War in the pacific to atomic bomb


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War in the pacific to atomic bomb

  1. 1. World War II Victory in Asia
  2. 2. Pacific Offensives <ul><li>Island-hopping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. strategy to only attack strategic Japanese Islands instead of all of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in November 1943 in the Gilbert Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Island of Tarawa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to capture due to highly fortified coral reef surrounding the island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as a vital airstrip for future landings </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Saipan & Guam <ul><li>Faced fierce Japanese defenders </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. forces suffered high casualties (16,000 injured, 3,400 dead) </li></ul><ul><li>Important U.S. victories, they provided strategic airfields to launch bombing missions from. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Recapturing the Philippines <ul><li>MacArthur led U.S. and Australian forces in June of 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 1944- the U.S. was ready to invade the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Leyte Gulf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The last and largest naval engagement by the Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They lost 4 aircraft carriers, two battleships, and several cruisers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Filipinos assisted allied troops as the troops fanned out across the Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur and the allies entered Manila in Feb. 1945 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Victory in the Pacific <ul><li>U.S. captured Japanese islands that they used as airbases </li></ul><ul><li>March 1945 Tokyo was bombed which caused major destruction to the city </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s military leaders would still not surrender </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Battle of Iwo Jima <ul><li>February 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 6 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. troops faced fierce resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Several thousand U.S. troops were killed </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 Japanese soldiers died </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Marines struggled to take Mount Suribachi </li></ul><ul><li>Famous photo of Marines planting flag taken by Joe Rosendahl </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Battle of Iwo Jima
  8. 8. The Battle of Okinawa <ul><li>April 1945- the largest landing force in the Pacific invaded Okinawa </li></ul><ul><li>Japan chose to retreat to the southern tip of the island and wait </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Marines captured one airfield in 5 hours without a shot being fired </li></ul><ul><li>FIVE DAYS LATER </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Battle of Okinawa <ul><li>700 Japanese planes attacked the beach and the navy off-shore </li></ul><ul><li>350 of the 700 planes were “kamikaze” or suicide planes </li></ul><ul><li>Six U.S. ships were sunk </li></ul><ul><li>135 kamikaze pilots were killed </li></ul><ul><li>Admiral Nimitz stated that the only thing surprising about the war was the tactics of the kamikaze pilots </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Battle of Okinawa <ul><li>Probably the bloodiest battle of the war in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese hid in caves and fought till the very end </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. troops used flamethrowers to clear the caves </li></ul><ul><li>49,000 U.S. troops were killed or wounded </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 Japanese died in the fighting </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Death of Roosevelt <ul><li>Occurred on April 12, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Truman becomes President </li></ul><ul><li>Truman faces the huge decision on how to deal with the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Despite repeated bombings in Japan, they are still strong and will fight to the end </li></ul><ul><li>Truman will be the one who makes the decision to use the atomic bomb </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Atomic Bomb <ul><li>Manhattan Project led by Leslie Groves </li></ul><ul><li>Other participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrico Fermi (Italian physicist) –created first atomic chain reaction in 1942 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J. Robert Oppenheimer- director of Los Alamos lab in New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His team worked on building the 1 st atomic bomb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Successfully tested on July 15, 1945 in Alamogordo, New Mexico </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reasons for using the atomic bomb <ul><li>Truman saw that the Japanese were still capable of fighting after Iwo Jima and Okinawa </li></ul><ul><li>A full scale invasion of Japan would cost many U.S. lives and Japanese lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates projected up to 1 million U.S. lives could be lost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The atomic bomb would bring a quick end to the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman wanted an unconditional surrender </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the atomic bomb may have been show of force to the Soviet Union </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Dropping of the Bomb <ul><li>August 6, 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Enola Gay flown by Paul Tibbits dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiroshima was flattened and the bomb killed 75,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 9, 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing approximately 125,000 people </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. HIROSHIMA
  16. 16. Nagasaki
  17. 17. Japan’s Surrender <ul><li>After seeing the destruction caused by the two bombs, Japan decides to surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>V-J Day August 15, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>The formal surrender took place aboard the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945 </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Do You Think? <ul><li>Was Truman’s decision a good one? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we have launched a full-scale invasion of Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your feelings? </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=657#02 </li></ul>