Latin America


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Latin America

  1. 1. Latin America Geography Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  2. 2. Overview of Latin America
  3. 3. Latin America <ul><li>Begins at the Rio Grande River on the southern border of the United States and extends to the southern tip of South America. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers 7,900,000 square miles or 16% of the earth’s surface </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Land <ul><li>Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico has three mountain ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Indies islands are the tops of volcanic mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Andes Mountains stretches along the west coast of South America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover the coasts of Mexico and Central America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two inland plains found inside South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pampas of Argentina and llanos of Colombia and Venezuela </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Land <ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains five rivers including the Amazon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Amazon stretches 4,000 miles and is the longest river in the Western Hemisphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and natural gas are prevalent in Mexico and Venezuela </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other resources found are copper, iron ore, silver, and lead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich soil allows farmers to grow grains, fruit, and coffee. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Climate and Vegetation <ul><li>Elevation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low elevation-hot and humid with green tropical vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher elevation- the climate becomes milder and the temperature becomes cooler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest elevation- very little plant life (snow or frost) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainforests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover the lowland areas of Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest is in Brazil in the Amazon basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on the east coast of Central America and some of the Caribbean islands </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economy <ul><li>Based mainly on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow coffee, bananas, and sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America is a top cattle raising region in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Service industry and manufacturing is growing </li></ul>
  8. 8. The People <ul><li>Population- 500 million people (9%) </li></ul><ul><li>70% live in cities and along the coastlines </li></ul><ul><li>Very diversified (many different groups of people) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic governments have emerged and continue to emerge. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Latin America <ul><li>Physical geography varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-lying plains and vast water systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty and magnificence of the high rugged peaks of the Andes mountains </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Location and Basic Facts <ul><li>Located in the Western Hemisphere, south of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>8 million square miles of land (16% of the world’s land surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into three sub-regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Mountains and Plateaus <ul><li>The Andes mountains are the most distinctive landforms in this region </li></ul><ul><li>Located along the Pacific “Ring of Fire” </li></ul><ul><li>Plate movement still occurs causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>People have settled into the mountain region and mostly plateaus </li></ul>
  12. 13. Mountains and Plateaus <ul><li>The cooler climate and rich resources drew settlers in </li></ul><ul><li>These regions were at one time very isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (cell phones, tv, and internet are breaking down physical barriers </li></ul>
  13. 14. Mountains in Middle America and the Caribbean <ul><li>Sierra Madre mountain ranges are surrounded by the Mexican plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Mild climate, fertile volcanic soil, and rainfall have attracted settlers for many years </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Highlands is a chain of volcanic peaks in which many islands in the Caribbean Sea are part of </li></ul>
  14. 15. Andes of South America <ul><li>Stretch 4,500 miles along the western edge of South America </li></ul><ul><li>The longest mountain chain and one of the tallest in the world </li></ul>
  15. 16. Highlands of Brazil <ul><li>Mato Grosso Plateau- sparsely populated plateau of forests and grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil, Bolivia, Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brazilian Highlands- spans several climate and vegetation zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key place to raise livestock </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Figure 1
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  20. 21. Figure 5
  21. 22. Figure 6
  22. 23. Chapter 9 Latin America Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
  23. 24. Mexico
  24. 26. Bridging Two Continents <ul><li>Land bridge- a narrow strip of land that joins two larger landmasses </li></ul><ul><li>Connects North America and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is a peninsula or piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Mexico “Land of the Shaking Earth” <ul><li>Very rugged landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Situated over various plates which caused the formation of mountains and volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes occur very frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Popocatepetl “smoky mountain” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous volcano named by Aztec Indians </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Mountains and Plateau <ul><li>Mountain Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Madre Occidentl (runs north and south along western Mexico near the Pacific Ocean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Madre Oriental (runs along the eastern side of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Madre del Sur (southwestern Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plateau of Mexico (covers 40% of Mexico) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern part is desert and grassy plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern part rises in elevation with basins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basins are broad, flat valleys. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Coastal Lowlands <ul><li>Stretch along the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers flow through the coastal plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rio Grande forms the border with the U.S. and drains in the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Climate <ul><li>Latitude is the location north or south of the equator </li></ul><ul><li>The Tropic of Cancer runs through the center of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is usually warm year around </li></ul>
  29. 31. Climate <ul><li>Altitude zones </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Land </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Land </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Land </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Economy <ul><li>Economic Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service industries- is a business that provides services to people instead of making goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three economic regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Farming in Mexico <ul><li>Only 11% of the land is fertile for farming because of the mountains, deserts, and rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow: coffee, corn, cotton, oranges, and sugarcane. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Central Mexico <ul><li>The economic heart of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Home to half of Mexico’s population </li></ul><ul><li>Has favorable conditions for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Cities in Central Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guadalajara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puebla </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. The North <ul><li>Includes Baja California and the northern part of the plateau of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Too dry to farm, but farmers irrigate to grow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton, fruits, cereals, and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ranchers raise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaqueros- cowhands developed the tools to herd, rope and brand cattle. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. The North <ul><li>Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monterrey (steel, copper, lead, and zinc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maquiladoras- are factories that assemble parts shipped from other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble automobiles, stereo systems, computers, and other electronic devices </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. The South <ul><li>Stretches from Mexico City to the Yucatan Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorest people of Mexico live in this area </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farm- is a farm that produces only enough to support a family’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations (in the valleys)- large farms that raise a single crop for money. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich farmers grow coffee and sugarcane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism is very popular in the South </li></ul>
  36. 38. Economic Challenges <ul><li>Mexico has become an industrialized country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a country in which industry has replaced farming as the main economic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges due to industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating new jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing trade with other countries </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Pollution <ul><li>Mountains surround Mexico City blocking the flow of air leaving smog. </li></ul><ul><li>Smog- is fog mixed with smoke and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The city sometimes shuts down and people must stay indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of acres of forest are burned to make room for new fields for crops </li></ul>
  38. 40. Population Changes <ul><li>Mexico’s population is growing twice as fast as the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico cannot provide enough jobs </li></ul><ul><li>98 million people live in the southern part of the Plateau of Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are strained with so many people living in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many people move to the U.S. to seek employment </li></ul>
  39. 41. Free Trade <ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows money to move freely among these three countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has created many new jobs in Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Native Americans <ul><li>The first people came from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The Maya flourished in Yucatan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived during 250 A.D to 900 A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built cities around towering temples in the rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Aztecs built the city Tenochtitlan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City is located in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were fierce warriors, builders and traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had marketplaces filled with pottery, baskets, cloth, gold, and silver </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. The Spanish Heritage <ul><li>Hernan Cortes- arrived in Mexico in 1519. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico remained a Spanish colony for nearly 300 years </li></ul><ul><li>The Spaniards enslaved the Native Americans and had them work the fields and the mines </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizo is a person with mixed Native American and European heritage </li></ul><ul><li>60% are mestizos 30% Native American </li></ul>
  42. 44. Modern Mexico <ul><li>Gained its freedom from Spain in 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution began in 1910 because people were discontent of the way of life especially poor farmers </li></ul><ul><li>1920- Mexico became a federal republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31 states share powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990s- people demanded reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other parties began to rule and win elections instead of just one political party </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. City Life <ul><li>¾ of the population in Mexico live in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Older homes are made of adobe (sun-dried or clay bricks) </li></ul><ul><li>Houses in poor areas are made of scrap wood, metal, or whatever material can be found </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these homes lack electricity and running water </li></ul>
  44. 46. Country Life <ul><li>Most Mexican villages are very poor </li></ul><ul><li>Homes are built of cement blocks, with a red tiled roof, sheet metal, or clay </li></ul><ul><li>Most villages have a marketplace where clothes, food, baskets, and pottery are sold </li></ul>
  45. 47. The Arts and Recreation <ul><li>Painters and Writers- have created many national treasures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced many murals or wall paintings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional music is played by a Mariachi band (a singer, 2 violinists, 2 guitarists, two horn players, and a bass player) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These musicians wear colorful outfits and sombreros </li></ul>
  46. 48. The Arts and Recreation <ul><li>Celebrations- fiesta (feast day) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence Day (September 15 & 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinco de Mayo (May 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexicans also celebrate Christmas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soccer is the most popular sport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullfighting is a popular sport for tourists </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Sources <ul><li> </li></ul>
  48. 50. Central America
  49. 52. The Land <ul><li>More than 1,000 miles north to south </li></ul><ul><li>300 miles wide at widest point </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Ocean borders the west </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Sea borders the east </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions are common </li></ul>
  50. 53. Climate <ul><li>mostly tropical, but varies from country to country </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains and highlands are dry and cool year round </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific lowlands (tropical savanna) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May-Nov warm and rainy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dec-April hot and dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern lowlands (tropical rainforest year round) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricanes (fierce storms with winds of more than 74 m.p.h. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. The Economy <ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations- large farms that grow produce for sale or for export (coffee, bananas, sugar cane) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substience farmer- raises small amount of crops to provide for family, extras are sold at the local market </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. The Economy <ul><li>Rainforests (provide many great treasures) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicle- a substance used in making chewing gum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists use trees and plants used for medicine or medical research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Lowlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers have cleared rainforest areas to raise crops, which erodes nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central American governments are trying to enforce laws from the destruction of rainforest. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. Industry <ul><li>Few small industries </li></ul><ul><li>Little manufacturing due to lack of fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Bauxite (mineral used to make aluminum) is found in Costa Rica and Guatemala </li></ul>
  54. 57. The People <ul><li>Influence of the Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya Indians settled in C.A. in 250-400 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1400s- Spanish settled in Central America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1500s- Spanish claimed land and forced Native Americans to work in plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600s- British settled in Belize-enslaved Africans to work as slaves in the rainforest </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. Independence <ul><li>Most countries gained in 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1903, with U.S. help, Panama won independence from Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>Belize won independence from U.K. in 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>This area has been challenged by revolutions since the mid 1800s. </li></ul>
  56. 59. The Population Today <ul><li>35 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish is the official language except for English speaking Belize </li></ul><ul><li>50% live on farms or small towns </li></ul><ul><li>People in urban areas work in manufacturing or service industry jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Those living on the coast harvest shrimp, lobster, and other seafood for export </li></ul>
  57. 61. Central America includes seven countries: <ul><li>Belize </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala </li></ul><ul><li>Honduras </li></ul><ul><li>El Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica </li></ul><ul><li>Panama </li></ul>
  58. 62. Landforms <ul><li>Many active volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are dormant. </li></ul><ul><li>Dormant —Not likely to erupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Chain of volcanic mountains, called the Central Highlands, stretch along most of the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic material has left rich, fertile soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow coffee, bananas, sugarcane, & other crops. </li></ul>
  59. 63. Guatemala <ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>40% live like their ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>These people do not leave their country’s borders. </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemalans who speak Spanish & practice European ways are called ladinos . </li></ul><ul><li>Live in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War from 1960-1996. </li></ul>
  60. 64. Costa Rica <ul><li>Offers one of the highest standards of living in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>High literacy rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are of Spanish descent. </li></ul><ul><li>Few wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Major export is coffee. </li></ul>
  61. 65. Panama <ul><li>1903 –U.S. helped Panama gain independence. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. built Panama Canal. (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. controlled the canal and the land of each side until 2000, when they gave it back to Panama. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of population live & work near the canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Population is a mix of Spanish and Native American ancestry. </li></ul>
  62. 66. El Salvador <ul><li>Main crops are coffee, sugarcane, corn, cotton, & shrimp. </li></ul><ul><li>Population of about six million. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 53% have access to safe water. </li></ul><ul><li>1% are indigenous to the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous —native to the region. </li></ul>
  63. 67. Caribbean
  64. 68. The Caribbean <ul><li>All Caribbean islands are located in the Caribbean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers call a group of islands an archipelago . </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the islands are actually the tops of a mountain range that sit on the bottom of the sea. </li></ul>
  65. 69. The Caribbean <ul><li>Some islands in the Caribbean are still active volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lava can help people as well as hurt. </li></ul><ul><li>When lava breaks down, it forms good soil for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the islands are not volcanic. </li></ul><ul><li>These nonvolcanic islands are called atolls. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoll ---A chain of islands made up of coral. </li></ul>
  66. 70. Caribbean Islands <ul><li>Bahamas are southeast of Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Antilles (northern Caribbean) include Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser Antilles (southern Caribbean) include a number of smaller islands. </li></ul>
  67. 71. Climate & Economy <ul><li>Constant tropical savanna climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures between 70 degrees & 85 degrees year round. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming & tourism are the most important economic activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many islands rely too heavily on just one crop. </li></ul>
  68. 72. The People <ul><li>1 st permanent European settlement in the Western Hemisphere was established in 1498 in the Dominican Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people in the islands are descendents of Africans. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans brought millions of Africans to the islands to work as slaves on sugarcane plantations. </li></ul>
  69. 73. Religion <ul><li>Most of the people of the Caribbean are Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people of African descent believe in voodoo. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers of voodoo believe that good & evil spirits affect daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Voodoo is strongest in Haiti. </li></ul>
  70. 74. Independence <ul><li>During the 20 th Century, most of the smaller Caribbean islands won their freedom from colonial rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba is the only country in the Western Hemisphere with a communist government. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism ---A government system in which there is no private property; the government owns & controls the land & goods </li></ul>
  71. 75. Cuba <ul><li>90 miles south of Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>Large producer of sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>Also grow coffee, tobacco, rice, & fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Most farmers work on cooperatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperatives —Farms owned & operated by the government. </li></ul>
  72. 76. Cuba <ul><li>Leader is Fidel Castro. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently Raul Castro (Fidel’s brother is in power) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Cubans live in poverty. </li></ul>
  73. 77. Haiti <ul><li>Shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 90% of population is of African descent. </li></ul><ul><li>People are poor & live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is a major crop. </li></ul><ul><li>Won independence in 1804 (2 nd in the Western Hemisphere after the U.S.) </li></ul>
  74. 78. Puerto Rico <ul><li>Spanish colony from 1508 until 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>Under control of the U.S. since 1898 (Spanish-American War.) </li></ul><ul><li>Has been a commonwealth since 1952. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth —A partly self-governing territory. </li></ul><ul><li>More industry than any other island in the West Indies. </li></ul>
  75. 79. Puerto Rico <ul><li>Agriculture & tourism make up the majority of Puerto Rico’s economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories make medicine, chemicals, clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is San Juan. </li></ul>