Psychology Chapter 6

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Psychology Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Body and Behavior
  2. 2. Section 1 The Nervous System: The Basic Structure
  3. 3. How the nervous system works <ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS)- the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord- nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- nerves branching beyond the spinal cord into the body </li></ul>
  4. 5. Neurons <ul><li>The long, thin cells of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission occurs whenever cells are stimulated past a minimum point and emit a signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Either fires or does not fire </li></ul>
  5. 6. Parts of a neuron <ul><li>Dendrites- short, thin fibers that protrude from the cell body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive impulses or messages and send them to the cell body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Axon- carries the impulses from the cell body to the axon terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Axon terminals- release neurotransmitters to stimulate dendrites of the next neuron </li></ul>
  6. 7. Parts of a neuron <ul><li>Myelin sheath- insulates and protects the axon for some neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speeds the transmission of impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In cases of multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath is gone. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. The Neuron Connection <ul><li>Synapse- the gap that exists between individual nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters- the chemicals released by neurons which determine the rate at which other neurons fire </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine- is involved with memory and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorphine- inhibits pain </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Neuron Activity <ul><li>Intensity of neurons depends on how many other neurons are acting on it </li></ul><ul><li>Afferent neurons- sensory neurons that relay messages from the sense organs to the brain (eyes, ears, nose, skin) </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent neurons- motor neurons that send messages from the brain to the glands and muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Interneurons- process signals, connecting only to other neurons, not to sensors or muscles </li></ul>
  9. 10. Voluntary and Involuntary activities <ul><li>Somatic nervous system (SNS)- the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system (ANS)- the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls internal biological functions </li></ul>
  10. 11. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares the body for dealing with emergencies or strenuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works to conserve energy and to enhance the body’s ability to recover from strenuous activity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Section 2 Studying the Brain
  12. 13. Three parts of the Brain <ul><li>Hindbrain- a part of the brain located at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic processes of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain- a small part of the brain above the pons that arouses the brain, integrates sensory information, and relays it upward </li></ul><ul><li>Forebrain- a part of the brain that covers the brain’s central core, responsible for sensory and motor control and the processing of thinking and language </li></ul>
  13. 14. Hindbrain <ul><li>Includes the following parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps control posture, balance and voluntary movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls breathing, heart rate, and reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge between the spinal cord and brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces chemicals the body needs for sleep </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Forebrain <ul><li>Includes the following parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“relay station” for all info that travels to and from the cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls functions of hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the bodies reaction to temperature </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Forebrain <ul><li>Includes the following parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer of the forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer of the forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you the ability to learn and store complex and abstract information </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Forebrain <ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes various structures that regulate our emotions and motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala- controls violent emotions like rage or fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus- is important for the formation of memories </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Lobes of the Brain <ul><li>Corpus callosum- a band of fibers that joins the two sides or hemispheres of the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Lobes- are the different regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided </li></ul>
  18. 19. Lobes of the Brain <ul><li>Occipital lobe- visual signals are sent </li></ul><ul><li>Pariental lobe- concerned with various information from the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe- concerned with hearing, memory, emotion, and speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe- concerned with organization, planning, and creative thinking </li></ul>
  19. 20. Left and Right Hemispheres <ul><li>Right and left sides of the brain complement each other </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical ability, where speech is located </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls visual and spatial relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual tasks </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. How Psychologists Study the Brain <ul><li>Recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electroencephalograph (EEG)- is a machine used to record electrical activity of large portions of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall electrical activity can be measured and the rhythms of the brain differ depending on whether a person is awake, drowsy, or asleep </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. How Psychologists Study the Brain <ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes may be used to set off the firing of neurons as well as record it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been used with terminal cancer patients to relieve their pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to control violent emotional behavior </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Images <ul><li>Computerized axial tomography (CT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An imaging technique used to study the brain to pinpoint injuries and brain deterioration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation is absorbed depending on the density of the brain tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers measure the amount of radiation absorbed and then transformed into 3-D images </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Images <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injects radioactive solution into the blood and measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by the blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show activity in different areas of the brain when a person is thinking, speaking, or looking at objects </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Images <ul><li>Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measuring technique used to study brain structure and activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines the features of CT and PET scans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fMRI- observes both the functions of different structures of the brain and which structures participate in specific functions </li></ul>
  25. 26. Section 3 The Endocrine System
  26. 27. The Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Endocrine system- a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones- chemical substances that carry messages through the body in blood </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Hormones have effects on your behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones can also influence your moods and drives </li></ul><ul><li>Duct glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release their contents through small holes on the surface of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands, tear glands, salivary glands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Is the center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Controls growth and reproduction including ovulation and lactation </li></ul>
  29. 30. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Produces thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates certain chemical reactions that are important for all tissues of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism- too much thyroxine which causes overactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism- too little thyroxine makes people feel lazy </li></ul>
  30. 31. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Become active when angry or frightened </li></ul><ul><li>Release epinephrene and norepinephrine which cause heartbeat and breathing to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete cortical steroids which help muscles develop </li></ul>
  31. 32. Sex Glands <ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone (male sex hormone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important in physical development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps decide sex of the fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce estrogen and progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important in the development of female sex characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary throughout the menstrual cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Hormones v.s. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Both work to affect the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>When a chemical is used as a neurotransmitter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is released right beside the cell that it is to excite or inhibit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When a chemical is used as a hormone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is released into the blood, which defuses into the body </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Section 4 Heredity and Environment
  34. 35. Heredity and Environment <ul><li>Heredity- the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited factors and environmental conditions always act together in different ways </li></ul>
  35. 36. Nature versus Nurture <ul><li>Nature refers to characteristics that a person inherits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family, culture, education, individual experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genes are the basic units of heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be reproduced and passed from generation to generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, musical talent </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Twin Studies <ul><li>Identical twins- twins who come from one fertilized egg; twins having the same heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Genes- the basic building blocks of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins- twins who come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm </li></ul>
  37. 38. Twin Studies <ul><li>Twins growing up in the same house share the same environment as well as the same genes </li></ul><ul><li>Twins growing up in different environments have common behaviors despite different social, cultural, or economic backgrounds </li></ul>
  38. 39. Sources: <ul><li>Kasschau, Richard, A. Understanding Psychology . McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, New York, New York, 2008. </li></ul>

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