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Psychology Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2






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    Psychology Chapter 2 Psychology Chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics
    • Section 1 What is Research?
    • Jane Goodall
      • Observed chimpanzees in Tanzania, Africa for more than 30 years
      • she used the research method of naturalistic observation
      • Collect information like most people do in everyday life-only more carefully and more systematically
    • Pre-Research Decisions
      • Must ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis
      • The method or research depends on the research topic
      • It does not matter what approach the data is collected, but decisions need to be made ahead of time
    • Samples
      • A sample is the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
    • Methods of Research
      • Naturalistic observation- research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
      • Case study- research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
    • Methods of Research
      • Surveys- research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
      • Longitudinal study- research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to access how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development.
    • Methods of Research
      • Cross-sectional study- research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age.
      • Correlation-the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
    • Experiments
      • Hypothesis- an educated guess about the relationship between two variables
      • Variable- any factor that is capable of change
      • Experimental group- the group to which an independent variable is applied
      • Control group- the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable is not applied.
    • Ethical Issues
      • Ethics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behavior
      • Using animals in research has become an issue in recent years
    • Section 2 Problems and Solutions in Research
    • Self-fulfilling Prophecy
      • Is a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participants behavior.
    • Avoiding a Self-fulfilling Prophecy
      • Single-blind experiment- is an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
      • Double-blind experiment- is an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
      • By conducting this type of experiment the researcher can remain unbiased.
    • The Milgram Experiment
      • Stanley Milgram wanted to determine whether participants would administer painful shocks to others because an authority figure instructed them to do so
      • He gathered 1000 participants
      • The volunteers were paired with learners
      • The volunteer would shock the learner when the learner made a mistake
    • The Milgram Experiment
      • The volunteers were told that with each mistake, the electrical shock would become stronger
      • The volunteers did not realize the shocks were fake
      • 65% of the volunteers pushed the shock button until it reached maximum severity
      • Proved that ordinary individuals could easily inflict pain if orders were given by a respected authority
    • The Milgram Experiment
      • Was an excellent example of a single-blind experiment
      • Swarthmore College conducted the same study
      • 88% of undergraduates administered the highest level of shock
    • The Placebo Effect
      • Is a change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment
      • Psychiatric patients in two study groups were given a drug, after a six-week period the groups were evaluated
    • The Placebo Effect
      • 53% to 80% reported they benefited from the drugs
      • The drugs administered were placebos
      • The people reacted to their own expectations of how the drug given would affect them.
      • Neither the researchers or the patients new they were placebos until after the experiment
    • Section 3 Statistical Evaluation
    • Statistics
      • The branch of mathematics concerned with summarizing and making meaningful inferences from collections of data
      • Descriptive Statistics- the listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way
    • Distributions of Data
      • Frequency distribution- an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
      • Find the percentage
        • Divide the frequency of the participants within a category by the total number of participants and multiplying times 100.
    • Distributions of Data
      • Histograms- similar to bar graphs, except they show frequency distribution by means of rectangles whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportionate to the corresponding frequencies
    • Distributions of Data
      • Frequency polygons
        • Are useful because they provide a clear picture of the data distribution
      • Normal curve (bell-shaped curve)
        • a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph normally distributed data
        • Curve is symmetrical
        • Can divide the curve into sections to determine what percentage falls into each area
    • Measures of Central Tendency
      • Is a number that describes something about the “average” score of a distribution
      • Mode- the most frequent score
      • Bimodal- distributions with two modes
      • Median- is the middle score (least to most)
      • Mean- usually referred to as the average and commonly used measure of central tendency (add all scores and divide by total number of scores)
    • Measures of Variability
      • Variability- a measure of difference, or spread of data
        • Range- subtract the lowest score from the highest score and add 1.
        • Standard deviation- a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean.
          • Scores above the mean are positive, below are negative
          • Larger the SD, the more spread out the scores
    • Correlation coefficient
      • Describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables
        • (+) as one variable increases the second variable increases
        • (-) as one variable increases, the other variable decreases
        • Scatterplot- is a graph of participants’ scores on the two variables, and it demonstrates the direction of the relationship between them
    • Inferential Statistics
      • Numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
      • Probability and Chance
      • Statistical significance
    • Source:
      • Kasschau, Richard, A. Understanding Psychology . McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, New York, New York, 2008.