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Judicial Branch Chapter 11 & 12
Types of Federal Courts <ul><li>Constitutional Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up by Congress under Article III of the Co...
Divisions of the U.S. Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>District Cou...
Jurisdiction <ul><li>Authority to hear and decide cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Jurisdiction <ul><li>Parties- plaintiffs and defendants </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive- determines where court cases belong <...
District Courts <ul><li>91 Courts </li></ul><ul><li>632 Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Judges Salary- $133,000 </li></ul><ul><li...
District Courts <ul><li>These courts use both grand and petit juries </li></ul><ul><li>Judges appointed for life by the Pr...
Courts of Appeal <ul><li>Formed in 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>12 Courts </li></ul><ul><li>179 Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint...
Courts of Appeal <ul><li>Any appeal from a lower court in their district </li></ul><ul><li>Hear 25,000 cases a year </li><...
Supreme Court <ul><li>Chief Justice- John Roberts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by George W. Bush in 2006 </li></ul></ul...
Supreme Court at Work <ul><li>Sits for nine months of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Opens at 10:00 a.m. (Monday-Thursday) </l...
Supreme Court at Work <ul><li>Types of Opinions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority (5-4, 6-3, 7-2, 8-1, 9-0) </li></ul></ul><u...
Court of International Trade <ul><li>Nine judges appointed by the President </li></ul><ul><li>Salary- $133,000 </li></ul><...
Court of Appeals <ul><li>Federal and Circuit courts </li></ul><ul><li>12 Judges appointed by the President </li></ul><ul><...
Special Courts- Set up by Congress <ul><li>U.S. Claims Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 Judges appointed by President </li><...
Special Courts-Set up by Congress <ul><li>Courts of District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary $133,000 </li></ul><...
Special Courts-Set up by Congress <ul><li>Courts of Veteran’s appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One chief justice and six asso...
Appointment of Judges, Terms, and Salary <ul><li>President appoints all federal judges </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed by the ...
Federal Court Officials <ul><li>Clerk- has custody of the federal seal </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrates- issues warrants, set...
State Court System <ul><li>Organized from the lowest to highest court </li></ul><ul><li>Justice of the Peace </li></ul><ul...
Magistrates Court <ul><li>Found mostly in large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to office for a 2-4 year term </li></ul><...
Municipal Court <ul><ul><li>night court in large cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many divisions like criminal minor crim...
General Trial Court <ul><li>Judges may be elected or appointed </li></ul><ul><li>Cases tried before a single judge </li></...
Intermediate Appellate Court (State) level <ul><li>Called the states appellate court </li></ul><ul><li>Judges may be elect...
State Supreme Court <ul><li>Located in Springfield </li></ul><ul><li>5-7 judges </li></ul><ul><li>½ are appointed by the G...
Juries <ul><li>Grand jury- hears evidence to decide if trial needs to be held </li></ul><ul><li>Petit jury is the trial ju...
Make up of a Jury and how it works <ul><li>Impaneling- jury is selected from a pool </li></ul><ul><li>Presentment- accusat...
Make up of a Jury and how it works <ul><li>Jury selection  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list prepared by county official </li></u...
Jury Selection <ul><li>May be excused if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering from an illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a c...
Kinds of State Law <ul><li>Law- principle rules of conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Law- highest form of law in Am...
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Transcript of "Judicial Branch"

  1. 1. Judicial Branch Chapter 11 & 12
  2. 2. Types of Federal Courts <ul><li>Constitutional Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up by Congress under Article III of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are legislative courts set up by Congress </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Divisions of the U.S. Court System <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Court of International Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Court of Military Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Tax Court </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Court of Veteran’s Appeals </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jurisdiction <ul><li>Authority to hear and decide cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal laws (federal courts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State law (state courts) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Jurisdiction <ul><li>Parties- plaintiffs and defendants </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive- determines where court cases belong </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent- federal, state, local </li></ul><ul><li>Original- where the case is first heard </li></ul><ul><li>Appellate- next step after the original case </li></ul>
  6. 6. District Courts <ul><li>91 Courts </li></ul><ul><li>632 Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Judges Salary- $133,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cases heard in District Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank robbery, kidnapping, mail fraud, computer fraud, counterfeiting, murder of federal official, treason </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. District Courts <ul><li>These courts use both grand and petit juries </li></ul><ul><li>Judges appointed for life by the President </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed by the U.S. Senate </li></ul><ul><li>East St. Louis and Benton are the district courts near here </li></ul>
  8. 8. Courts of Appeal <ul><li>Formed in 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>12 Courts </li></ul><ul><li>179 Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed by the President for life, confirmed by the U.S. Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Salary: $141,000 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Courts of Appeal <ul><li>Any appeal from a lower court in their district </li></ul><ul><li>Hear 25,000 cases a year </li></ul><ul><li>Seventh Circuit Court located in Chicago is the closest </li></ul>
  10. 10. Supreme Court <ul><li>Chief Justice- John Roberts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by George W. Bush in 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original and appellate cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,500-4,000 cases reach the S.C. each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half are returned to lower court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of Certiorari </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of Appeal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of Certificate Page 523 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Supreme Court at Work <ul><li>Sits for nine months of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Opens at 10:00 a.m. (Monday-Thursday) </li></ul><ul><li>Fridays are used to discuss, debate, and write decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Must be six judges which make up a quorum </li></ul>
  12. 12. Supreme Court at Work <ul><li>Types of Opinions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority (5-4, 6-3, 7-2, 8-1, 9-0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissenting- one judge goes against and writes an opposing view point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurring </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Court of International Trade <ul><li>Nine judges appointed by the President </li></ul><ul><li>Salary- $133,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Courts are in San Francisco, New Orleans, Boston, New York </li></ul>
  14. 14. Court of Appeals <ul><li>Federal and Circuit courts </li></ul><ul><li>12 Judges appointed by the President </li></ul><ul><li>Salary: $133,000 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Special Courts- Set up by Congress <ul><li>U.S. Claims Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 Judges appointed by President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hears claims against the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary: $133,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(2 judges each court) 8 total </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary: $125,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts located in Virgin Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, North Mariana Islands </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Special Courts-Set up by Congress <ul><li>Courts of District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary $133,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior Courts and Court of Appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary $133,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Court of Military Appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Chief Justice and four associate justices serve for 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salary: $133,000 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Special Courts-Set up by Congress <ul><li>Courts of Veteran’s appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One chief justice and six associates serve for 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary: $125,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Tax Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One chief justice and 18 associate judges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear civil not criminal cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary $133,000 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Appointment of Judges, Terms, and Salary <ul><li>President appoints all federal judges </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed by the U.S. Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed for life unless otherwise designated </li></ul><ul><li>Removal by impeachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine have been impeached four have been found guilty </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Federal Court Officials <ul><li>Clerk- has custody of the federal seal </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrates- issues warrants, sets bail, may try some cases </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Attorney- prosecutes the criminals </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Marshals- issues subpoenas and arrest warrants </li></ul><ul><li>Baliff- keeps order in the court and calls cases </li></ul>
  20. 20. State Court System <ul><li>Organized from the lowest to highest court </li></ul><ul><li>Justice of the Peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in small southern towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually elected to a 2-4 year term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hears very minor cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marries people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay is usually from fines collected (higher fine better pay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No formal qualifications </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Magistrates Court <ul><li>Found mostly in large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to office for a 2-4 year term </li></ul><ul><li>No formal qualifications, except some states require a law degree </li></ul>
  22. 22. Municipal Court <ul><ul><li>night court in large cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many divisions like criminal minor crimes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil, juvenile, small claims, traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed and must have a law degree </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. General Trial Court <ul><li>Judges may be elected or appointed </li></ul><ul><li>Cases tried before a single judge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear cases on estates, probates, and affairs of minors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit court are the trial courts of the states judges must have a law degree as well as a states attorney elected </li></ul>
  24. 24. Intermediate Appellate Court (State) level <ul><li>Called the states appellate court </li></ul><ul><li>Judges may be elected or appointed </li></ul><ul><li>Must have a law degree </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews cases from lower courts and has final say so in most cases </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Vernon is the nearest state appellate court </li></ul>
  25. 25. State Supreme Court <ul><li>Located in Springfield </li></ul><ul><li>5-7 judges </li></ul><ul><li>½ are appointed by the Governor and the other half may be elected </li></ul><ul><li>Their decisions are final </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of judges at state levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular election, legislature selects, governor appoints </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Juries <ul><li>Grand jury- hears evidence to decide if trial needs to be held </li></ul><ul><li>Petit jury is the trial jury </li></ul><ul><li>Bench trial- is done before a judge with no jury </li></ul>
  27. 27. Make up of a Jury and how it works <ul><li>Impaneling- jury is selected from a pool </li></ul><ul><li>Presentment- accusations before the grand jury </li></ul><ul><li>Indictment- formal charge by the grand jury </li></ul>
  28. 28. Make up of a Jury and how it works <ul><li>Jury selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list prepared by county official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually taken from the poll book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today may be done from a drivers’ license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most jurors are notified by mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One must show up or be arrested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>d </li></ul>
  29. 29. Jury Selection <ul><li>May be excused if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering from an illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is illiterate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policemen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firemen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Kinds of State Law <ul><li>Law- principle rules of conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Law- highest form of law in America </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory Law- enacted by legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Law- rules issued on any level </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Law- defies public wrongs </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Law- relates to human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Common Law- written laws or made by judges </li></ul>
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