The Middle East


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  • The Middle East

    1. 1. Southwest Asia (The Middle East) Chapter 16
    2. 3. Turkey <ul><li>The European and Asian parts of Turkey are separated by three waterways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Bosporus </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Sea of Marmara </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Dardanelles </li></ul><ul><li>Together, these waterways are known as the Turkish Straits </li></ul>
    3. 4. Land & Climate <ul><li>Highlands & plateaus cover much of Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anatolian Plateau is the heart of Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pontiac Mountains border the plateau to the north. </li></ul><ul><li>The Taurus Mountains border to the south. </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Grassy plains cover the northern part of Turkey along the Black Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal plains run along the southern coast on the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>In the west, fertile river valleys run inland from the Aegean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The plateau areas are hot & dry in the summer and cold & snowy in the winter. </li></ul><ul><li>The coastal areas are hot & dry in the summer and mild & rainy in the winter. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture---Wheat & livestock are the leading products. </li></ul><ul><li>Best farmlands found in the coastal areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><li>65 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is Ankara. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people live in the northern part of the Anatolian Plateau, the coastal plains, or in the valleys. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Turkish is the major language, but Arabic, Greek, & Kurdish is spoken. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 98% of the population practices Islam (they are Muslims.) </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups of Christians and Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>About 64% of the people live in cities or towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul, the largest city, has eight million people. </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Istanbul is the only city in the world located on two continents. </li></ul><ul><li>Many mosques located in the city. </li></ul>
    8. 9. History <ul><li>Most of the population are descendants of an Asian people called Turks who migrated (moved) to the Anatolian Plateau in the 900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>One group of Turks, the Ottomans, established a Muslim empire centered in Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans controlled the region until the conclusion of WW I. </li></ul>
    9. 10. “ Father of the Turks” <ul><li>When WW I ended, the victors broke up the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey was only allowed to keep the small region that is recognized today. </li></ul><ul><li>The people were furious that the Sultan had given up so much of their land. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal, a young military officer, began a movement to establish Turkey as an independent republic. </li></ul>
    10. 13. <ul><li>Mustafa Kemal </li></ul><ul><li>1923—Kemal & his men overthrew the Sultan, and declared Turkey a republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal was elected President. </li></ul>
    11. 14. <ul><li>Kemal wanted to make Turkey a modern country, which meant sweeping reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Broke the bond between Islam & the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders were no longer involved in running the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced Islamic laws with laws based on European legal systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Outlawed the fez (a brimless, flat topped hat worn by men), and ridiculed the custom that required women to wear veils in public. </li></ul>
    12. 15. <ul><li>Women were given the right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>When Kemal died in 1938, Turkey was on its way to becoming a modern country. </li></ul><ul><li>Turks gave him the surname Ataturk, which means “Father of the Turks.” </li></ul>
    13. 16. Israel
    14. 17. <ul><li>Eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>256 miles long from north to south. </li></ul><ul><li>68 miles wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Has plains, deserts, & highlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Far north---mountains of Galilee </li></ul><ul><li>East of the mountains is a plateau---Golan Heights </li></ul><ul><li>In the south----Judean Hills </li></ul><ul><li>The Dead Sea is located between Israel & Jordan. </li></ul>
    15. 18. The Dead Sea <ul><li>1,312 ft. below sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Rim of the Dead Sea is the lowest place on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Saltiest body of water on earth, about 9X as salty as the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>So many minerals that fish & other animals cannot live in it. </li></ul>
    16. 20. The Negev <ul><li>Southern Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Desert area, covers ½ of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular area of dry hills, valleys, & plains. </li></ul>
    17. 21. <ul><li>The south also has a narrow, fertile plain (only 20 miles wide), along the country’s Mediterranean Coast. </li></ul><ul><li>In the east, the Jordan River flows into the Dead Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>North has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers & mild winters (about 40 inches of rain). </li></ul><ul><li>South has a desert climate, with temperatures reaching 120 F & less than an inch of rain. </li></ul>
    18. 22. The Economy <ul><li>Limited farmland & natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Most industrialized nation in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories produce food products, clothing, chemicals, building materials, electronic appliances, & machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond cutting is a major industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Tel Aviv is the largest manufacturing center. </li></ul>
    19. 23. <ul><li>Mining is important----the Dead Sea is rich in potash ( a type of mineral salt, used in explosives and fertilizer) </li></ul><ul><li>The Negev area is a source of copper & phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate ---A mineral used in making fertilizer. </li></ul>
    20. 24. <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Israel drained their swamps, built irrigation systems, & used fertilizers to improve their soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce oranges, grapefruits, & lemons. </li></ul>
    21. 25. The Law of the Return <ul><li>Increased population in the country more than any other factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in 1950---law states that settlement in Israel is open to Jews from anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel has about six million people. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of the population are Jews (also includes Muslim and Christian Arabs.) </li></ul>
    22. 26. <ul><li>Most of Israel’s Arabs are part of a group called Palestinians. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews & Arabs both trace their roots to groups that live in the area centuries ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians ---Descendants of Arabs that inhabited Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Israelis live in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem is the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest cities are Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Yafo, & Haifa. </li></ul>
    23. 27. Jerusalem <ul><li>Holy city for Jews, Christians, & Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>All three groups practice monotheism. </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism ---A belief in one god. </li></ul>
    24. 28. Early Israel <ul><li>Many Israeli Jews came from places such as Europe, North Africa, and the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Origins can be traced back to the Hebrews who set up a kingdom with a capital at Jerusalem in 1000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>922 B.C. Hebrew nation split into Israel & Judah. </li></ul><ul><li>People of Judah known as Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Israel & Judah were eventually destroyed by invaders. </li></ul>
    25. 29. <ul><li>Israel was ruled by the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, & Ottoman Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Romans, the Israel and Judah became the country of Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>1800’s---Palestine included Arabs and a small community of Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Many European Jews moved to Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>These settlers, known as Zionists , wanted to set up a homeland for Jews. </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>Zionists, named after the hill in Jerusalem, believed that the only way to solve the problem of oppression was by returning to the place they considered their homeland----Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>1917---British government issued the Balfour Declaration . </li></ul><ul><li>Stated Britain’s support for the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine without violating the rights of Arabs living there. </li></ul>
    27. 31. <ul><li>Arabs are shocked by the declaration. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to believe that all Arabs would be granted the right of self-determination (the right to determine their own political future.) </li></ul><ul><li>British told the Arabs self-determination was still their goal. </li></ul><ul><li>It was now clear that the goals of the Jews & the Arabs were at odds. </li></ul>
    28. 32. Modern Israel <ul><li>After WW I, the British controlled Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Holocaust brought worldwide attention to the Zionist cause. </li></ul><ul><li>1947---the United Nations voted to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state. </li></ul><ul><li>1948---the Jews of Palestine declared an independent republic called the State of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs of Palestine rejected the idea. </li></ul>
    29. 33. <ul><li>1948-1974---Series of Arab-Israeli wars in which Israel gained Arab land. </li></ul><ul><li>1978---Peace treaty between Israel & Egypt </li></ul>
    30. 34. Syria, Lebanon, & Jordan Section 3
    31. 35. Syria <ul><li>Capital---Damascus </li></ul><ul><li>Independent in 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile coastal plains & valleys along the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is the major economic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers raise mostly cotton & wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary industry is textile making, but Syrian cloth & fabrics have been highly valued since ancient times. </li></ul><ul><li>Also produces cement, chemicals & glass. </li></ul>
    32. 36. <ul><li>About 50% of the 15.6 million people live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are Bedouins (people who move through the deserts.) </li></ul>
    33. 37. <ul><li>Bedouin is Arabic for “desert dweller.” </li></ul><ul><li>The other half of the population lives in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Damascus, home to more than two million people, was founded more than 5,000 years ago as a trading center. </li></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><li>1970 General Hafez al-Assad took power in Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>Deceased 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Assad allows little political freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>He makes all key decisions regarding foreign policy, national security, & the economy. </li></ul>
    35. 39. Recent History of Syria <ul><li>For most of recent history, Syria has been under a state of emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>This means Syria has a wide latitude in dealing with suspects, detainees, and prisoners. </li></ul><ul><li>Many human rights violations reported. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) 1982— Army’s assault on the city of Hama (ancient city stronghold of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood group.) </li></ul><ul><li>Assad’s forces killed thousands of civilians and destroyed the city of Hama. </li></ul>
    36. 40. Lebanon <ul><li>Capital is Beirut </li></ul><ul><li>One of the smallest countries in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>West of Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly smaller than the state of Connecticut. </li></ul>
    37. 41. <ul><li>Consists of plains & mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains run along Lebanon’s eastern border. </li></ul><ul><li>The coast has a mild, humid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Inland areas receive less rainfall and have lower winter and higher summer temperatures. </li></ul>
    38. 42. <ul><li>Service industries such as banking are Lebanon’s source of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon manufactures products such as cement, chemicals, electric appliances, and textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow apples, oranges, grapes, potatoes, & olives. </li></ul>
    39. 43. The People <ul><li>70% of Lebanon’s 4.1 million people are Muslims (most of the rest are Christians.) </li></ul><ul><li>86% of the population live in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>1975---The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) set up military bases in Lebanon. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader of the PLO was Yasser Arafat </li></ul>
    40. 45. <ul><li>The PLO conducted raids across the border to Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Israelis struck back at PLO forces in Lebanon. </li></ul><ul><li>1975-1991 groups of Muslims & Christians fought a civil war ( a conflict among different groups in a country.) </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement in 1993 between Israel and the PLO for limited Palestinian self-determination brought hope for Israel. </li></ul>
    41. 46. Jordan <ul><li>Capital is Amman. </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan is slightly larger than the state of Kentucky. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1967, Jordan also held land west of the Jordan River (area known as the West Bank.) </li></ul><ul><li>The West Bank, under the control of Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, is home to more than 1.8 million Palestinian Arabs. </li></ul>
    42. 47. <ul><li>Jordan stretches from the fertile Jordan River valley in the west to the dry, rugged country in the east. </li></ul><ul><li>The north and west parts of the country have mild, rainy winters & dry, hot summers. </li></ul><ul><li>The south & east have a hot, dry climate year-round. </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>Most people work in agriculture or in manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured goods include cement, chemicals, & petroleum products. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow citrus fruits, tomatoes, & melons. </li></ul>
    44. 49. The People <ul><li>4.6 million people, with most being Arab Muslims or Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes one million Palestinian Arabs who fled Israel or the West Bank during the Arab-Israeli Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Amman has 1.2 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan is a constitutional monarchy ( a form of government in which the monarch shares power with elected officials.) </li></ul>
    45. 50. The Arabian Peninsula Section 4
    46. 51. Saudi Arabia <ul><li>Largest country in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about the size of the eastern half of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a large portion of the world’s oil. (The Middle East holds 67% of the world’s known oil.) </li></ul>
    47. 52. The Land <ul><li>Deserts cover much of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest desert is the Empty Quarter in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>The Empty Quarter has mountains of sand that reach heights of more than 1,000 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands stretch along the Red Sea in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Valleys among the highlands provide the fertile farmland. </li></ul><ul><li>East---Coastal Plain along the Persian Gulf. </li></ul>
    48. 53. The Economy <ul><li>Based on oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil money builds schools, hospitals, roads, & airports. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is limited because of lack of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants have been built to remove salt from the Persian Gulf & the Red Sea to meet the need for water for drinking & irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called desalination . </li></ul>
    49. 54. OPEC <ul><li>In 1960, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, & Saudi Arabia joined Venezuela to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC.) </li></ul><ul><li>Meet regularly to decide how much oil to produce & at what price to sell it. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : To decrease the influence of western oil companies on their countries & to increase their profits. </li></ul>
    50. 55. <ul><li>In the 1970’s, the prices soared. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries had to cancel social programs to pay for oil. </li></ul><ul><li>OPEC has expanded to include more nations from Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, & Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher demand for oil=More power for OPEC. </li></ul>
    51. 56. The People <ul><li>Once divided into family groups. </li></ul><ul><li>1932—Monarchy led by the Saud family unified the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Saud family still rules today. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the 20.2 million people live in villages & towns along the Persian Gulf or around oases (lush, green places in dry areas that have enough water for crops to grow.) </li></ul><ul><li>Riyadh was the result of an oases. </li></ul>
    52. 57. <ul><li>Islamic religion affects almost all parts of life in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Makkah was an important city in the life of Muhammad, the man who brought Islam to Arabs in the A.D. 600’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of Muslims from around the world visit Makkah each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Muslim tries to make a hajj (a religious journey to Makkah) at least once in their lifetime. </li></ul>
    53. 59. Persian Gulf States <ul><li>Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the U.A.E. are located along the Persian Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>Below their deserts lie vast deposits of oil. </li></ul><ul><li>These countries have used their oil profits to build strong economies. </li></ul><ul><li>High standard of living with great healthcare, education, & housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Many foreign workers have settled in the Gulf to work in the modern cities & oil fields. </li></ul>
    54. 60. Oman <ul><li>Capital---Muscat </li></ul><ul><li>Largely desert, with lots of oil ( the economy is based on oil.) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the people live in rural villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil industry is bringing people into urban areas. </li></ul>
    55. 61. Yemen <ul><li>Capital---San’a </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>People are farmers or herders of sheep & cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>Aden is a major port for ships traveling between the Arabian & Red Seas. </li></ul>
    56. 62. Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan Section 5
    57. 63. Iraq <ul><li>Capital---Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq has only been in existence since the early 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris & Euphrates Rivers are the major geographic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>West of these rivers, it is mostly desert. </li></ul>
    58. 64. Economy <ul><li>Oil is the major export. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories produce food products, cloth, soap, & leather goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow barley, dates, grapes, melons, citrus fruits, & wheat. </li></ul>
    59. 65. <ul><li>The People </li></ul><ul><li>21.8 million people </li></ul><ul><li>70% live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Arabs make up the largest group. </li></ul><ul><li>Kurds, who have their own culture & live in the mountains of northeast Iraq, are the 2 nd largest. </li></ul><ul><li>Kurds, along with the Kurds of Turkey, would like independence. </li></ul>
    60. 66. Iran <ul><li>About the size of Alaska. </li></ul><ul><li>A dry plateau stretches across the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Caspian Sea to the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Gulf to the south. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountainous regions have cold winters and mild summers. </li></ul><ul><li>Central plateau has a dry climate with cold winter temperatures and mild to hot summers. </li></ul>
    61. 67. <ul><li>The Economy </li></ul><ul><li>One of the world’s leading oil producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Iran produces leather goods, machine tools, & tobacco products. </li></ul><ul><li>Not much water in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 12% of the land can be used for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to grow small amounts of wheat, barley, corn, cotton, dates, nuts, & tea. </li></ul>
    62. 68. <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>64.1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Most speak Farsi (Persian) </li></ul><ul><li>98% are Shiite Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>61% live in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Once part of the Persian Empire 3,500 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Descendants of the Persians make up the majority of the population today. </li></ul>
    63. 69. Afghanistan <ul><li>Capital---Kabul </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu Kush range covers most of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Khyber Pass, which cuts through the mountains, has been used as a major trade route. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands and deserts cover most of the country. </li></ul>
    64. 70. The Economy <ul><li>Farming of wheat, barley, corn, cotton, fruits, nuts, & vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in minerals, but not much industry. </li></ul>
    65. 71. The People <ul><li>24.8 million people </li></ul><ul><li>About 20 different ethnic groups with their own language and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The two largest groups are the Pushtuns and the Tajiks. </li></ul><ul><li>People practice Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Many civil wars. </li></ul>