Psychology Chapter 1
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Psychology Chapter 1



Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology



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Psychology Chapter 1 Psychology Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology
  • Section 1 Why Study Psychology?
  • Psychologists Point of View
    • They study complex behavior
    • Physiological- having to do with an organism’s physical processes
    • Cognitive- having to do with an organism’s thinking and understanding
  • What is Psychology?
    • Is the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
      • the study can involve both animal and human behaviors
      • Some believe our thoughts, feelings, and fantasies are important, but not always observable
      • the study of behavior must be systematic
  • Use of Systematic Method
    • Usually asks and answers questions about why people think, act, and feel as they do reduces the chances of coming to false conclusions
    • Blind man and elephant story
  • The Goals of Psychology
    • Description
    • Explanation
    • Prediction
    • Influence
  • Description
    • Describe or gather information about the behavior being studied and present what is known
  • Explanation
    • Are not content with the facts
    • They seek to explain why people or animals behave
    • Hypothesis- an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research
    • Theory- a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
  • Prediction
    • Use knowledge and predict what organisms think and feel in various situations
    • By studying past behaviors, psychologists can predict future behaviors
  • Influence
    • Psychologists seek to influence behavior in helpful ways
    • Basic Science- the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
    • Applied Science- discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
  • Scientific Method
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Results
    • Conclusions
    • Theory
  • Wilhelm Wundt
    • Set up the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany
    • Two types of element: sensations and feelings
    • Believes an individual observes, analyzes, and reports his or her mental experiences
  • Section 2 A Brief History of Psychology
  • Marmaduke Sampson
    • Studied “why crime occurs”
    • Believed behavior was the result of the shape of the head
    • Phrenology- the practice of examining bumps on a person’s skull to determine that person’s intellect and character traits
    • Inspired scientists to consider the brain instead of the heart as responsible for human behavior
  • The Origins of Psychology
    • 5 th and 6 th Centuries
      • Greeks studied human behavior and decided people were rational and not dominated by gods
      • Greeks set the stage for the development of sciences
  • The Origins of Psychology
    • 1500 and 1600s
      • Copernicus- published idea that the earth was not the center of the universe, the sun was.
      • Galileo Galilei- used a telescope to confirm the predictions of Copernicus
      • Descartes- proposed a link between the body and mind
  • Historical Approaches
    • Structuralism
      • Wilhelm Wundt- is acknowledged for establishing modern psychology as a separate field of study
      • Structuralist- a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
      • Introspection- a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
  • Functionalism
    • William James- taught the first class in Psychology at Harvard University
      • Wrote the first textbook “The Principles of Psychology”
    • Functionalist- a psychologist who studied the function instead of the structure of consciousness
  • Inheritable Traits
    • Sir Francis Galton
      • Wanted to understand how heredity influences a person’s abilities, character, and behavior.
      • His study focused on genius being a hereditary trait
      • Did not consider that distinguished families may also have exceptional environments and socioeconomic advantages
  • Inheritable Traits
    • Scientists recognized flaws in Galton’s research
    • They came up with the theory that “a person’s heredity and environment interact to influence intelligence”
  • Gestalt Psychology
    • German Psychologists
      • Max Wertheimer
      • Wolfgang Kohler
      • Kurt Koffka
    • Disagreed with the principles of structuralism and behaviorism
    • Believed perception was more than a sum of its parts
    • Studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences
  • Contemporary Approaches
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Behavioral
    • Humanistic
    • Cognitive
    • Biological
    • Sociocultural
  • Psychoanalytic Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud
      • Interested in the unconscious mind
      • Used the technique of free association, which is still used today
      • Believed that dreams are expressions of the most primitive unconscious urges
      • His view on the unconscious is a powerful influence and controversy
  • Psychoanalytic Psychology
    • Psychoanalyst- a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings, and thoughts.
    • Case study- is an analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of an individual
  • Behavioral Psychology
    • Ivan Pavlov- Russian Scientist
    • Salivating dog experiment
      • Pavlov rang a tuning fork each time he gave a dog some meat powder.
      • The dog would normally salivate when the power reached his mouth
      • He repeated the experiment, the dog would salivate when it heard the ring
      • The dog was conditioned to associate sound with food
  • Behavioral Psychology
    • Behaviorist- a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
    • John Watson
      • Believed psychology should only concern itself with the observable facts of behavior
    • B.F. Skinner
      • Introduced the concept of reinforcement
      • Is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood for the behavior to be repeated
  • Humanistic Psychology
    • Humanist- a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth
    • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May are humanistic psychologists
      • Believed human nature as evolving and self-directed
  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Jean Piaget
    • Noam Chomsky
    • Leon Festinger
    • Cognitivist- a psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how thought processes influence our behavior
    • Believe that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus
  • Biological Psychology
    • Known today as behavioral neuroscience
    • Psychobiologist- a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
      • Have found that genetic factors influence our behaviors
      • Discovered a link between chemicals in the brain and human behavior
  • Sociocultural Psychology
    • Sociocultural psychologists study:
      • the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning
      • The impact and integration of millions of immigrants entering the U.S. every year
      • Attitudes, values, beliefts, and social norms and roles of the various racial and ethnic groups
  • Section 3 Psychology as a Profession
  • What is a Psychologist?
    • Psychologists- is a scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals
    • Psychiatry- is a branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders
    • These two professions are usually confused
  • Subfields of Psychology
    • Clinical psychologist- is a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
    • Counseling psychologist- is a psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of everyday life
      • School psychologist
  • Subfields of Psychology
    • Developmental psychologist- a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
    • Educational psychologist- a psychologist who is concerned with helping students learn
  • Subfields of Psychology
    • Community psychologist- a psychologist who may work in a mental health or social welfare agency
    • Industrial or organizational psychologist- a psychologist who uses psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and managers
  • Subfields of Psychology
    • Environmental psychologists- work in a business or with the government to study the effects of the environment on people
    • Psychobiologists- study the effect of drugs or try to explain behavior in terms of biological factors
  • Subfields of Psychology
    • Forensic psychologists- work in legal, court, and correctional systems
    • Health psychologists- study the interaction between physical and psychological health factors
    • Experimental psychologists- is a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and/or emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
  • Source:
    • Kasschau, Richard, A. Understanding Psychology . McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, New York, New York, 2008.