- 1 st adopted by those nations allied in opposition against Germany, Italy, & Japan during WWII.
- 26 nation-states signed the Declaration of United Nations on January 4, 1942.
- Charter of the UN consists of a preamble & articles similar to the U.S. Constitution.
- Charter outlines the purposes, structure, & powers of the UN.
The Four Purposes
- 1. To preserve world peace.
- 2. To encourage nations to be just in their actions toward each other.
- 3. To help nations cooperate in solving their problems.
- 4. To serve as an agency through which nations can work toward these three goals.
The Seven Principles
- 1. All members have equal rights.
- 2. Each member is expected to carry out its duties under the charter.
- 3. Each member agrees to the principle of settling disputes peacefully.
- 4. Each member agrees not to use force or the threat of force against other nations except in self-defense.
- 5. Each member agrees to help the UN in every action it takes to carry out the purposes of the charter.
- 6. The UN agrees to act on the principle that nonmember states have the same duties as member states to preserve world peace & security.
- 7. The UN accepts the principle of not interfering in the internal affairs/domestic problems of member nation, so long as these actions do not harm other nations.
The Organization of the U.N.
- 3. The Economic & Social Council
- 4. The Trusteeship Council
- 5. The International Court of Justice
- All members are represented.
- Each has one vote, but may send as many as five representatives.
- Important decisions are decided by a majority vote or by a super-majority vote (2/3), depending on importance.
- Deliberative Organ —Deliberates on, or discusses & decides, important issues.
- UN permanent headquarters—New York City
- Regular assembly meetings last for three months, beginning on the third Tuesday in September.
- Selects secretary-general.
- Current: Kofi Annan (Ghana)
- Selects the 15 judges of the International Court of Justice.
- May admit, suspend, or expel members.
- Responsibility for maintaining international peace.
- Originally, the council consisted of eleven members: five of these were permanent members (France, United Kingdom, Russia, U.S., & China.)
- Six were nonpermanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms.
- Amended to enlarge the council by adding four more nonpermanent members.
- Five nonpermanent must come from African & Asian countries, one from Eastern European countries, two from Latin American countries, & two from Western Europe & other countries.
- Members of the UN agree to carry out the decisions of the Security Council.
- Any one of the five permanent members can veto a Security Council decision.
- May call for military action by asking UN members to contribute military personnel to a UN peacekeeping force.
- Korean UN peacekeeping mission.
- Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, & others.
- Other important UN Bodies
- The World Health Organization (WHO)---Combats
- health problems in underdeveloped countries.
- The International Bank for Reconstruction &
- Development (World Bank)---Makes loans for
- projects in developing countries.