Speech Power Point

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Speech Power Point

  1. 1. Speech Anxiety Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  2. 2. Why are we afraid of speaking in public? <ul><li>The reason most people get anxious when required to speak to a group is that they are afraid of looking foolish or stupid in front of many of their peers and important people. </li></ul><ul><li>They are afraid that their mind will go blank or that their lack of speaking skills will lower the opinion others have of them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Steps you can take to reduce the fear. <ul><li>In most cases the fear or nervousness is just extra energy. </li></ul><ul><li>You first must attempt to reduce the fear. </li></ul><ul><li>The easiest way to do this is through preparation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Steps to Reduce Fear <ul><li>Be well-prepared in what you do before a group </li></ul><ul><li>Have a backup, in case you forget what you want to say </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that the audience is on your team -- they want you to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, practice, practice </li></ul>
  5. 5. Be well prepared <ul><li>Have a good outline of facts and information that you can talk about. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies are laid out, all material is ready, contingency plans are made, and every detail is taken care of when professionals or CEOs deliver important speeches </li></ul><ul><li>When we don't prepare -- we prepare to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>When you are well prepared, chances of failure or goof-ups are greatly reduced. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Have a Backup <ul><li>  It is worthwhile to bring along a &quot;security blanket&quot; or &quot;safety net&quot; in case something goes wrong in your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, having your speech outlined on some sort of cards or pages is a good backup in case you have a mental lapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to your notes is certainly acceptable to refresh your memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use your notes/speaking outline as a crutch, but to keep you on track. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reduce your fear of your audience <ul><li>Speaking to peers, employers, instructors, or dignitaries can create fear in a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your audience as being on &quot;your team.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Become one with your audience. Don't build an artificial wall between you and your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct eye contact can create a oneness between you and your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the abundance of energy that your audience is capable of projecting to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that they are on your team and they are there to hear what you have to say. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Practice <ul><li>The more you give a talk, the more automatic it becomes </li></ul><ul><li>Practice out loud; alone; to small groups; to friends; to relatives; to strangers; to pets; to roommates. Practice. Practice. Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat your practice just like you treat the speech on speech day. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Selecting A Speech Topic Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  10. 11. Selecting a topic <ul><li>For many students choosing a topic is one of the hardest things to do in this class. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not the only one who is having trouble selecting a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>I would suggest that you start brainstorming possible topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with your interests. What do you like to do? What do you do well? Essentially you are teaching us about something. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Selecting a topic <ul><li>A great speech starts with a great topic. </li></ul><ul><li>It is so important that you select a topic that interests you, and you believe will interest your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have some potential topics you will want to ask yourself some questions about each topic in order to find the best one for you and your audience. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Once you have a topic (or list of topics) ask yourself the following questions. <ul><ul><li>Am I interested in the topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will I enjoy researching this topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will I enjoy talking about this topic and sharing my information with my audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will my audience be interested in my topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I passionate about this topic? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Selecting a topic <ul><li>If you can answer yes to all of the above questions then you have selected a great topic for you and your audience. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Using Visual Aids Effectively Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  15. 17. <ul><li>The key to a strong presentation isn't the equipment you use. </li></ul><ul><li>You should be able to do your presentation on a blank stage, with no props, and have it work on its own.  </li></ul><ul><li>The whole idea of visual aids is to enhance your presentation, not to be the purpose of it. </li></ul><ul><li>The absolutely worst presenters are those who use the equipment as a crutch. </li></ul>
  16. 18. OVERHEAD PROJECTORS <ul><li>The overhead projector is the most used and abused of all audio-visual equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead projectors can greatly enhance your presentation if they are used right. </li></ul><ul><li>They are very easy to use and can accommodate large or small audiences.  </li></ul>
  17. 19. Tips on using this vital piece of equipment: <ul><li>  Before Presentations: 1. Make sure the plug reaches the socket. It is a good idea to carry an extension cord </li></ul><ul><li>2. Put the projector at a height that is comfortable for you. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Make sure the lens is dust free. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Put the projector on a vibration free base. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Tips on using this vital piece of equipment: <ul><li>Before Presentations: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Arrange the electric cord so no one will trip over it. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Focus and center the picture on the screen beforehand. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Number your transparencies in accordance with your facilitator's guide. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Never assume projectors will work. Have a backup strategy ready. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Tips on using this vital piece of equipment: <ul><li>  During Presentations: 1. Keep the screen above the heads of the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Keep the screen in full view of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Make sure you are not blocking anyone's view when presenting. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Darken the room appropriately by blocking out sunshine and dimming nearby lights. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Tips on using this vital piece of equipment: <ul><li>Turn the screen off between slides if you are going to talk for more than two minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>6. No one should be farther from the screen than six times the width of the image. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Talk to the audience, not to the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Use a pointer to emphasize points, don't use it as a crutch and don't wave it wildly. </li></ul>
  21. 23. TIPS ON USING FLIP CHARTS AND POSTERS: <ul><li>  Before Presentations: 1. Check the height of the easel. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make sure you have plenty of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>  During Presentations: 1. Title each page with a short topic or heading. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Print the large block letters 1 1/4 inches high, larger if the room is deeper than 30ft.    </li></ul><ul><li>3. Printing should be neat and legible. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use different colors for page headings and primary points. </li></ul>
  22. 24. TIPS ON USING FLIP CHARTS AND POSTERS: <ul><li>During Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>5. The color red should be used only for emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Do not use pastel colors. Black, blue, dark green and brown are acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Put marker down when you are not using it. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Don't talk to the board while writing on it. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Do not write more than ten lines on a page. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Do not fill the page to the bottom. People in the back will be unable to see. </li></ul>
  23. 25. TIPS ON USING FLIP CHARTS AND POSTERS: <ul><li>11. Respond to and note input from participants. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Post important papers on the wall with masking tape or pins. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Do not write on the papers after posting on the wall. The pen may bleed. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Highlight key points. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Respond to and highlight input from participants. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Allow time for reading, retention and note taking. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Use the 'matador tear', a sharp tug at the corner, not straight down.  </li></ul>
  24. 26. TIPS ON USING FLIP CHARTS AND POSTERS: <ul><li>Other suggestions: 1. For complex pages, prepare ahead in light pencil and then trace with a marker. </li></ul><ul><li>2. If you travel with prepared pages, roll them up and carry them in a mailing tube. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sometimes you might use two easels, one already prepared and one for extemporaneous use. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Videotapes <ul><li>  Before Presentations: 1. Be sure the videotape is rewound and at the starting point. Do this right after you show the film. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Check to make sure the playback machine and the monitor are playing properly. Check this before the session so you may replace the machine if it is not working properly. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Check audio level and contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lights should be dimmed but not turned off. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Videotapes <ul><li>  During Presentation: 1. Explain what the purpose of the tape is before playing it. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Show interest in the tape and watch it enthusiastically. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Summarize the main points after you have shown the tape. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Audiotapes <ul><li>  Before Presentation: 1. Be sure the tape is rewound and at its starting point. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adjust the volume so all participants can hear. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use a high quality recorder to prevent distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>4. If the recorder is portable, position it at table level of the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Explain the purpose of the tape and identify the speaker before playing.  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Always carry a backup tape! </li></ul>
  28. 30. BOOKS <ul><li>  Books: 1. If you are using training manuals, make sure each student has one. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make sure you have a few extra books with you in case extra students arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Make sure you frequently reference page numbers with your audience so they know where you are in the book. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  29. 31. Handouts <ul><li>Handouts: 1. For visual variety provide handouts on yellow light blue paper. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Distribute the handouts just prior to discussing the topics. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have extra handouts for unexpected participants. </li></ul>
  30. 32. MICROPHONE <ul><li>  Before Presentation: 1. If you are going to be moving around during your presentation make sure that a clip on (Lavalier) microphone is available. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Lavalier should be attached to a jacket, lapel, collar, neckline or tie above the mid chest level, but not against the larynx or your voice will become muffled. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Microphone <ul><li>During Presentation: 1. Speak clearly into the microphone. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Keep proper distance from the microphone. When using a standard podium microphone talk about six inches from the microphone. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Repeat questions from the audience into the microphone. This helps everyone hear the question that was asked. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Analyzing Your Audience Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  33. 36. <ul><li>One easy way to do this in our class is to ask your audience specific questions about your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Put together an Audience Analysis Questionnaire for your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>You will include demographic questions and an opening & closing. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring with you a questionnaire for each person in class. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Example Questionnaire <ul><li>Please answer the following questions about yourself and your current weather knowledge. Circle the response that best describes your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender:   FEMALE        MALE </li></ul><ul><li>1. What part of the country/ world are you from? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Excluding your present location, where have you lived? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have you ever studied weather in high school or college?   YES     NO </li></ul><ul><li>4. Briefly describe the most memorable weather event that you've been     through.   </li></ul><ul><li>5. How often do you watch the weather report on the nightly news?             Once                3times               5 or more             a week            a week             times a week  6. How much time do you spend doing outside activities per week? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Have you ever had an event, such as a picnic or parade, canceled due     to the weather?     YES     NO </li></ul><ul><li>8. Briefly describe the difference between low and high pressure system. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Have you ever used an old addage or maybe an ache or pain to predict     what weather was going to happen?     YES     NO </li></ul>
  35. 38. Example Questionnaire <ul><li>10. To what degree do you feel the weather affects your daily life?                     Very little         Moderately         Very much so </li></ul><ul><li>11. How many pieces of information do you think a weather forecaster        uses on a daily basis?                 5 or less             10-15             20 or more </li></ul><ul><li>12. How do you feel about meteorologists?   </li></ul><ul><li>13. Please name or draw some weather symbols you've seen.     </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you very much for your time and the information you have provided. Please return this questionnaire to Rich.  </li></ul>
  36. 39. Audience Identification <ul><li>What do you and your audience have in common? </li></ul><ul><li>And conversely, how are you different? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideas or examples in your speech can your audience identify with? </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential to select a topic that you know well, that you feel comfortable with, or that you have a strong interest in. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential to present your message (speech) from the audience's point of view. </li></ul>
  37. 40. Questions to Consider when adapting your topics: <ul><li>What do you and your audience have in common? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you and your audience different? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideas or examples in your speech might your audience identify with? </li></ul><ul><li>How can your topic or the information benefit your audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How can your audience use the information? </li></ul>
  38. 41. Questions to Consider when adapting your topics: <ul><li>How will the information help your audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your audience's amount of interest in or attitude toward your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you address or compensate for your audience's amount of interest in or attitude toward your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What does your audience know about your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What might they want to know or need to know about your topic? </li></ul>
  39. 43. Supporting A Speech Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  40. 44. Supporting materials <ul><li>A Definition: The term supporting materials refers to the information a person provides to develop and/or justify an idea that is offered for a listener's consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Without supporting materials, an oral presentation is little more than a string of assertions (claims without backing). </li></ul>
  41. 45. Supporting Materials <ul><li>Supporting materials serve a variety of functions in oral presentations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to clarify the speaker's point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to emphasize the point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to make the point more interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to furnish a basis that enables others to believe the speaker's point. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. General Guidelines for Supporting Materials <ul><li>1. Pertinence -- Each piece of support should be clearly relevant to the point it is used to support. 2. Variety -- The presentation should not rely excessively on one type of support (such as examples) but should instead use a number of different forms of support. 3. Amount -- The presentation should include a sufficient amount of support (enough to make the ideas presented both clear and compelling to the audience). </li></ul>
  43. 47. General Guidelines for Supporting Materials <ul><li>4. Detail -- Each piece of support needs to be developed to the point that audience members can both understand the item of support AND can see how the item backs up the point it is used to support. 5. Appropriateness -- Each piece of supporting material should meet the demands that the audience </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;scholarly&quot; audience, for example, will probably place higher demands on the speaker's sources of information than a &quot;general&quot; audience would. </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;graphic&quot; description of a particular topic, while entirely fitting in some occasions, might be out of place in another. </li></ul>
  44. 48. Specific Guidelines for Supporting Materials <ul><li>Specific Guidelines for Supporting Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting materials are usually offered in recurring forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending upon the form of support provided, you should ask yourself some questions to determine if you are making the best possible use of that kind of material: </li></ul>
  45. 49. For Examples/Narratives: <ul><li>* Is the example/narrative representative? </li></ul><ul><li>* Is the example/narrative sufficiently detailed and vivid? </li></ul><ul><li>* Is the example/narrative personalized? </li></ul><ul><li>* If necessary, was the source cited in the speech? </li></ul>
  46. 50. For Statistics: <ul><li>* Is the source of the statistic reliable? </li></ul><ul><li>* Has the source of the statistics been cited in the speech? </li></ul><ul><li>* Has the statistic been used correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you rounded-off complicated statistics? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you interpreted the statistic (explained it in another way)? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you done something to emphasize the statistic? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you used statistics sparingly? </li></ul>
  47. 51. For testimony <ul><li>* Is the source qualified to make the statement you're quoting? </li></ul><ul><li>* Is the quotation accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you attributed the testimony prior to the quote? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you made it clear whether you are paraphrasing or quoting directly? </li></ul><ul><li>* If you are quoting, is the quotation brief? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you clearly signaled where the testimony begins and ends? </li></ul><ul><li>* Are the source's conclusions reasonably free from bias? </li></ul>
  48. 52. For comparison/contrast <ul><li>* Is comparison appropriate and justified? * Is the comparison meaningful -- does it tell your audience something valuable? * Have you avoided overdoing the comparison? </li></ul>
  49. 54. Visualize a Superior Speech Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  50. 55. Visualizing your speech <ul><li>By becoming aware of the areas in which you want to improve your public speaking you can begin improving in these areas even before your next speech (Right Now...Today). </li></ul>
  51. 56. Visualizing your speech <ul><li>Visualize yourself giving your next speech--using your strengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize yourself improved in all of the areas that you want to improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize a strong, confident, well prepared, enjoyable speech, with a great introduction and conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize the most vivid, successful speech you can imagine. This will help you prepare for success. </li></ul>
  52. 57. Visualizing your speech <ul><li>Further organization and preparation of all aspects of your presentation will also help you improve. </li></ul><ul><li>The more prepared you are the more confident you will be. </li></ul><ul><li>You want to control for everything that you can, so your situation doesn't take control of you. Well thought out Practice and rehearsal is also a great way to prepare for your speech and ensure your success. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior preparation and practice will set the stage for a superior presentation. </li></ul>
  53. 59. Practicing Your Speech Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  54. 60. Practicing Your Speech <ul><li>DO! </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the room where you will give your presentation to get a feel for the environment/set-up. Practice in front of a friend or friends without stopping, just as you will want to give your presentation on speech day. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice in front of a mirror (full length if possible). </li></ul><ul><li>Practice using visual aids so you know how much time they will take up and how to incorporate them into your speech. </li></ul>
  55. 61. Do <ul><li>Practice with background noise (ie.- turn on the tv, radio, etc.) in order to practice with distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice with the actual speaking outline you will use in your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice your speech dressed as you plan to be for your actual presentation so that you can feel comfortable and ready to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Time yourself. -- Make sure that you are consistently within your time frame. </li></ul>
  56. 62. Do <ul><li>Video tape yourself if possible. This is the best way for you to be able to see what your mistakes are so that you can fix them before you give your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice becoming aware of your posture and mannerisms as you speak. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are going to use movement on speech day -- you need to practice moving--keep it controlled and natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate any distracting mannerisms you may have. </li></ul>
  57. 63. Get Rid of Distracting Mannerisms <ul><li>many nervous habits you might have </li></ul><ul><li>playing with a ring or necklace </li></ul><ul><li>tucking hair behind your ear, </li></ul><ul><li>playing with a pen, cracking knuckles, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>These are actions you can easily avoid doing if you are aware of them. </li></ul>
  58. 64. Don’t <ul><li>Speakers often do things that drive their audiences crazy. Don't! </li></ul><ul><li>Never have change or keys in your pockets. You do not want to have the sound of objects competing with your voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Never wear a hat, unless it is part of your presentation. Dress appropriately any time you give a presentation. It is better to make a credible first impression by looking as if you are interested in giving a good speech. </li></ul>
  59. 65. Don’t <ul><li>Do not use distracting mannerisms. This includes many nervous habits you might have (i.e. playing with a ring or necklace, tucking hair behind your ear, playing with a pen; cracking knuckles, etc.). These are actions you can easily avoid doing if you are aware of them. Take off your jewlry; tie your hair back or moose it down; get rid of the pen, etc... </li></ul><ul><li>Do not stand with your arms crossed or your hands in your pockets. This type of posture prevents you from gesturing and may even make your audience uncomfortable. </li></ul>
  60. 66. Don’t <ul><li>Never apologize if you make a mistake while giving a speech. Simply correct the mistake and move on. You never want to draw light to an error, chances are most people will miss it anyway. Along these same lines never make faces when you make a mistake it is better to just keep going. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't put your visual aids up in front of the class before you explain them. Rather introduce them as you are speaking. Also, don't keep visual aids up after you are no longer referring to them. Use Visual Cues on your speaking outline to easily avoid these blunders. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't practice your speech holding on to your speaking outline. When you are practicing put your outline on something - Music stand; A box; A high counter, anything to simulate the lectern that you will be presenting with. </li></ul>
  61. 68. Presenting Your Speech Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  62. 69. Tips on Giving Effective Presentations: <ul><li>Eye Contact  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using natural, direct eye contact helps your audience feel  connected to you.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestures  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures can help you paint pictures with words, but make sure          they don't get in the way, and they are natural.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic. If you don't care, why should your audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your enthusiasm builds your audience's enthusiasm. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 70. Tips on Giving Effective Presentations: <ul><li>Articulation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate your words clearly so the members of your audience will understand you.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breathe  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing helps you control nervousness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also gives you time to gather your thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that a pause can be used to provide emphasis.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posture  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct posture conveys confidence.  </li></ul></ul>
  64. 71. Tips on Giving Effective Presentations: <ul><li>Tone  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tone of your voice can create or change a mood.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dress  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress for success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be neat and professional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't wear loud accessories that will distract members of the audience.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use proper language and be careful not to use non-words and fillers such as &quot;um&quot; and &quot;uh&quot; too often.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smile  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A smile will not only make you look and feel better, but also make your audience more receptive. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 73. Group Project Guidelines Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  66. 74. GROUP PROJECT TASK LIST <ul><li>STEP #1: ORIENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Group members need to learn who everyone is -- exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phone numbers, email addresses, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep a record of this information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss what the group is expected to do </li></ul><ul><li>don't assume that the requirements of the group project are clear to everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>More often than not, people are not always sure about what the group is expected to do. </li></ul>
  67. 75. STEP #2: DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>Divide the project up into a series of smaller steps or parts </li></ul><ul><li>Put the parts of the project into a time sequence -- in what order must each step or part of the project be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on a time table -- when must each part of the project be finished? </li></ul>
  68. 76. STEP #2: DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>Agree on who is responsible for each part of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on what each person must PRODUCE for their part of the project by the agreed upon deadline. </li></ul><ul><li>BE SPECIFIC -- everyone in the group must agree to turn in something tangible to the group at a stated time. </li></ul>
  69. 77. STEP #2: DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>Agree about what to do if people in the group &quot;get behind&quot; and won't be able to meet a deadline. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree upon a schedule of meetings – </li></ul><ul><li>most groups think all they need to do is divide up the work, </li></ul><ul><li>meet five minutes before the presentation, and &quot;whip it together.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>You can do it this way, but the approach rarely works! </li></ul>
  70. 78. STEP #3. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Use some of your group meetings to review what members have accomplished up to that point. </li></ul><ul><li>Have group members provide feedback about each other's work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the material provided by the member what the group needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is something missing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what else needs to be done? </li></ul></ul>
  71. 79. STEP #3. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Set new expectations and deadlines as appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group's usually discover as the project moves along that the original time table and division of group member responsibilities needs to be modified. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the time to do that so that the work doesn't all pile up at the end. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to possible gaps in the group's work -- are there important topics or tasks that the group is overlooking? </li></ul>
  72. 80. STEP #4. PRESENTATION PLANNING <ul><li>Once the research on the project is fairly far along, the group needs to turn its attention to the question of HOW to orally present the material the group gathered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANY GROUPS MAKE THE MISTAKE OF WANTING TO TALK ABOUT THE PLAN FOR THE PRESENTATION TOO SOON. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait until the group has a pretty good idea of what they'll be talking about. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 81. STEP #4. PRESENTATION PLANNING <ul><li>Decide on a presentation topic </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who will serve as the presentation moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on audio/visual aids for the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions about physical arrangements for the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Work to improve delivery skills of the group members </li></ul>

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