viewfinder design as the D300, usingLCD overlays for what appears in the image area. The DXcrop is thus handled differently than it is with the D3: insteadof graying out the out-of-frame areas, the D700 uses lineoverlays to show the DX frame area. Like the D300, theD700’s manual metering bar is below the viewing area, noton the right side as it is in the D3.From the back, the D700 (left) and D300 (right) are still very similar, withthe larger prism and round eyepiece being the most noticeable difference.There’s now a dedicated INFO button, and the Direction pad has a centerbutton.9 While Nikon has given different names to focus module for the D3/D700 versus theD300, the part that does the actual focus detection appears to be the same. It’s in thesupport circuitry that there are differences (the D700 is faster at getting andintegrating information from the autofocus sensors than the D300).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 45
  • 46. Version 1.00From the back, the D700 (left, shown with optional MB-D10 grip) and D3(right) are more noticeably different. The larger size of the D3 providesroom for an extra informational LCD and four buttons that the D700 doesn’thave, even with the grip installed.In short, the D700 will be remarkably familiar to D300 users,and still quite recognizable to D3 (or D2 series) users.If you’re coming from one of the consumer Nikon DSLRs,especially older ones such as the D70, you’re in for a lot ofsurprises; the D700 is a huge step up from those cameras;almost everything is better designed and deeper in functionthan you’re used to.Indeed, if you’re coming from any Nikon DSLR previous tothe D3 or D300, you’ve got a lot of learning to do. Let mebreak it down into two groups.If you’re coming from a D200 or D2 series camera:• Learn the new autofocus system. The D700 has Nikon’s most capable autofocus system yet. But it has a great deal of complexity to it, and there are a lot of things that you need to learn to maximize your use of it.• Be prepared to find matrix metering differences. The D700 integrates even more data than before, and it has a tendency to “just do the right thing.” You’ll find that you’re using exposure compensation less often. But it’s not perfect, so you have to learn what things still fool it.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 46
  • 47. Version 1.00• Get new cards. If you don’t already have UDMA-enabled CompactFlash cards, you should get some. Otherwise you won’t get the full benefit of the D700’s speed.• Look for the small differences. Picture Controls take over for Image optimization. A few Custom Settings are changed or have different options. Note the new raw storage options.• Test the image quality. You’ve got a lot of image quality options to deal with. But in particular you want to find a Picture Control that works for you (if you’re a JPEG/TIFF shooter), and find the ISO values that are usable for your form of work (which also requires you investigate the noise reduction settings).If you’re coming from a D40, D40x, D50, D60, D70, D70s,D80, D100, or any of the D1 series bodies:• Be prepared to be overwhelmed. The D700 is a highly complex camera and has far more options than these camera bodies; the D700 even has a much deeper feature set than the D1 series. You’ve got a lot of options to learn about (which is probably why you purchased this eBook).• Learn the new autofocus system. The D700 has Nikon’s most capable autofocus system yet. But it has a great deal of complexity to it, and there are a lot of things that you need to learn to maximize your use of it. If you’re coming from the old CAM900 and CAM1300 systems, the D700’s autofocus system will seem quite foreign to you.• Be prepared to find matrix metering differences. The D700 integrates far more data than any of these older cameras, and it has a tendency to “just do the right thing.” You’ll find that you’re using exposure compensation less often and differently than before. Flash exposures will also be different for you, especially those coming from the older bodies.• Get new cards. If you don’t already have UDMA-enabled CompactFlash cards, you should get some. Otherwise you won’t get the full benefit of the D700’s speed.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 47
  • 48. Version 1.00• Check your batteries and accessories. The D700 can only use the EN-EL3e batteries (and EN-EL4, EN-EL4a, and AA batteries if you have the optional MB-D10 vertical grip). Only a few of the cameras in this group of upgraders have batteries that will work with the D700—the early EN-EL3 and EN-EL3a versions of the battery will not work in the D700. So it’s likely you’ll need to get some new batteries. Likewise, the D700 uses the 10-pin connector for remote releases, while most earlier consumer Nikon DSLRs used IR or special cable releases.• Be prepared to learn new software. Nikon View, Nikon PictureProject, and Nikon Capture are all gone, replaced by Nikon ViewNX and Nikon Capture NX2, both of which work differently than the previous versions.But don’t worry too much. This eBook is going to step youthrough every aspect of the D700 (and the software will beaddressed in the companion eBook you received on the CD).The D700 SensorThe key element of any digital camera is the image collectiondevice, called a sensor. In the case of the D700, that is aproprietary Nikon-designed CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensor. This continues Nikon’s trend inusing unique sensors in their pro models, whether slightlyaltered from a Sony original (D1, D1h/D1x) or Nikon-designed and proprietary (D2h, D2x).The big change for Nikon is that the D700’s sensor is thesame size as the old 35mm film frame (24x36mm), whichNikon now calls FX. The smaller sized sensors used inprevious Nikon bodies are called DX (~16x24mm).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 48
  • 49. Version 1.00 Sensor sizes are drawn to scale. Note the right-hand diagram, where I’ve rotated a DX sensor and overlaid it on an FX sensor. Yes, the DX sensor is slightly less than half the area of an FX sensor.Sensors all work in basically the same way: they have anarray of photosites that collect, store, and manage the lighthitting a sensor. A D700 has a rectangular grid of 4288x2848photosites that are exposed to light (it actually has morephotosites than that; we’ll discuss the others when we get tothe sections on demosaicing and noise).Within an individual photosite there is a light collection areacalled the photodiode, which is where light photons arecollected and converted into electrons. These electrons arethen stored in a “well” temporarily (while additional electronsare also collected during the exposure). When the exposure iscomplete and the sensor is no longer exposed to light, theelectrons in the well are then transferred off the sensor andinto the camera’s main digital circuitry. In this process theyare counted (the analog number of electrons is converted intoa digital value).Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 49
  • 50. Version 1.00The CMOS, CCD, and LBCAST10 terminology used to describevarious sensor technologies refers primarily to the transistortype in the sensor and defines the underlying electronicsmethodology used to perform the collection, conversion, andtransfer of light data. The actual process (collect photons,convert to electrons, store the electrons, move the electrons toa counting mechanism) is the same amongst the varioussensor types, though.CMOS is likely the long-term winner in the sensor wars.While it is more difficult to design (especially for high speedtransfers, as are used in the Nikon D2 series, D300, D3, andD700), the manufacturing costs are much lower. You can alsodesign more electronics into the sensor itself. But CMOS hasthe problem of being inherently more problematic in severaltypes of noise than is CCD technology, all else being equal(see “Noise,” on page 75). CMOS is also somewhat moredifficult to engineer, since it allows photosite-level electronicsand the external circuitry addresses each photositeindividually. Still, many of the advantages that the matureCCD technology has had in the past have eroded as more andmore research has been put into advancing the CMOStechnology, and engineering CMOS sensors is nowcommonplace at sensor design shops.Nikon curiously hasn’t said much about the CMOS sensorused in the D700 other than to say that they designed it. I(and others) suspect part of that suspense is that there is likelya lot of cross licensing of technologies underlying the sensor’sdesign, and Nikon is reluctant to share that informationpublicly, probably for competitive reasons. Of the Japanesesensor design shops, Nikon’s appears to be the most open interms of looking for and using the “best solution” approach(as opposed to “only invented here”). Some of that may come10 The Nikon-designed sensor used in the D2h and D2hs. LBCAST stands for LateralBuried Charge Accumulator and Sensing Transistor, a technology unique to Nikonsensors. LBCAST is a relative of CMOS—the primary difference being that LBCASTuses a different type of transistor.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 50
  • 51. Version 1.00from the intertwined relationships Nikon has with others:Nikon’s Precision division makes the semiconductorequipment that many sensor manufacturers use to createsensors.What Nikon has said about the D700 sensor is that one majorchange they made is in the microlens design. We’ll get to thatin a bit. The two primary lines Nikon has used in talkingabout the new sensor are: “is a CMOS sensor developed byNikon” and “adoption of an element structure that improveslight-utilization efficiency.” The D700’s sensor (the greenish blue area surrounded by the black metal frame; that frame is holding the low- pass filter that sits on top of the sensor). Any dust or dirt that gets into the mirror box (behind the lens) seems to ultimately work its way and attach itself to the low-pass filter. See “Keeping the Sensor Clean” on page 752.Many newcomers to digital photography are confused by thepublished information about imaging sensors. Here are thekey specifications for the D700 and other recent Nikon DSLRmodels:Sensor Specifications (Size)Camera Size “ Size mm Photosite SizeD70/D70s .93 x .61 23.7 x 15.6mm 7.8 micronsD100 .93 x .61 23.7 x 15.6mm 7.8 micronsD200 .93 x .62 23.6 x 15.8mm 6.05 micronsD300 .93 x .61 23.7 x 15.6mm 5.49 micronsD2h/D2hs .93 x .61 23.7 x 15.6mm 9.4 micronsD2x/D2xs .93 x .62 23.7 x 15.7mm 5.49 micronsD3/D700 1.42 x .94 36 x 23.9mm 8.46 micronsPhotosite size is more important than it first looks, because the criticalissue is the square of the size. Thus, the D700 has 72 square micronscompared to the D300 at 30 square microns, or less than half thearea.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 51
  • 52. Version 1.00Nikon now refers to all the ~24x16mm sensors they use asDX (and in Japan you’ll sometimes see them referred to asAPS-DX11). The D3/D700 sensor (and future 36x24mmsensors) is referred to as FX. The primary thing to note is thatthe photosite size of the D3/D700 sensor is significantly largerthan that of the other 12mp cameras Nikon has made (D300,D2x, D2xs). All else equal, a larger photosite size means morepotential dynamic range and less noise due to the superiorlight collection area.Sensor Specifications (Pixels)Camera Active Pixels Bit DepthD70/D70s 3008 x 2000 12 bits (but compressed)D100 3008 x 2000 12 bitsD200 3872 x 2592 12 bitsD300 4288 x 2848 14 bits12D2h/D2hs 2464 x 1632 12 bitsD2x/D2xs 4228 x 2848 12 bits13D3/D700 4256 x 2832 14 bitsNote: Nikon’s pixel dimensions are always for the active imaging area of the sensor. Moreover, Nikon has sometimes chosen a slightly different active area than the sensor manufacturer suggests (3008 x 2000 instead of 3000 x 2000 for the D100, for example). But the active imaging area may be slightly less than the number of “effective pixels.” You’ll note, for example, that Nikon claims the D700 has 12.7 million total pixels, but the image only ends up with about 12.1 million. That’s because some of those extra pixels at the edges are masked off and used for noise management and other purposes.Obviously, not all sensors are built to the same specifications,so what are the key differences, and what do they mean?11 Canon uses an ever so slightly smaller sensor size called APS-C, as well as a somewhat larger one called APS-H.12 Nikon uses 16-bit processing for the full 14-bit image data for JPEG and TIFFprocessing on the D3 and D300.13 Nikon uses 12-bit processing for JPEG data on the D2x, D2xs, and D200.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 52
  • 53. Version 1.00First, note that the physical size of the D700’s sensor isimmensely larger than that of the all-in-one consumer digitalcameras, such as the Coolpix models, which use sensorsmuch smaller (typically 4 x 5.4mm or 5.4 x 7.2mm, whichworks out to a twentieth the area of the D700 sensor in thebest case). Likewise, the individual areas used to capture lightand generate pixel data—called photosites—are much, muchlarger for FX sensor cameras than for the Coolpix models (thearea is approximately 72 square microns on the D700compared to the best case Coolpix, the no-longer madeCoolpix 5000 at about 12 square microns). Note that theD700’s photosites are significantly bigger in area than those ofall previous Nikon DSLRs other than the D2h, as well.Photosite size is directly related to the ability to record a wideand accurate tonal range and inversely related to the amountof noise in the image data. Note that the D700’s performancein almost every respect is even better than that of the D2h,which has larger photosites. That just goes to show how fasttechnology has changed in the sensor world14.Sensor FiltrationThe D700 uses a Bayer-pattern filter over the photosites,named for the Kodak engineer who originated the method,Dr. Bryce Bayer. Each individual photosite has a colored filterover it so that the underlying photosite is responsive to aparticular range of color:14 You might wonder if the pace will continue as quickly in the future. Perhaps, butother issues will start to make such advances less important. For example, the D3’ssensor is good enough to clearly show the differences between poor and good lenses.We’ll likely get software that addresses physical lens defects if sensors continue todownsize (increasing the photosite per millimeter ratio). I personally don’t expect thepace of sensor innovation to go down in the coming decade versus that of the last.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 53
  • 54. Version 1.00Adjacent photosites have different colored filters over them,which produces an alternating array of colored filters. Here’sa close view of a small portion:Basically, odd-numbered pixel rows alternate filters toproduce red and green values, while even-numbered pixelrows alternate filters to produce green and blue. It’s veryimportant for D700 users to understand what this patterndoes, and the consequences it produces in images.Many first-time digital users wonder why the green filter isused for twice as many photosites as the blue and red filters.One reason is that photodiodes, like our eyes, are mostreceptive to light wavelengths in the 500 to 600 nanometerrange (i.e. green). Likewise, green light waves are in betweenthe red and blue positions in the spectrum, and are found tosome degree in most visible colors. Duplicating the greenThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 54
  • 55. Version 1.00value gives the camera a better chance at discriminatingbetween small differences in color and the amount of light(luminance) in a scene. (Photosites are least responsive toblue wavelengths [~400-500 nm], which produce otherproblems we’ll discuss later.)If you’re saving images in NEF format (see “NEF format” onpage 153), the camera simply saves the values it recordedat each photosite into a file (along with some additionalcamera data). Note that this is not color data, but simply acount of the photons converted to electrons collected at eachphotosite during the exposure. (Remember, there’s a colorfilter above each photosite that only allows a limited set ofwavelengths—colors of light—to pass through.) Software onyour computer (Nikon Capture NX2 or one of the many third-party RAW file converters that are available) is then used tointerpret the photosite information to produce the actual RGBvalues of your visible image.If you’re saving images in JPEG format (see “JPEG” on page133), the camera must first process the photosite data intoimage data. It does this by a process called interpolation15.Interpolation looks at a block of photosite data and “guesses”the actual RGB values for any given photosite location(remember, at any given photosite, the camera only sees Red,Green, or Blue data, not all three; interpolation produces themissing two data elements).Most interpolation routines examine a 5x5 or larger block ofadjacent data to determine the actual RGB pixel value for anygiven location. This is one reason for the difference in numberbetween the “effective megapixels” and actual megapixelcount in an image that is produced: extra photosites along theedges of the sensor array (white in the following illustration)15 Technically, the actual name given to routines that convert Bayer pattern data intoRGB pixel data is demosaicing. (The data is a mosaic of color information, and thatmosaic must be reinterpreted into image data, thus the routine is called de-mosaic-ing.) Interpolation is a more general name given to any conversion that involvescreating new data from partial or smaller datasets.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 55
  • 56. Version 1.00are there solely to provide data for the interpolation routine tolook at in order to calculate the pixels that end up at the edgeof your image (gray in following illustration):Interpolation has several serious consequences:• Green data is the most accurate. Because the Bayer pattern repeats green, the camera has more data from which to make its guess. It also helps that the photodiodes in the sensor are most sensitive to the green bandwidth. Moreover, subtle differences in green values actually make for larger perceived differences in colors, especially skin tones (yes, there’s some green value in skin colors).• Red and Blue data generate the most “noise.” Since both the red and blue photosites aren’t repeated in the Bayer pattern, there are fewer of those color data points from which to predict each pixel’s value. Worse still, when the light hitting a red or blue photosite is low, noise becomes a significant possibility in the photosite’s value (see “Noise,” below). For example, you’ll sometimes see noise in the red channel of a blue sky, or noise in the blue channel for a skin tone. Since the blue photosites are not very sensitive to light, indoor lighting can be a real problem for a sensor, as very small amounts of blue wavelength light is produced by incandescent lighting, and the lighting indoors tends to be dim to start with. That said, overall the red channel on the D700 tends to be theThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 56
  • 57. Version 1.00 noisiest (at least until the camera’s noise reduction circuitry comes into play).• Red to Black and Blue to Black transitions compromise detail. Black is defined as the absence of light in all three channels (R, G, and B). Thus, when you have a pure red area adjacent to a pure black area, the Bayer pattern gets in the way (no value is being reported by the G and B photosites, thus only one in four photosites is providing useful information that can be translated into image detail). Red to Blue transitions can also exhibit a similar problem, though usually not as visually intrusive as the Red to Black or Blue to Black ones. Shooting a scene with only red and black renders three quarters of the photosites inactive, as only the red photosites are providing measurable light values. Compare this matrix to the previous one and you’ll see that the effective resolution has decreased (I’ve made the patterns the same size).• Moiré patterns may appear. When the frequency of image detail changes at or near the pitch of the photosites (imagine a photo of the screen on a door where the line intersections of the screen hit almost, but not exactly on the photosites), an artifact of interpolation is often a colored pattern called moiré.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 57
  • 58. Version 1.00 Moiré shows up as added “detail” not in the original, usually with a color pattern to it. In this example I’ve exaggerated the contrast and color so that you can see wavy patterns that weren’t in the screen being photographed (the original screen is silver with a tight diagonal weave in a regular pattern—those curvy lines and color changes don’t appear in the screen’s pattern). You get moiré most often from things like screen doors, tightly woven fabrics, and any other object that has a small, repeating, regular pattern of detail.Before we leave the sensor filtration topic, we need to discusshow information gets to and from the sensor, since it can alsoinfluence the image results.I’ve mentioned the photodiode already, the part of thephotosite that is exposed to light and makes the conversion oflight photons to electrons. What I didn’t mention is thatphotodiodes are sensitive to the angle at which light hitsthem. The general rule of thumb has been that light must hitwithin 15° of perpendicular for it to be accurately captured bythe photodiode. Light hitting at more oblique angles producesless photon-to-electron conversion, which falls into a generalcategory of sensor design issues called “shading.” Wephotographers see a similar effect as vignetting in the cornersof our images.In order to “align” the light more properly with the sensor, amicrolens is placed over each photosite. The microlens hasthe task of trying to make the light hit the photodiode at amore perpendicular angle, thus reducing shading effects.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 58
  • 59. Version 1.00Like the Bayer filtration, the microlenses are part of the sensoritself and manufactured at the same time as the sensor.Indeed, microlenses aren’t so much a lens as you wouldnormally envision it, as they are a coating that produces lens-like visual impact (re-focuses light). Imagine a coating thatproduces evenly formed “bubbles” that mimic lens elementsand you won’t be far off.We don’t want light hitting the photosite from oblique angles,because it might not get into the photosite’s photodiode (thegray section in the above illustration). So the microlens isdesigned to take light hitting at all angles and redirect itstraight down into the photosite well.One difference on the D700 sensor is that it has a gaplessmicrolens over each photosite. This approach has the impactof making all the light hit the photo diode, and is a key part tothe D700’s low light capabilities. All light gets redirected by the microlens layer so that it is very perpendicular to the photo diodes.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 59
  • 60. Version 1.00Nikon has done two things to make light hit moreperpendicular to the sensor’s photodiodes for the D700:• Microlenses—As already described, this lens-like layer added to the sensor redirects light hitting the sensor from angles and reorients it more towards perpendicular. The gapless microlens design does a better job of this than earlier microlens designs.• New lens designs—Even prior to introducing the D1, Nikon appears to have begun designing wide angle lenses with a modified rear element design (the first was the 17­ 35mm f/2.8 Nikkor). Essentially, all Nikkor wide angle lenses introduced in the digital era are designed with rear elements that don’t try to make a final dramatic “bend” in the optical path, thus light is already coming to the sensor area in a more perpendicular direction than it would be in older wide-angle lens designs.On top of the D700’s sensor sits a separate “low-pass” filter,sometimes called an anti-aliasing (or AA) filter16. The low-passportion of the filter is used to prevent (as much as ispossible17) color aliasing artifacts (like moiré). However, thelow pass filter used on the D700 isn’t an overly aggressiveone—D700 images show modest anti-aliasing. The D1 series,D100, and D200 had relatively high anti-aliasing appliedcompared to the D70 and D2h. The D300 and D2x aresomewhere in between, with the D700 being slightly moretowards the D70 and D2h side.Here’s a crop from an unmodified D700, with the cameraplaced at a distance so that it would just start to show moireon the 1 line per mm target (lower left).16 Nikon’s penchant for jargoning-up the terminology and then abbreviating it leadsthem to call it an OLPF (optical low pass filter) in some of their literature.17 From a designer’s viewpoint, the engineers must balance the intensity of the anti-aliasing filter with the destruction of resolution. The stronger the anti-aliasing effect,the more the acuity of small detail suffers. Likewise, the less strong the anti-aliasingeffect, the easier it is to trigger unwanted moiré. Personally, I’d rather have theadditional detail and deal with the moiré than vice versa, but some users hate moirébecause it requires strong post-processing skills to remove.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 60
  • 61. Version 1.00And here’s the same thing after removing the low-pass filterand replacing it with plain glass (with an infrared blockingcoat):Note a couple of things. First, the random information (that’sweathered paint on my neighbor’s garage door) appears toreveal a bit more information, almost as if it were “sharpened”slightly (both images are unsharpened). But note the color haschanged (the automatic white balance is finding some low-level color information it didn’t before) and we now have allsorts of strange random color in the test target. If you wereThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 61
  • 62. Version 1.00able to examine the full image carefully, you’d also find thatthe modified camera also shows some evidence ofstairstepping on diagonal lines. And should you make thismodification on your D700, you’d have to live without theautomatic sensor cleaning. Living with or without an anti-aliasing filter has its drawbacks.Nikon has chosen slightly more conservatively than I wouldhave, but it also makes it difficult to produce trulyobjectionable results. I had to do some calculations to find thepoint at which I could trigger moire. I’m over 50 feet awayfrom a credit-card sized test target with 1 line per mm!Moreover, the low-pass (anti-aliasing) component of the D700is a two-parter. In the filter is a top layer that separates outhorizontal detail components, and just before light gets to thesensor is the layer that separates out the vertical components.This separation reduces the production of moiré.The actual material used in most anti-aliasing filters is lithiumniobate, which has a crystalline structure. Lithium niobate is amaterial that’s not quite as hard as the best glasses, butdefinitely harder than most optical plastics (resins). You’llappreciate that when it comes time to physically clean thesensor, because you’re not actually cleaning the sensor itself,but the anti-aliasing filter that sits just above it.Embedded in the anti-aliasing filter is another component: UVand IR light blocking. Photodiodes have sensitivity to lightoutside the human visual range. This is particularly an issue inwhat is known as the near-IR spectrum. We can’t see thatlight with our eyes, but it if is allowed to be added to the redcomponent of a pixel, the resulting pixel colors will beincorrect.Many dark fabrics—such as police uniforms—reflect a fairamount of near-IR. Thus, if near-IR wasn’t filtered out before ithit the sensor, all the red photosites in the camera would get“extra” photons outside the visual range we see. Once thatThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 62
  • 63. Version 1.00extra data got into the RGB pixel data, colors will drift. Itwasn’t unusual, for example, in early DSLR cameras to seeblack fabrics go magenta (the Kodak DCS2000 was notoriousfor this, for example).Yet another component of the anti-aliasing filter on a D700 issomething called an Indium Tin Oxide coating (usuallyabbreviated to ITO). This costly and optically transparentcoating is applied to the front of the anti-aliasing filter in orderto reduce the small static charge that builds at the front of thesensor and which can attract dust. The key word in thatprevious sentence is “reduce.” ITO isn’t a dust removalsystem; you can still get dust clinging to the front of an ITOanti-aliasing filter, it just is less likely than on an uncoatedfilter.The downside to ITO is that this very thin layer is somewhatmore fragile than the underlying filter it sits on, and using theimproper chemicals or techniques in cleaning can easily andpermanently damage it.If you’re getting the idea that the D700 sensor is a “sandwich”of things, you’re correct. Here’s a run-down of the things lighthas to go through to get to the actual “light-sensing” area onthe sensor:• Dust resistant coating layer that is shaken for sensor cleaning (ITO) [on top of low-pass filter]• Infrared removal filter (“IR cut”) [in low-pass filter]• Low-pass filter (anti-aliasing) [in low-pass filter and sensor]• Microlenses [coating applied to sensor top]• Bayer-pattern filter [coating applied to sensor top]Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 63
  • 64. Version 1.00 The anti-aliasing filter (top gray layer) filters out high frequency detail and near infrared energy in the light (orange arrow) before it gets to the microlenses and Bayer pattern dyes that sit over the photosites.Note: Why is the filter called a “low-pass” filter? Artifacts— unwanted data—are produced by any analog-to-digital conversion. There’s a basic rule of conversion that all input frequencies below something called the Nyquist frequency will be correctly produced, while those above the frequency tend to more easily generate aliasing artifacts (often visible as moiré or color fringing in digital cameras). The filter on the D700’s sensor attempts to pass the data below the Nyquist frequency for the sensor pitch, and reject data above that frequency, thus the name “low-pass.”Note: The IR-cut and anti-aliasing filter can be removed from some cameras (with a great deal of fussy disassembly that will void your camera’s warranty). Why would you want to do that? Two reasons: (1) By removing this filter you remove all the anti-aliasing. This can produce higher acuity, but at the potential expense of more incidence of moiré and aliasing of diagonal edges. (2) By removing the IR-cut filtration and substituting a visible light-cut filter you can convert a camera into a dedicated infrared camera (see “Infrared” on page 747).Tonal RangeThe sensor in the D700 can capture images with either 12-bitor 14-bits of data for each photosite position.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 64
  • 65. Version 1.0014 bits-per-pixel tonal range may not seem like much, but ittranslates into the ability to render 16384 shades (using 14bits) of an individual color versus 4096 (using 12 bits) or 256(using 8 bits)18. While the capability of most human eyes isclose to what an 8-bit capture contains (our eyes are usuallysaid to distinguish about 16 million colors, which isapproximately what 8-bit RGB produces; 256 x 256 x 256 =16,777,216), the extra tonality of 14 bit captures is still useful.When we “sharpen” and apply other corrections to an imagein post-processing, it is usually easier to keep suchmanipulations from becoming visible with the extra bits (i.e.we can “hide” some of our manipulation in the extra tonality,and rounding errors have less visible consequences). Here’s a tonal ramp rendered two ways. On the top, it’s rendered as a continuous spectrum from black to white. On the bottom, I’ve arbitrarily separated it into 19 different tones (slightly better than a 4-bit value can contain). The more tones we use to go from black to white, the more subtle transitions like this look. This is one reason why pros prefer to use raw files, which have 12-bit or 14-bit values, instead of JPEG, which have compressed 8-bit values.But there’s more to bits than just the subtlety of the tonalramp. Once we reduce our data into 8-bits for a JPEG or TIFFimage, we’re stuffing some of the stops of exposure data into avery small space.Programmers might already know where I’m headed: thenumber of bits available for recording low values is morelimited than the number of bits available for recording highvalues:18 n bits can enumerate 2^n values.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 65
  • 66. Version 1.00 ---X XXXX used for lowest stop XXXX XXXX used for highest stopPut another way: there are 32 possible values possible in thatbottom stop of exposure, but 256 possible values possible inthe top stop of exposure 19. Therefore the accuracy of thehighest stop of data (highlights) is going to be greater than theaccuracy of the lowest stop of data (shadows), especially if westart using curves and other manipulations to move the datawithin the limited available space. That’s the reason why Istrongly suggest shooting raw files on DSLRs instead of JPEGs:by keeping the data in 12-bit or 14-bit space you have moredata accuracy when you make changes, and fewer roundingproblems and errors.Just for the heck of it, let’s assume that the D700 can captureexactly seven stops of dynamic range and we spread thatevenly across the bits (we’ll get to the reality in a bit). Put in atable this 8-bit versus 14-bit difference looks like this: 8 Bits 14 BitsFirst Stop Values of 0 to 36 Values of 0 to 2340Second Stop 37 to 73 2341 to 4680Third Stop 74 to 110 4681 to 7020Fourth Stop 111 to 146 7021 to 9361Fifth Stop 147 to 183 9362 to 11701Sixth Stop 184 to 219 11702 to 14042Seventh Stop 220 to 255 14042 to 16384The critical element to note is the number of different values that can berecorded in each “stop” of exposure. There’s a big difference between 36and 2340. The higher that number, the less likely that you’ll see steps orroughness in the tonal ramps of your image.It should be obvious that the data in each stop of exposurehas more potential subtlety in 14-bit data than in 8-bit data.19 It’s even worse than that. The linear nature of sensors means that we get a greatdeal of highlight differentiation but little shadow differentiation. But that’s getting abit ahead of our discussion.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 66
  • 67. Version 1.00Thus, you’ll want to keep your data in the higher bit realm aslong as possible.Fortunately, the D700 does just that. The EXPEED imageprocessing system does the image demosaic and appliescamera settings on 14-bits of data20. Only at the final stage ofcreating the JPEG or TIFF does the D700 reduce data to 8 bits.Better still, the D700 captures dark to bright in a somewhatmore predictable fashion21; 35mm film tends to have a widelyvarying response (density of image) to exposure, producing adistinct S-curve when you plot exposure against density.Worse still, most film has a property called reciprocityfailure—the tendency to require a different exposure atextremely short or extremely long shutter speeds. The bottomline on digital tonality is that the shadow areas are less likelyto “block up22” in underexposure, as they do with most slidefilm, for example.One thing that is a bit unexpected about the D700’s tonalrange as it gets interpreted by the EXPEED processor is that itisn’t perfectly flat, as it has been on most previous Nikon proDSLRs. By “flat” I mean that the rendering of the white-to-black patches on a Kodak stepped grayscale chart don’t resultin the expected flat line (see chart, below).20 Actually, the internal processing is done using 16 bits (the 14-bit value is pushedinto the top of those 16-bits).21 “Predictable” isn’t quite the right word to use, as no imaging device I know of has aperfectly predictable response to light. My point is that a D700’s tonality curve ismore regular than film’s, which tends to vary more with brightness and exposurelength.22 Imagine a chart with 64 increasingly brighter shades of gray from black to white. Ifyou were to photograph that chart, a “blocked up” shadow area would be one thatdid not reproduce differences between adjacent dark grays, essentially renderingmany of them black (or near-black). Because film has a non-linear response to light,many different light values are sometimes produced as black. Fuji Velvia, a slide filmfavored by many professionals, has a pronounced tendency to render any objectunderexposed by more than three stops as a rich, velvety black. The same problemcan occur at the bright extreme, as well. Blocked up highlights would be all brightobjects rendered as the same white (or near-white) color.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 67
  • 68. Version 1.00There’s a slight “hump” in the middle range of the tonal curve(at least at the camera’s default settings), with “droops” atboth the deep shadow (left) and bright highlight (right) ends.Curiously, the D700’s hump is much less pronounced thanthe D300’s with the same camera settings. I suspect theD700’s excellent noise handling has caused Nikon to hold asmuch dynamic range as possible compared to the D300,where they chose to let shadows go black faster to de-emphasize noise. Virtually all Nikon Picture Control settingsproduce a slight hump of some sort in the mid-range. Theoverall impact of this is a slight bit more mid-range contrastthan previous Nikon pro bodies, and a little less of the “Nikondrab” look some have complained about in out-of-cameraJPEG images from earlier cameras.Note: Some of the test charts presented in this eBook and on my Web site are pieces of the elaborate testing results that the Imatest testing software produces. Imatest is also the software I use to verify the things I see in D700 images. While I don’t always present the test results in this eBook (you’ve got enough pages and examples to wade through as it is), almost all of my statements about image quality properties have been empirically tested by both careful image shooting and running standard test charts through Imatest. Imatest is probably the most precise testing facility easily available to the average user. I highly recommend it as aThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 68
  • 69. Version 1.00 way to get to know the nuances of your camera’s response. One small thing, though: you’ll need a number of test charts to take full advantage of the program, and some of these charts are expensive because they’re produced to exacting standards. See http://www.imatest.com for more details. And don’t forget to tell Norman that I sent you.We also have to talk about the “linear” nature of sensors.Simply put, twice as much light means twice as manyelectrons get collected and counted. Unfortunately, thehuman eye isn’t linear. Here’s what the difference looks like: Green is our eye’s non-linear response, blue is the sensor’s linear response to adding lightTo make these two response systems “line up” a digitalsensor’s data is adjusted with a “gamma curve.” Thisintroduces additional issues with the way bits end up in thefinal pixel values. If you start with too few bits and startapplying complex tonality curves to the underlying data, youend up with rounding and other issues in the final data.However, the question on most D700 user’s minds isn’t 8-bitsversus 14-bits, it’s usually 12-bits versus 14-bits. If you shootJPEG or TIFF because you need ready-from-the-cameraoutput, you have to live with the 8-bitness of your output(though you can still optimize a few settings to help thecamera’s processing). But if you’re shooting NEF to get“optimal” data, the question quickly becomes whether to use12-bits (which makes for smaller file sizes) or 14-bits (whichincreases file sizes). Given the rapidly dropping cost of cardstorage, I think this is a no brainer: shoot 14-bits.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 69
  • 70. Version 1.00But the question that has been a lively discussion on manyInternet fora is whether there is an eventual visual differencebetween shooting in 12-bit or 14-bit. On the D700 I can see asmall, but clear, difference in tonality at the higher bit level, atleast using converters that are using precise math(surprisingly, many have problems with the math involved). Itappears to me that the D700’s signal-to-noise ratio is just highenough to require 14-bits to fully capture what the sensor iscapable of. A lot of us have spent an enormous amount oftime studying this, but I keep coming back to the sameconclusion: if you shoot 12-bit NEF you’re arbitrarily cuttingoff the signal-to-noise ratio slightly under what the D700produces at optimal exposures.Dynamic Range -- Dark v. BrightIn any photographic situation we find ourselves in, there isalways a range of brightness, from dark to light. In our officeswe try to keep the range minimized—in other words, there’susually not a big difference between the darkest areas and thebrightest. But in the real, uncontrolled world, the range fromdark (densely shaded area) to bright (sun bouncing off ametallic object) can be considerable. We call the brightnessdifferences we encounter the scene’s dynamic range. We referto the ability of our film or digital camera to capture a rangeof brightness the camera’s dynamic range 23.We measure both ranges in terms of stops; each stoprepresents a doubling of light. So if I were to say thatsomething I wanted to photograph had four stops of scenedynamic range, that would indicate that the brightest areasare 16 times lighter than the darkest. Unfortunately, manyoutdoor settings can have 10 or more stops of range in them.That’s a huge range of light.23 “Dynamic range” is the common short-hand term used for both things. I’ve electedto add an adjective in front of the two terms here so that you’ll know if I’m talkingabout the scene or the device.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 70
  • 71. Version 1.00Overall, the D700 has slightly less dynamic range capabilitythan was captured by the best print films, but substantiallymore dynamic range than most slide films could handle.What does that mean in numbers? My measurement systemsays the D700 maxes out somewhere just above 8 stops ofusable camera dynamic range (some others measure a bitdifferently and come up with a slightly different number; we’llget to that in a moment). Using the same system for the slidefilm I use (Provia F), I can capture about six stops of range.With the negative film I use (Portra) I usually measure eight ornine stops (processing and printing can have an impact).Note: You’ll see camera dynamic range figures posted in various reviews that disagree with each other. Some of these numbers aren’t actually measuring scene dynamic range that can be captured and reproduced, but instead measure stepped reflective targets that range from black to white and measure the maximum signal to no signal values. The reflectivity and efficiency of the target comes into play, as do other factors, such as the camera settings when shot in JPEG. Other tests take a single target and vary either the amount of light hitting it in a series of tests with the camera’s settings constant, or keep the light constant and vary the camera’s settings from underexposure to overexposure. Unfortunately, you can only compare numbers from a single testing method, and then only if the test is done with rigid controls. You’ll note that I don’t quote a specific number in the paragraph above, but say “just above 8 stops.” This pronouncement comes from measuring many scenes with incident and reflective light meters to determine the scene dynamic range that was being shot, then observing where the cutoff of “useful” information is. This is then checked against using a single target with varying camera settings in a constant light. Since some camera settings impact the actual value that can be obtained, I prefer to report a number that can be clearly achieved with absolute consistency, regardless of how your camera is set (e.g. just above 8 stops). But keep reading, I’ll try to elaborate…The camera dynamic range of the D700 is fixed, but thesituations you’ll encounter and wish to photograph aren’tThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 71
  • 72. Version 1.00fixed in their scene dynamic range. Sometimes you’ll findscenes that have very little range in exposure (said to be lowin contrast), sometimes you’ll encounter situations that haveextreme variations in exposure range (said to be highcontrast).In terms of our sensor and the buckets in which it collectslight (photosites), camera dynamic range is restricted at eachend by different things. At the bright end, as I’ve alluded tobefore, the bucket has a limit to what it can hold. Once thebucket is full, it doesn’t matter how many more light photonsstrike it, they won’t be collected, and thus not measured.At the other extreme, we also have an inability to measuresmall amounts of light. Imagine it this way: let’s say you justwashed your bucket and gave it a quick wipe to dry it. Nowone drop of rain hits the bottom of the bucket. Can youmeasure how much rain has fallen? Well, no. There’s residualmoisture in the bucket from the cleaning, and we haven’tcollected enough new water to distinguish that from theresidual moisture. Likewise, with sensors: there are residualelectrons in and around the photosite and we need to convertenough light photons into electrons so that we candifferentiate the two.Technically, engineers measure camera dynamic range as thedifference between the full bucket (electron well capacity ofthe photosite) and the measurable empty bucket (theminimum data that can be read, which equates to thebaseline of underlying noise). On a D700, this results in ahigh value of about 11.8 stops at the base ISO.Photographers measure dynamic range a bit differently,usually defined as being between the lowest point at whichusable shadow detail occurs up to the point where highlightclipping occurs. On my D700 I measure that to be:Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 72
  • 73. Version 1.00ISO Dynamic RangeLO1 9 stops (but watch for clipped highlights)200 9 stops400 8.6 stops800 8 stops1600 7 stopsDue to the amplification involved, dynamic rangecontinues to drop as you increase ISO.Curiously, when using the DX crops I get slightly lowernumbers.I want you to notice one thing about the numbers I justreported: Higher ISO values mean less dynamic rangecaptured. Noise increases with ISO, thus the possible capturerange gets smaller. As you can see, this is probably trivial (justabout a stop, and still higher than some previous NikonDSLRs at their base ISO) at up to as high as ISO 800, but eachISO boost does rob you of more and more capture capability.With a DSLR, you are in charge of getting the exposure“right.” That means that you have to consider what the D700can capture (camera dynamic range) versus what you’re tryingto photograph (scene dynamic range). I’ll have much more tosay about exposure as we proceed to learn about the camera(see “Metering and Exposure” on page 257, for example).But suffice it to say that the sensor in the D700 has a fixedrange that it can capture while the situations you want tophotograph will present quite a variety of ranges you’ll needto deal with. Don’t fret—the D700 has a plethora ofautomated features to help you. But you’ll want to pay closeattention to exposure, and knowing what the sensor cancapture is part of getting exposure “right.” If you underexpose,for example, you lower the range that the camera records (bynot using some of it at the high end). That’s akin to setting ahigher ISO value.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 73
  • 74. Version 1.00Fortunately, your D700 doesn’t have one exposure problemthat plagues film: reciprocity failure, or the tendency torequire a different-than-expected exposure at extremely shortor extremely long shutter speeds. If you can measure the lightin a scene, the D700 can be set for that directly, with nocompensations for short or long shutter speeds.So what is the usable camera dynamic range of the D700? Icertainly don’t have any problems extracting eight clean stopsof data from my NEF images at low ISO levels. When I’mworking at the base ISO level and getting my exposureperfectly aligned, I can get as much as another stop. A fewother pros have reported that they rate the D700 at nine stopsof dynamic range.Spectral CharacteristicsThe spectral characteristics of the D700 sensor areunavailable. Unlike the D2h and some earlier Nikon DSLRs,the D700 does not seem to have a near-infrared pollutionproblem, which requires using a hot mirror filter to correct.Indeed, the D700 seems to have intensely reduced reactionsto all light outside the visible spectrum. Both UV and near-infrared response is lower on the D700 (and D3) than it hasbeen on any previous Nikon DSLR I’ve tested (see “Infrared”on page 747); essentially I’d say it is nearly impervious toUV and IR light. The low UV response of the D700 will havea minor impact on some purple values, which live down inthe high UV spectrum.We can tell a little bit about spectral characteristics by howNikon “sets” the white point of the sensor. You find this bylooking for the white balance that creates matching values inthe red and blue channels on a known neutral source. On aD2x and most previous Nikon DSLRs, that is usuallysomewhere between 5200K and 5500K. On the D700, it’s at4260K, a much lower value. This seems to indicate that theD700 is less sensitive in the blue channel than red. See“White Balance” on page 337.Thom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 74
  • 75. Version 1.00NoiseNoise refers to pixel data values in your image that aredifferent from what a “perfect sensor” would produce.For example, in a “perfect sensor” three adjacent pixels froman evenly exposed gray card might be rendered with 8-bitRGB values of 128,128,128. Most digital sensors aren’t closeto being that perfect (and note that there’s rounding going onsomewhere to get to an 8-bit value for JPEG images, whichslightly exaggerates noise), so you might have one pixel that’s128,129,128, another that’s 128,128,129, and a third that’s128,128,128. As noise increases, the divergence of thosevalues would increase. For example, if the proper value is128,128,128, then a value of 122,124,127 is clearly “noisier”(and less accurate) than one of 128,126,128. On the left are a full image and a 200% blowup of a small piece of it, taken with a D3 at the 3200 ISO value with everything else set at defaults (a D700 would produce the identical image). I’ve been testing Nikon DSLRs in this gym under identical conditions for some time now: the D3/D700 simply blow away every previous body I’ve tested in these conditions. Color saturation is clearly better (note the rim is still bright orange) and dynamic range at ISO 3200 is about as good as the D300 at ISO 1000 and the D200 at ISO 500. Put another way, the D3/D700 sensor is performing almost a stop-and-a- half better than the D300, and almost three stops better than the D200 (and D2x for that matter). Here I’ve taken the same imageThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 75
  • 76. Version 1.00 and run a light noise reduction and an aggressive sharpening. On most camera bodies at ISO 3200, that would result in a disaster. Here, we’ve lost all semblance of noise and can even tell that one of the players forgot to take off his ring before playing. Note also that I’m shooting from under the far basket with a 24-70mm lens!Sensors produce noise in two primary ways:• Shot noise. Photons, like almost everything in life, have a randomness to them. In absolutely even light, there still is a statistical chance that any given photodiode does or doesn’t see a photon at any particular moment. This statistical photon noise, called shot noise, is equal to the square root of the number of signal photons collected, and this relationship does not vary from sensor to sensor. What does vary from sensor to sensor is the number of photons collected. Remember that the D700’s collection area is larger than that of the D300 and other DX bodies, and substantially bigger than that of the Coolpix cameras. Thus, it should be obvious that the visibility of a D700’s shot noise is lower than other Nikon digital cameras. The generally accepted value is that it takes a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.7 before you can get meaningful data beyond the shot noise. Put another way, the minimally theoretical light fluctuation that can be accurately discriminated by a sensor is 8 photons. That’s usually okay for us, as our brightest values in our shots are usually collecting tens of thousands of photons, but do watch out for underexposure of your shadow areas—there might not be a lot of photonsThom Hogan’s Complete Guide to the Nikon D700 Page 76
  • 77. Version 1.00 represented there, and shot noise will rear its head when there aren’t.• Read noise. Likewise, we have to store the photons, then move the electrons from the photosite to the ADC and count correctly. That can be less than perfectly accurate, too. We might lose or gain a few electrons in the process, and our Analog-to-Digital converter might not count accurately.Sensors tend to produce more noise when:• left exposed to light for long periods of time. Electrons get more chance to migrate from where they should be to places they shouldn’t.• exposed to low levels of red or blue wavelengths of light. The demosaic routine uses all adjacent photosites in calculating pixel values, so when one channel (color of photosite) is very low in value and thus has a low signal- to-noise ratio, it can contribute that noise to all the channels in the final adjacent pixel values.• used in very warm environments. Those pesky electrons follow the laws of thermodynamics: they get more willing to move about as they are exposed to more energy (heat). The rule of thumb is that every 20°C temperature decrease results in an order of magnitude