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Thinking Chapter11

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Thinking and Language
  • 2. Section 1 Thinking and Problem Solving
  • 3. Thinking
    • Changing and reorganization of the information stored in memory to create new information
    • Copernicus
      • How do we think?
      • How do we create ideas
  • 4. Units of Thought
    • Image
    • Symbol
    • Concept
    • Prototype
    • Rule
  • 5. Image
    • A visual, mental representation of an event or object
    • Imagery is an effective way of thinking about concepts
    • Shepard & Metzler (Page 296)
  • 6. Symbol
    • An abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality
    • An image represents a specific sight or sound, but a symbol may have a number of meanings
    • Examples:
      • Numbers, letters, punctuation marks (have no concrete existence)
  • 7. Concept
    • A label for a class of objects or events that have at least one attribute in common.
    • Enables us to chunk large amounts of information
  • 8. Prototype
    • A representative example of a concept.
    • The prototype you picture may not be an example you have experienced
    • Is an example that has most of the characteristics of the particular concept
  • 9. Rule
    • A statement of relation between concepts.
    • Examples:
      • A person cannot be in two places at one time
      • Mass remains constant despite changes in appearance
  • 10. Kinds of Thinking
    • Directed or convergent thinking
      • Deliberate or purposeful
      • Is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal or answer
      • Example:
        • Math problems
  • 11. Kinds of Thinking
    • Non-directed or divergent thinking
      • A free flow of thoughts with no particular plan
      • Usually takes place when relaxing
      • Artists best art and creative ideas emerge from this type of thinking
  • 12. Kinds of Thinking
    • Metacognition
      • Thinking about thinking
      • Thinking about strategies may cause you to think about other strategies
  • 13. Strategies
    • Problem solving depends on the use of strategies, or specific methods for approaching
    • Break down complex problems into sub goals or intermediate steps
    • You may work backward from the goal you have set
  • 14. Strategies
    • May require you to examine various ways of reaching a desired goal
    • Most of us analyze the problem to see if it resembles a situation we have experienced in the past
    • The more unusual the problem, the more difficult to devise a strategy for dealing with it
  • 15. Problem Solving Strategy
    • Algorithm- a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem
      • Math & scientific formulas
    • Heuristics- are experimental strategies, or rules of thumb, that simplify a problem, allowing one to solve problems quickly and easily
  • 16. Heuristics
    • Wheel of Fortune
      • Able to use previous knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and other to assist in solving puzzles
    • Your advice might include what has worked for you in the past
  • 17. Obstacles to Problem Solving
    • Mental set- a habitual strategy or pattern of problem solving
    • Functional fixedness- the inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects
  • 18.
    • Mental Set
      • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way
      • especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
    Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • 19.
    • Functional Fixedness
      • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
      • impediment to problem solving
    Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • 20. The Matchstick Problem
    • How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
  • 21. The Matchstick Problem
    • Solution to the matchstick problem
  • 22. The Three-Jugs Problem
    • Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated?
  • 23. The Three-Jugs Problem
    • Solution: a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume.
    • b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6.
  • 24. The Candle-Mounting Problem
    • Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
  • 25. The Candle-Mounting Problem
    • Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container
  • 26. Creativity
    • The capacity to use information and/or abilities in new and original ways
      • Is a mystery to psychologists
    • Characteristics of Creative Thinking
      • Flexibility
      • Recombination
      • insight
  • 27. Flexibility
    • The ability to overcome rigidity, to remain open to alternate strategies
    • Inflexible and rigid thinking leads to unoriginal or no solutions
  • 28. Recombination
    • Rearranging the elements of a problem to arrive at an original solution
    • Many creative people say that “no creative poem or invention has ever came from someone who has not spent years studying his or her subject
  • 29. Insight
    • The apparent sudden realization of the solution to a problem
    • Known as the “aha” experience
    • Wolfgang Kohler (1976) Chimpanzee and banana experiement
  • 30. Section 2 Language
  • 31. Language
    • Is the expression of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules
      • Communicates facts and ideas
      • Consists of three elements
        • Phonemes
        • Morphemes
        • Syntax
  • 32. Phoneme
    • An individual sound that is a basic structural element of language
    • English language
      • Has 43 sounds
    • Some languages have as few as 15 sounds and as many as 85 sounds
  • 33. Morphemes
    • The smallest unit of meaning in a given language
    • may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
    • Grammar- a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  • 34. Language
    • Syntax- language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences
    • Semantics- the study of meaning in a language
  • 35. Language Development
    • B.F. Skinner- believed children learned language as a result of operant conditioning
    • Critics of Skinner
      • Think children understand language before they speak and before they receive reinforcement
  • 36. Language Development
    • Some psychologists argue that children learn language through observation, explanation, and imitation
    • Noam Chomsky
      • Believed reinforcement and imitation contribute, but does not believe that all the complex rules of language could be learned this way
  • 37. Language
    • Babbling Stage
      • beginning at 3 to 4 months
      • the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
    • One-Word Stage
      • from about age 1 to 2
      • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  • 38. Language
    • Two-Word Stage
      • beginning about age 2
      • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements
    • Telegraphic Speech
      • early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
  • 39. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
  • 40. Benjamin Whorf
    • Linguistic relativity
      • Refers to the idea that language influences thoughts
    • Certain words may create stereotypes among gender
      • “ she” usually refers to secretaries, teachers, and nurses
      • “ he” usually refers to doctor, engineers, and presidents of companies

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