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Government Chapter 2

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  • 1. American Government Chapter 2
  • 2. Basic Concepts of Government
    • Ordered Government
      • The first English colonists saw a need for orderly regulation
      • Many offices needed then are still in existence today
        • Sheriff
        • Juries
        • Townships
        • Justice of the Peace
  • 3. Basic Concepts of Government
    • Limited Government
      • Government is limited; each individual has rights the government cannot take away
    • Representative Government
      • Government should serve the will of the people
      • People should have a voice
      • We elect our representatives
  • 4. Landmark English Documents
    • Magna Carta (1215)
      • “ The Great Charter” signed by King John
      • Protected against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property
    • Petition of right (1628)
      • Limited the king’s power
        • Kings could not imprison political critics without a trial by jury
      • Challenged the “divine right” of kings
  • 5. Landmark English Documents
    • English Bill of Rights (1688)
      • Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament
      • Must be fair and have a speedy trial
  • 6. Government in Colonies
    • Royal Colonies (8)
      • Bicameral legislature (2 houses)
      • New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York,
      • New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina,
      • South Carolina, and Georgia
  • 7. Government in Colonies
    • Proprietary Colonies (3)
      • Unicameral (1 House) legislature
      • Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
  • 8. Government in Colonies
    • Charter Colonies (2)
    • Governors elected by the white, male property owners in each colony
    • Connecticut and Rhode Island became charter colonies in 1662 and 1663, respectively.
  • 9. Royal Control
    • All 13 colonies were separately controlled under the king
    • Objected to taxes they had no part in levying
    • French and Indian War (1754-1763)
  • 10. Growing Colonial Unity
    • Several attempts to unity occurred in the early 1770s
    • Early attempts
      • 1643 “League of Friendship” between Plymouth Bay, Mass and New Haven, CT
      • 1696 William Penn and his inter-colonial coop.
  • 11. Growing Colonial Unity
    • Albany Plan (1754)
      • Included the colonies of Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island
  • 12. The Stamp Act Congress
    • 1765- Stamp Act passed by the British
    • Required the use of tax stamps on all legal documents, business arrangements, and newspapers
    • Nine colonies sent delegates to the SA Congress in New York, except for (Georgia, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Virginia
    • Boycott- refusal to buy or sell English goods
  • 13. First Continental Congress
    • 1774- 55 delegates from every colony except Georgia
    • Met in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774
  • 14. Second Continental Congress
    • 1774-75 (winter) British government refused to compromise its political policies
    • 13 colonies sent reps to congress
    • John Hancock was chosen President
    • 2 nd Continental Congress became the nations first national government
  • 15. Declaration of Independence
    • A group of five men were selected to prepare a Proclamation for Independence
    • July 4, 1776
      • Ben Franklin
      • John Adams
      • Roger Sherman
      • Robert Livingston
      • Thomas Jefferson
  • 16. The First State Governments
    • January 1776
    • New Hampshire adopted a constitution to replace its royal charter
    • Constitutions- bodies of fundamentals
  • 17. Common Features of New States
    • Popular Sovereignty
      • Government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed
    • Limited Government
      • The powers delegated to the government were
  • 18. Common Features of New States
    • Civil Rights and Liberties
    • Separation of Powers/Checks & Balances
      • Executive branch
      • Legislative branch
      • Judicial branch
  • 19. The Critical Period
  • 20. The First National Constitution
    • ratification- formal approval
    • Articles of Confederation
      • Established “a firm league of friendship”
    • Government Structure
      • Unicameral- made up of delegates chosen yearly by the states
      • No judicial or executive branches (it was handled by congressional committees
  • 21. Powers of Congress
    • Make war and peace
    • Send & receive ambassadors
    • Make treaties
    • Borrow money
    • Set up monetary system
    • Build a navy
    • Raise an army by asking the states for troops
    • Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
    • Settle disputes among the states
  • 22. State Obligations
    • Submit their disputes
    • Allow open travel and trade
  • 23. Weaknesses
    • No power to tax
    • Could not regulate trade between states
    • Had no power to make states obey
  • 24. Critical Period- 1780s
    • Revolutionary War ended October 19, 1781 (Treaty of Paris-1783)
    • They refused to support the new central government financially
    • States printed their own money and banned some trade
  • 25. Meetings at Mount Vernon and Annapolis
    • Maryland and Virginia took the first step for change
    • Representatives from the two states met on March of 1785 and January of 1786
    • Compromises in the Constitution
      • Great Compromise (Conn)
      • 3/5 compromise
      • Slave Trade compromise
  • 26. The Framers
    • 12 of 13 states sent delegates to Philadelphia (Rhode Island did not)
    • Main “framers”
      • George Washington
      • James Madison
      • Edmund Randolph
      • George Mason
  • 27. Organization and Procedure
    • Meeting to establish rules on May 25 and May 28
    • Secretary William Jackson kept the convention’s journal
    • The framers met on 89 of the 116 days from May 25 to Sept 27
    • The decision to write a new constitution was made at the Philadelphia condition
  • 28. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral government
    • Congress- Legislative Branch
    • President- Executive Branch
    • Courts- Judicial Branch
  • 29. The New Jersey Plan
    • Keep unicameral Congress
    • States should be equally represented
  • 30. The Connecticut Compromise
    • Congress compromised of two houses
    • Senate- equal representation
    • House- based on population
  • 31. 3/5 Compromise
    • “free persons” be counted
    • Slaves and “non citizens” be counted 3/5
  • 32. Sources of Constitution
    • William Blackstone’s- Commentaries on the Laws of England
    • John Locke
  • 33. Convention Completes It’s Work
    • September 8, 1787
      • Revising of articles were agreed upon.
    • September 17, 1787
      • 39 names were placed on the finished document
  • 34. Ratification
    • The new document was sent to the states on September 28, 1787
  • 35. Federalists and Anti-Federalists
    • Federalists- favored ratification
      • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
    • Anti-federalists- opposed ratification
      • Patrick Henry, Richard Lee, Samuel Adams,
      • John Hancock
      • They thought the articles were too weak
    • Greatly increased powers of the central government
    • Lack of a bill or rights
  • 36. Success
    • June 21, 1788- nine states ratified the new constitution
    • Inauguration of new government
      • September 13, 1788
      • Convened on March 5, 1789 in Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York