Psychology Exam Review 1


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Psychology Exam Review 1

  1. 1. Psychology Exam Review December 2007
  2. 2. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Synapse- is the gap that exists between individual nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord- are the nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and the brain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Neurons- are the long, thin cells of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes- are basic units of heredity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Hormones- are chemical substances that carry messages through the body in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system- the brain and spinal cord </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Pituitary gland- the center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine system- a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Myelin sheath- is a white, fatty substance that insulates and protects the axon for some neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism- too much thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism- to little thyroxine </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Four lobes of the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 6 <ul><li>Left side of the brain controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right side of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical ability, calculation, and logic </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Insomnia- is the failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep apnea- is a disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while sleeping. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Narcolepsy- is a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic suggestion- are suggested things for their participants to remember or forget when the trance is over. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Consciousness- is a state of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of meditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medical </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Three types of meditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Stages of sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse slows and muscles relax and breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow irregular. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes roll slowly from side to side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by large-amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain almost every second </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Stages of Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deepest sleep of all and very difficult to awaken sleeper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chapter 8 <ul><li>Vision is the most studied senses. </li></ul><ul><li>8% of men have color deficiency </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 8 <ul><li>Vance Packard wrote the book The Hidden Persuaders . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It focused on subliminal messages in advertising </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 8 <ul><li>Sensation- is the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception- is the organization and interpretation of sensory information into meaningful experiences. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chapter 8 <ul><li>Subliminal messages- are brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold so that their chance of perception is less than 50 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>Illusions- are perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Conditioned response- is the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus- is a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has bee paired with and unconditioned stimulus </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Classical conditioning- is a learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcer- stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Token economy- conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Two negatives to punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People learn to avoid the person delivering the consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce unwanted side effects such as rage, fear, and agression </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 9 <ul><li>Little Albert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists put Little Albert in a cage with rats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He played with the rats until a buzzer or siren scared him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He associated the sound with the rats and he was afraid to play with them anymore. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Chapter 10 <ul><li>Storage- is the process by which information is maintained over a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory- is the input, storage, and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Chapter 10 <ul><li>Encoding- is the transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chapter 10 <ul><li>The three stages of memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Term </li></ul></ul>