Script:So here I have a few examples of successful people who use imagery.Jack Nicklaus, a former golfer who won 18 career championships over 25 years, winning numerous major tournaments. He uses imagery and here he describes his personal experience:"I never hit a shot, not even in practice, without having a very sharp, in-focus picture of it in my head. It's like a color movie. First, I see the ball where I want it to finish, nice and white and sitting up high on the bright green grass. Then the scene quickly changes and I "see" the ball going there: its path, trajectory, and shape, even its behaviour on landing. Then there's sort of a fade-out, and the next scene shows me making the kind of swing that will turn the previous images into reality. Only at the end of this short, private, Hollywood spectacular do I select a club and step up to the ball.Taken from is book Nicklaus, J., Bowden, K., McQueen, J. (200g) Golf my way: theinstructional classic, revised and updated. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster He uses a form of imagery we call external, which relates to the environment and how others see you, we talk about this more later. He uses imagery to predict the future outcome, which we all would want to be perfect of course. We also talk about different times you can use imagery and Jack performs this right before be swings for the ball to prepare himself. Jack also said that he does this every time.
Bruce Lee also used a different form of imagery. He didn’t imagine his performance but he imagined a piece of paper of all of his negative thoughts, and burning it in order to get rid of the negative thoughts prior to competition or performance.He believed these negative thoughts would hinder his performance, and from other research areas positive thinking is desirable for peak performance even flow.
Here are two other more simple examples that arnoldscwarznegger and meganquann quoted. Its about visualizing there goals and achievements and having belief in themselves.
Chrissie Evert uses imagery so well that she actually feels as though she has played a match before she has even started. Her visualizations are so vivid and detailed. Considering the psychoneuromuscular theory later on, would explain her feeling of exhaustion etc. Here is a video of olympic athlete nick symmonds describing his use of imagery to achieve successRemove hyperlink
The purpose of the study was to examine whether internal imagery (which focuses on the actual individual performing – we will talk more about this later) has effect on a high jumpers performance. There was a control group and an intervention group, and their results were compared. Over 6 weeks 24 elite high jumpers (13 male and 11 female) were recruited for the experiment. Half of them were the control group who in their program performed finger tapping and cognitive tasks – this was like a placebo. The other half undergo the intervention, which was to internal imagine performing a high jump for 6 minutes, and told to do so at their best. There was pre-test which involved measuring maximum height they can clear the bar and two critical components: take-off angle and bar clearance using cameras.
Although every athlete improved slightly on all the criteria, the only significant increase was the bar clearance performed by the intervention group. This difference is attribitable to the imagery training.The imagery intervention described the athletes arching their back and pulling the feet towards their head. This motion is very important in high jumping, and something an athlete has to think about when performing. Because it is a complex cognitive process , not requiring strength or power as such, it was improved by imagery.Although jump height was dramatically affected, the hypothesis was still proven as this component did improve in all athletes.
Small sample size – not general publicHigh jump is only specific to that area, how does imagery affect other athletes. High jump is a closed skill therefore will other sports difffer?Image ability differs among athletes – dependent on skill level, social, cultural, physical, age etc. Not taken into consideration.Cannot measue how an athlete images , only its results!Should an athlete implement this before a jump or just as part of training – continuous?
Which perspective do you think is used more by elite athletes?- Internal imagery- However, open skills vs. closed skills can be affected by the types of imagery used - Find your own preference! (However, despite
Here is a clip of the Mike Tyson.- Former undisputed Heavyweight champ of the worldMade history by becoming the youngest heavyweight champion in history at 20 years old A lot of people remember him for his infamous actions outside of the ring, but what a lot of people forget is his undeniable skill, talent, and presence inside of it in his prime Much of that accomplishment was a product of hard work, and the ability to see the fights, as well his accomplishments before they happened. (play video) - it is really amazing how Mike can picture his fights so vividly, the prefight preparation, the ring walk, the stare-down, and the outcome. And often his fights went exactly as he imagined them. Notice how his visualization of fighting did not include any negative image, this is how you want to practice yourself. Use all your senses to create or recreate the skill or scene in your head, this can apply to sport as well as real life.
Goal Setting – Use imagery to realize and achieve your goals- whether your goal be an outcome, performance, or a process goal, imagery can help you achieve them. *Outcome example: Winning a race *Performance – running that race, mile time under 6 min *Process – Golf swing: keeping one arm completely straight, always look down, follow throughAll of these types of goals need to be visualized in the mind before they can actually be done - any instructor, coach, or trainer never wants to enter a physical activity setting unprepared.Goals are not effective unless they are tied to specific and realistic strategies Think SMARTOPP (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound, outcome, performance, process)Time Management - it is crucial that you set aside time in your training regimen, or daily life to use imagery anecdotal reports (as seen earlier in the presentation) from top athletes, as well as case studies, and scientific experiments all point to imagery as a means of achieving peak performance. you don’t want to let workaholisim, time juggling, personality, or procrastination interfere with this process. Make sure to prioritize everything, schedule imagery into your daily routine, make it a goal, also vice versa, imagery can help you use time more effectively. Play out your whole day, or maybe just a specific task during that day to be more efficient. Behavior Modification – alteration of behavior patterns (often socially unacceptable ones) through learned techniques- ex- nail biting, grinding teeth, smokingUse imagery to help modify your behavior, ex- imagine yourself more of a healthy person after you quit smoking, all of the activities you will be able to do much easier. imagine being a role model to children,..Any time you find the urge, use imagery as a way to negate that Imagine the type of person you become when you drink, it will help you become more aware and motivated to stop- initiating new behaviors also brings about stress, as discussed earlier, imagery can help reduce stressCommunication Skills – using imagery to change unwanted behaviors can ultimately lead to better communication skills change a bad habit such as a hostile aggressive type of communication, or change something specific as a your body language while communicating*Journal Writing –Can help increase vividness if imagery. Journal writing is very therapeutic and is often used to record everyday experiences; as one continues to write journals, their description of their day can sometimes become so vivid, that it helps them remember even the most minor details of the day. Imagine if you were able to transfer that type of vividness to your imagery training.Any skill or activity you do would be greatly enhanced by this, Vividness is one of the most difficult things to achieve in imagery, and journal writing can certainly train this.
Everyday Life Situations-Interviews-Dating-RelaxationAthletics-Game situations
Negative Imagery:*Nervous*Focusing on preventingfailure instead of creatingsuccess Over-Confident Imagery:*Only goal-oriented*Doesn‟t focus on the actualperformance; only result Positive Imagery:*Visualizes the entireprocess*Prepared*Focused
Motivational Cognitive Goal Oriented – Focus on the Skills – Focus on actual Specific end result. performance during event. Arousal – Focus on setting in Strategy – Focus on specific General order to stimulate the body. strategies to implement in competition.Note: While all are important in their own specific ways; the bestway to utilize the power of imagery and achieve peakperformance is to combine all four focuses during the process ofimagery.
1. Partner up with someone2. Face each other3. Person A extends dominant arm in front of body, palm up, on to partners shoulder4. Person B cups their hands onto partners elbows5. Person A must fully extend the arm, and Person B pushes down to see how much it takes to bend the elbow6. Both try this7. Then return to original position8. Now imagine your arm is a thick iron bar, unbendable, indestructible9. Keep imagining this bar and how nothing can influence its position10.Person A must indicate they are „ready‟ by lifting their finger, with eyes remained closed and still imaging iron bar11.Now Person B must attempt to bend the arm againNotice how much stronger your partner is the second time.Imagery is a powerful tool. We can increase our resisting strength in a matter ofseconds, imagine how this could influence your performance!?
“Before I play a match, I try to -Mental preparationcarefully rehearse what is likelyto happen and how I will react in -Strategiccertain situations. I visualizemyself playing typical points -Opponentbased on my opponent‟s style of -Muscular activationplay. I see myself hitting crisp,deep shots from the baseline andcoming to the net if I get a weakreturn. This helps me mentallyprepare for a match, and I feellike I‟ve already played thematch before I even walk on thecourt.”Chrissie Evert – ChampionTennis Player
• Internal imagery training in active high jumpers Purpose• To study whether internal imagery would affect the performance of high jumpers.Method• There were twenty four elite high jumpers, only half of them performed the imagery program for 6 weeks. The high jump ability was measured before and after the program.• Test: jump height, take-off angle, bar clearance.
Results• Both groups increased on all measurements, but significantly the intervention group improved on bar clearance. Discussion• The imagery program encouraged athletes to visualize arching their back over the bar.• Bar clearance is most cognitive aspect of high jumping; which is whyimagery benefited it.
THE GOOD THE BAD-Quantitative data -Small sample size-Repeatable -Only one sporting example measured-Simple -Cannot measure image-Effective ability-Supportive research -Doesn‟t consider pre- competition
Directions:1. Hold the pendulum over theboard2. Keep eyes closed, hold still,and “imagine” the pendulummoving3. Focus solely on the image ofthe pendulum moving4. If practiced correctly, yourmuscles will react to your brain‟sthoughts/images, and you willmove the pendulumsubconsciously
Internal External Seeing the image from Seeing the image from behind their own eyes; outside of your body, from executing the skill from the perspective of an your own vantage point outside observer * You see only what you * Viewing yourself as if you would actually see if you were watching a movie were performing the actual skill
1. Select a specific skill in your sport, such as hitting a backhand, vaulting over the bar, swimming the breaststroke, or kicking a goal.2. Now imagine yourself performing this skill at the place where you normally practice (gymnasium, pool, field, rink, court), without anyone else present.3. Close your eyes for about one minute and try to see yourself at this place, hear the sounds, feel your body perform the movement, and be aware of your state of mind and mood.
No image Not clear or vivid Moderately clear Clear and vivid Extremely clear and vivid and vivida. How vividly you 1 2 3 4 5saw the imageb. How clearly 1 2 3 4 5you hear thesoundsc. How vividly you 1 2 3 4 5felt your bodyd. How aware of 1 2 3 4 5your moods Did you view it from your own eyes (internal) or from a video perspective (external)?
Total Dimension Scorea. Visual ___b. Auditory ___c. Kinesthetic ___d. Mood ___- This is only 1/4th of the actual test, repeat with the same scoringsystem for: practicing with others, watching a teammate, as well asperforming in a contest.-The total possible score will tell you your strengths as well as theother aspects you need to work on. Example of Imagery Script Tennis
Imagery Cookbook Times to Practice Imagery Daily Practice Pre-performance routine Post-performance review Methods of Practicing Imagery Individual vs. Group Practice Cassette Tapes Highlight videotapes Imagery logs