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  1. 1. Chapter 20 Attitudes and Social Influences
  2. 2. An Attitude of Disbelief <ul><li>Page 577 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attitude <ul><li>Is a predisposition to act, think, and feel in particular ways toward a class of people, objects, or an idea. </li></ul><ul><li>3 main elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A belief or opinion about something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings about that thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to act toward that thing in certain ways </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Where do attitudes come from? <ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Evaluation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conditioning <ul><li>Pavlov’s Dog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We receive praise, approval, or acceptance for expressing certain attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We may be punished for expressing other attitudes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Evaluation <ul><li>Developing attitudes without thinking about it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree with someone because you think they know what they are talking about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematically think about an issue and how it affects you personally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the pros and the cons </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Observational Learning (Other Sources) <ul><li>Attitudes can be shaped from other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are learned by experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Culture <ul><li>Influences relationships, political views, what foods you eat, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parents <ul><li>Usually acquire basic attitudes from parents </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2/3 of all voters continue to favor the political party their parents supported </li></ul><ul><li>Parental influence declines as children get older </li></ul>
  10. 10. Peers <ul><li>Newcomb Study (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>People tend to adopt the likes and dislikes of groups whose approval and acceptance they seek </li></ul>
  11. 11. Functions of Attitude <ul><li>Attitudes reflect our beliefs and values as we define ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes interpret the objects and events we encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes determine how we may act in given situations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Attitudes as a Self-Defining Mechanism <ul><li>Self concept- refers to how we see or describe ourselves; our total perception of ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Social groups and individuals hold attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>People who live in the same area often talk to each other and have the same attitude because they are exposed to the same things. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Attitudes as Cognitive Guidelines <ul><li>Attitudes give guidelines for interpreting and categorizing people, objects, or events </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes guide us to behave in certain ways </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes guide us toward or away from particular people, objects, or events </li></ul>
  14. 14. Attitudes as Cognitive Guidelines <ul><li>Attitudes are sometimes not consistent with our behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes that most strongly predict behavior are those that are required through direct experience </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 2 Attitude Change and Prejudice
  16. 16. Three processes involved in forming or changing attitudes <ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul>
  17. 17. Compliance <ul><li>Behavior is the best measure of attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Is a change or maintenance of behavior to avoid discomfort or rejection and to gain approval </li></ul><ul><li>Social pressure only results in temporary compliance </li></ul>
  18. 18. Identification <ul><li>Is seeing oneself as similar to another person or group and accepting the attitudes of another person or group as one’s own </li></ul><ul><li>Usually emotionally based </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes become more stable as self-critiquing and self analysis declines </li></ul>
  19. 19. Internalization <ul><li>Incorporates values, ideas, and standards of others as a part of oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely occurs when an attitude is consistent with a persons basic beliefs and values and supports his or her self image </li></ul><ul><li>Most lasting for attitude formation and change </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes depends on compliance or identification </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive Consistency <ul><li>Attitude changes because they are trying to get things to fit together logically inside their heads </li></ul><ul><li>Leon Festinger (1957) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable feelings when a person experiences contradictory or conflicting thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, or feelings. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How to Reduce Dissonance <ul><li>Some people deny the dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people attempt to evade dissonance by avoiding situations or exposure to information that would create conflict </li></ul>
  22. 22. Attitudes and Action <ul><li>Attitude affects your action </li></ul><ul><li>Doing is Believing </li></ul><ul><li>Counterattitudinal behavior- the process of taking a public position that contradicts one’s private attitude </li></ul>
  23. 23. Attitudes and Action <ul><li>Self-justification- is the need to rationalize one’s attitude and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Page 586 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Attitudes and Action <ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy- is a belief, prediction, or expectation that operates to bring about its own fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice- is a preconceived attitude toward a person and are not easily changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is strengthened and maintained by inflexible stereotypes and roles </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Attitudes and Action <ul><li>Stereotype- is a generalization about all members of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups sometimes treated as groups rather than individuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rich </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role- is a response pattern structured by group membership. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Prejudice and Discrimination <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be based on social, economic, or physical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who grow up in an atmosphere and conform to the prejudicial norm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their race, ethnic group, age, gender, or membership in another category rather than on the basis of individual characteristics. </li></ul></ul>