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Latin America
 

Latin America

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    Latin America Latin America Presentation Transcript

    • Latin America Geography Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
    • Overview of Latin America
    • Latin America
      • Begins at the Rio Grande River on the southern border of the United States and extends to the southern tip of South America.
      • Covers 7,900,000 square miles or 16% of the earth’s surface
    • The Land
      • Mountains
        • Mexico has three mountain ranges
        • West Indies islands are the tops of volcanic mountains
        • The Andes Mountains stretches along the west coast of South America
      • Plains
        • Cover the coasts of Mexico and Central America
        • Two inland plains found inside South America
          • Pampas of Argentina and llanos of Colombia and Venezuela
    • The Land
      • Rivers
        • Contains five rivers including the Amazon
        • The Amazon stretches 4,000 miles and is the longest river in the Western Hemisphere.
      • Natural Resources
        • Oil and natural gas are prevalent in Mexico and Venezuela
        • Other resources found are copper, iron ore, silver, and lead.
        • Rich soil allows farmers to grow grains, fruit, and coffee.
    • Climate and Vegetation
      • Elevation
        • Low elevation-hot and humid with green tropical vegetation
        • Higher elevation- the climate becomes milder and the temperature becomes cooler
        • Highest elevation- very little plant life (snow or frost)
      • Rainforests
        • Cover the lowland areas of Latin America
        • Largest is in Brazil in the Amazon basin
        • Found on the east coast of Central America and some of the Caribbean islands
    • Economy
      • Based mainly on agriculture
      • Farmers grow coffee, bananas, and sugarcane
      • Latin America is a top cattle raising region in the world
      • Service industry and manufacturing is growing
    • The People
      • Population- 500 million people (9%)
      • 70% live in cities and along the coastlines
      • Very diversified (many different groups of people)
      • Democratic governments have emerged and continue to emerge.
    •  
    • Latin America
      • Physical geography varies
        • Low-lying plains and vast water systems
        • Beauty and magnificence of the high rugged peaks of the Andes mountains
    • Location and Basic Facts
      • Located in the Western Hemisphere, south of the United States
      • 8 million square miles of land (16% of the world’s land surface)
      • Divided into three sub-regions:
        • Middle America
        • The Caribbean
        • South America
    • Mountains and Plateaus
      • The Andes mountains are the most distinctive landforms in this region
      • Located along the Pacific “Ring of Fire”
      • Plate movement still occurs causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
      • People have settled into the mountain region and mostly plateaus
    • Mountains and Plateaus
      • The cooler climate and rich resources drew settlers in
      • These regions were at one time very isolated
      • Technology (cell phones, tv, and internet are breaking down physical barriers
    • Mountains in Middle America and the Caribbean
      • Sierra Madre mountain ranges are surrounded by the Mexican plateau
      • Mild climate, fertile volcanic soil, and rainfall have attracted settlers for many years
      • The Central Highlands is a chain of volcanic peaks in which many islands in the Caribbean Sea are part of
    • Andes of South America
      • Stretch 4,500 miles along the western edge of South America
      • The longest mountain chain and one of the tallest in the world
    • Highlands of Brazil
      • Mato Grosso Plateau- sparsely populated plateau of forests and grasslands
        • Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
      • Brazilian Highlands- spans several climate and vegetation zones
        • Key place to raise livestock
    • Figure 1
    • Figure 2
    • Figure 3
    • Figure 4
    • Figure 5
    • Figure 6
    • Chapter 9 Latin America Mr. Jeremy Rinkel
    • Mexico
    •  
    • Bridging Two Continents
      • Land bridge- a narrow strip of land that joins two larger landmasses
      • Connects North America and South America
      • Mexico is a peninsula or piece of land surrounded by water on three sides.
    • Mexico “Land of the Shaking Earth”
      • Very rugged landscape
      • Situated over various plates which caused the formation of mountains and volcanoes.
      • Earthquakes occur very frequently
      • Mount Popocatepetl “smoky mountain”
        • Famous volcano named by Aztec Indians
    • Mountains and Plateau
      • Mountain Ranges
        • Sierra Madre Occidentl (runs north and south along western Mexico near the Pacific Ocean)
        • Sierra Madre Oriental (runs along the eastern side of Mexico
        • Sierra Madre del Sur (southwestern Mexico)
      • Plateau of Mexico (covers 40% of Mexico)
        • Northern part is desert and grassy plains
        • Southern part rises in elevation with basins
        • Basins are broad, flat valleys.
    • Coastal Lowlands
      • Stretch along the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
        • Rivers flow through the coastal plains
        • The Rio Grande forms the border with the U.S. and drains in the Gulf of Mexico
    • Climate
      • Latitude is the location north or south of the equator
      • The Tropic of Cancer runs through the center of Mexico
      • Mexico is usually warm year around
    • Climate
      • Altitude zones
      • Hot Land
      • Temperate Land
      • Cold Land
    • The Economy
      • Economic Regions
        • Service industries- is a business that provides services to people instead of making goods.
      • Three economic regions
        • Central Mexico
        • The North
        • The South
    • Farming in Mexico
      • Only 11% of the land is fertile for farming because of the mountains, deserts, and rainforests
      • Farmers grow: coffee, corn, cotton, oranges, and sugarcane.
    • Central Mexico
      • The economic heart of the country
      • Home to half of Mexico’s population
      • Has favorable conditions for farming
      • Cities in Central Mexico
        • Mexico City
        • Guadalajara
        • Leon
        • Puebla
    • The North
      • Includes Baja California and the northern part of the plateau of Mexico
      • Too dry to farm, but farmers irrigate to grow
        • Cotton, fruits, cereals, and vegetables
      • Ranchers raise
        • Cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs
        • Vaqueros- cowhands developed the tools to herd, rope and brand cattle.
    • The North
      • Cities
        • Monterrey (steel, copper, lead, and zinc)
      • Maquiladoras- are factories that assemble parts shipped from other countries
        • Assemble automobiles, stereo systems, computers, and other electronic devices
    • The South
      • Stretches from Mexico City to the Yucatan Peninsula.
      • Poorest people of Mexico live in this area
      • Subsistence farm- is a farm that produces only enough to support a family’s needs
      • Plantations (in the valleys)- large farms that raise a single crop for money.
        • Rich farmers grow coffee and sugarcane
      • Tourism is very popular in the South
    • Economic Challenges
      • Mexico has become an industrialized country
        • Describes a country in which industry has replaced farming as the main economic activity
      • Challenges due to industrialization
        • Conserving land
        • Controlling pollution
        • Creating new jobs
        • Increasing trade with other countries
    • Pollution
      • Mountains surround Mexico City blocking the flow of air leaving smog.
      • Smog- is fog mixed with smoke and chemicals.
      • The city sometimes shuts down and people must stay indoors
      • Thousands of acres of forest are burned to make room for new fields for crops
    • Population Changes
      • Mexico’s population is growing twice as fast as the United States
      • Mexico cannot provide enough jobs
      • 98 million people live in the southern part of the Plateau of Mexico
        • Resources are strained with so many people living in this area
      • Many people move to the U.S. to seek employment
    • Free Trade
      • North American Free Trade Agreement
        • Joint agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico (1993)
        • Allows money to move freely among these three countries
        • Has created many new jobs in Mexico
    • Native Americans
      • The first people came from Asia
      • The Maya flourished in Yucatan
        • Lived during 250 A.D to 900 A.D.
        • Built cities around towering temples in the rainforest
      • The Aztecs built the city Tenochtitlan
        • Mexico City is located in this area
        • Were fierce warriors, builders and traders
        • Had marketplaces filled with pottery, baskets, cloth, gold, and silver
    • The Spanish Heritage
      • Hernan Cortes- arrived in Mexico in 1519.
      • Mexico remained a Spanish colony for nearly 300 years
      • The Spaniards enslaved the Native Americans and had them work the fields and the mines
      • Mestizo is a person with mixed Native American and European heritage
      • 60% are mestizos 30% Native American
    • Modern Mexico
      • Gained its freedom from Spain in 1821
      • Revolution began in 1910 because people were discontent of the way of life especially poor farmers
      • 1920- Mexico became a federal republic
        • 31 states share powers
      • 1990s- people demanded reform
        • Other parties began to rule and win elections instead of just one political party
    • City Life
      • ¾ of the population in Mexico live in cities
      • Older homes are made of adobe (sun-dried or clay bricks)
      • Houses in poor areas are made of scrap wood, metal, or whatever material can be found
      • Most of these homes lack electricity and running water
    • Country Life
      • Most Mexican villages are very poor
      • Homes are built of cement blocks, with a red tiled roof, sheet metal, or clay
      • Most villages have a marketplace where clothes, food, baskets, and pottery are sold
    • The Arts and Recreation
      • Painters and Writers- have created many national treasures
        • Produced many murals or wall paintings
      • Music and Dance
        • Traditional music is played by a Mariachi band (a singer, 2 violinists, 2 guitarists, two horn players, and a bass player)
      • These musicians wear colorful outfits and sombreros
    • The Arts and Recreation
      • Celebrations- fiesta (feast day)
        • Independence Day (September 15 & 16)
        • Cinco de Mayo (May 5)
        • Mexicans also celebrate Christmas
        • Foods
      • Sports
        • Soccer is the most popular sport
        • Bullfighting is a popular sport for tourists
    • Sources
      • http://go.hrw.com/atlas/norm_htm/mexico.htm
    • Central America
    •  
    • The Land
      • More than 1,000 miles north to south
      • 300 miles wide at widest point
      • Pacific Ocean borders the west
      • Caribbean Sea borders the east
      • Volcanic eruptions are common
    • Climate
      • mostly tropical, but varies from country to country
      • Mountains and highlands are dry and cool year round
      • Pacific lowlands (tropical savanna)
        • May-Nov warm and rainy
        • Dec-April hot and dry
      • Eastern lowlands (tropical rainforest year round)
        • Hurricanes (fierce storms with winds of more than 74 m.p.h.
    • The Economy
      • Farming
        • Plantations- large farms that grow produce for sale or for export (coffee, bananas, sugar cane)
        • Substience farmer- raises small amount of crops to provide for family, extras are sold at the local market
    • The Economy
      • Rainforests (provide many great treasures)
        • Chicle- a substance used in making chewing gum.
        • Scientists use trees and plants used for medicine or medical research
      • Caribbean Lowlands
        • Farmers have cleared rainforest areas to raise crops, which erodes nutrients
        • Central American governments are trying to enforce laws from the destruction of rainforest.
    • Industry
      • Few small industries
      • Little manufacturing due to lack of fuels
      • Bauxite (mineral used to make aluminum) is found in Costa Rica and Guatemala
    • The People
      • Influence of the Past
        • Maya Indians settled in C.A. in 250-400 B.C.
        • 1400s- Spanish settled in Central America
        • 1500s- Spanish claimed land and forced Native Americans to work in plantations
        • 1600s- British settled in Belize-enslaved Africans to work as slaves in the rainforest
    • Independence
      • Most countries gained in 1821
      • In 1903, with U.S. help, Panama won independence from Colombia
      • Belize won independence from U.K. in 1981
      • This area has been challenged by revolutions since the mid 1800s.
    • The Population Today
      • 35 million people
      • Spanish is the official language except for English speaking Belize
      • 50% live on farms or small towns
      • People in urban areas work in manufacturing or service industry jobs
      • Those living on the coast harvest shrimp, lobster, and other seafood for export
    •  
    • Central America includes seven countries:
      • Belize
      • Guatemala
      • Honduras
      • El Salvador
      • Nicaragua
      • Costa Rica
      • Panama
    • Landforms
      • Many active volcanoes.
      • Some are dormant.
      • Dormant —Not likely to erupt.
      • Chain of volcanic mountains, called the Central Highlands, stretch along most of the region.
      • Volcanic material has left rich, fertile soil.
      • Farmers grow coffee, bananas, sugarcane, & other crops.
    • Guatemala
      • Volcanoes
      • 40% live like their ancestors.
      • These people do not leave their country’s borders.
      • Guatemalans who speak Spanish & practice European ways are called ladinos .
      • Live in cities.
      • Civil War from 1960-1996.
    • Costa Rica
      • Offers one of the highest standards of living in the world.
      • High literacy rates.
      • Most are of Spanish descent.
      • Few wars.
      • Lots of schools.
      • Major export is coffee.
    • Panama
      • 1903 –U.S. helped Panama gain independence.
      • U.S. built Panama Canal. (1914)
      • U.S. controlled the canal and the land of each side until 2000, when they gave it back to Panama.
      • 50% of population live & work near the canal.
      • Population is a mix of Spanish and Native American ancestry.
    • El Salvador
      • Main crops are coffee, sugarcane, corn, cotton, & shrimp.
      • Population of about six million.
      • Only 53% have access to safe water.
      • 1% are indigenous to the region.
      • Indigenous —native to the region.
    • Caribbean
    • The Caribbean
      • All Caribbean islands are located in the Caribbean Sea.
      • Geographers call a group of islands an archipelago .
      • Many of the islands are actually the tops of a mountain range that sit on the bottom of the sea.
    • The Caribbean
      • Some islands in the Caribbean are still active volcanoes.
      • Lava can help people as well as hurt.
      • When lava breaks down, it forms good soil for farming.
      • Some of the islands are not volcanic.
      • These nonvolcanic islands are called atolls.
      • Atoll ---A chain of islands made up of coral.
    • Caribbean Islands
      • Bahamas are southeast of Florida.
      • Greater Antilles (northern Caribbean) include Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico.
      • Lesser Antilles (southern Caribbean) include a number of smaller islands.
    • Climate & Economy
      • Constant tropical savanna climate.
      • Temperatures between 70 degrees & 85 degrees year round.
      • Farming & tourism are the most important economic activities.
      • Many islands rely too heavily on just one crop.
    • The People
      • 1 st permanent European settlement in the Western Hemisphere was established in 1498 in the Dominican Republic.
      • Most people in the islands are descendents of Africans.
      • Europeans brought millions of Africans to the islands to work as slaves on sugarcane plantations.
    • Religion
      • Most of the people of the Caribbean are Christians.
      • Some people of African descent believe in voodoo.
      • Followers of voodoo believe that good & evil spirits affect daily life.
      • Voodoo is strongest in Haiti.
    • Independence
      • During the 20 th Century, most of the smaller Caribbean islands won their freedom from colonial rule.
      • Cuba is the only country in the Western Hemisphere with a communist government.
      • Communism ---A government system in which there is no private property; the government owns & controls the land & goods
    • Cuba
      • 90 miles south of Florida.
      • Large producer of sugar.
      • Also grow coffee, tobacco, rice, & fruit.
      • Most farmers work on cooperatives.
      • Cooperatives —Farms owned & operated by the government.
    • Cuba
      • Leader is Fidel Castro.
        • Currently Raul Castro (Fidel’s brother is in power)
      • Most Cubans live in poverty.
    • Haiti
      • Shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic.
      • More than 90% of population is of African descent.
      • People are poor & live in rural areas.
      • Coffee is a major crop.
      • Won independence in 1804 (2 nd in the Western Hemisphere after the U.S.)
    • Puerto Rico
      • Spanish colony from 1508 until 1898.
      • Under control of the U.S. since 1898 (Spanish-American War.)
      • Has been a commonwealth since 1952.
      • Commonwealth —A partly self-governing territory.
      • More industry than any other island in the West Indies.
    • Puerto Rico
      • Agriculture & tourism make up the majority of Puerto Rico’s economy.
      • Factories make medicine, chemicals, clothing.
      • Capital is San Juan.