Thinking Chapter11


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Thinking Chapter11

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Thinking and Language
  2. 2. Section 1 Thinking and Problem Solving
  3. 3. Thinking <ul><li>Changing and reorganization of the information stored in memory to create new information </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we think? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we create ideas </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Units of Thought <ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Rule </li></ul>
  5. 5. Image <ul><li>A visual, mental representation of an event or object </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery is an effective way of thinking about concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Shepard & Metzler (Page 296) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symbol <ul><li>An abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality </li></ul><ul><li>An image represents a specific sight or sound, but a symbol may have a number of meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers, letters, punctuation marks (have no concrete existence) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Concept <ul><li>A label for a class of objects or events that have at least one attribute in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables us to chunk large amounts of information </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prototype <ul><li>A representative example of a concept. </li></ul><ul><li>The prototype you picture may not be an example you have experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Is an example that has most of the characteristics of the particular concept </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rule <ul><li>A statement of relation between concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person cannot be in two places at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass remains constant despite changes in appearance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Kinds of Thinking <ul><li>Directed or convergent thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate or purposeful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal or answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Kinds of Thinking <ul><li>Non-directed or divergent thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A free flow of thoughts with no particular plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually takes place when relaxing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artists best art and creative ideas emerge from this type of thinking </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kinds of Thinking <ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about strategies may cause you to think about other strategies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Strategies <ul><li>Problem solving depends on the use of strategies, or specific methods for approaching </li></ul><ul><li>Break down complex problems into sub goals or intermediate steps </li></ul><ul><li>You may work backward from the goal you have set </li></ul>
  14. 14. Strategies <ul><li>May require you to examine various ways of reaching a desired goal </li></ul><ul><li>Most of us analyze the problem to see if it resembles a situation we have experienced in the past </li></ul><ul><li>The more unusual the problem, the more difficult to devise a strategy for dealing with it </li></ul>
  15. 15. Problem Solving Strategy <ul><li>Algorithm- a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math & scientific formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristics- are experimental strategies, or rules of thumb, that simplify a problem, allowing one to solve problems quickly and easily </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heuristics <ul><li>Wheel of Fortune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to use previous knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and other to assist in solving puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your advice might include what has worked for you in the past </li></ul>
  17. 17. Obstacles to Problem Solving <ul><li>Mental set- a habitual strategy or pattern of problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Functional fixedness- the inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Mental Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to approach a problem in a particular way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem </li></ul></ul>Obstacles to Problem Solving
  19. 19. <ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>Obstacles to Problem Solving
  20. 20. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>Solution to the matchstick problem </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Three-Jugs Problem <ul><li>Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated? </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Three-Jugs Problem <ul><li>Solution: a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume. </li></ul><ul><li>b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board? </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container </li></ul>
  26. 26. Creativity <ul><li>The capacity to use information and/or abilities in new and original ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a mystery to psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insight </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Flexibility <ul><li>The ability to overcome rigidity, to remain open to alternate strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Inflexible and rigid thinking leads to unoriginal or no solutions </li></ul>
  28. 28. Recombination <ul><li>Rearranging the elements of a problem to arrive at an original solution </li></ul><ul><li>Many creative people say that “no creative poem or invention has ever came from someone who has not spent years studying his or her subject </li></ul>
  29. 29. Insight <ul><li>The apparent sudden realization of the solution to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “aha” experience </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler (1976) Chimpanzee and banana experiement </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section 2 Language
  31. 31. Language <ul><li>Is the expression of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates facts and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of three elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morphemes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Phoneme <ul><li>An individual sound that is a basic structural element of language </li></ul><ul><li>English language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has 43 sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some languages have as few as 15 sounds and as many as 85 sounds </li></ul>
  33. 33. Morphemes <ul><li>The smallest unit of meaning in a given language </li></ul><ul><li>may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar- a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others </li></ul>
  34. 34. Language <ul><li>Syntax- language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics- the study of meaning in a language </li></ul>
  35. 35. Language Development <ul><li>B.F. Skinner- believed children learned language as a result of operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of Skinner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think children understand language before they speak and before they receive reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Language Development <ul><li>Some psychologists argue that children learn language through observation, explanation, and imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed reinforcement and imitation contribute, but does not believe that all the complex rules of language could be learned this way </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Language <ul><li>Babbling Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning at 3 to 4 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from about age 1 to 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Language <ul><li>Two-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning about age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
  40. 40. Benjamin Whorf <ul><li>Linguistic relativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the idea that language influences thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certain words may create stereotypes among gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ she” usually refers to secretaries, teachers, and nurses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ he” usually refers to doctor, engineers, and presidents of companies </li></ul></ul>
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