Topeka, Linda Brown, a third grader, had to walk one mile through a railway switchyard to get to her black school. A white school was only seven blocks away. Her father tried to enroll her in the white school, but the principal refused. Father, Oliver Brown, went to the NAACP (National Association for the Advance of Colored People) for help.
NAACP had been looking for the right case at the right time.
Board’s defense that this school helped prepare students for the real world.
Segregation struck down in other places as well: public swimming pools, local transportation, prisons & jails, child custody cases.
1967, Loving v. Virginia , (laws that forbid interracial marriages), struck down by the courts.
Classification by sex
Only reference to sex is the 19 th Amendment.
Classification by sex is not unconstitutional, however, laws that treat men & women differently will be overturned unless they are intended to serve an important governmental objective or they are substantially related to achieving that goal.
A child born to an American citizen on foreign soil becomes a citizen if:
1. Both parents are American citizens, & at least one has lived in the U.S. or an American territory at some time.
2. One parent is an American citizen who has lived in the U.S. for at least ten years, five of them after the age 14, & the child has lived in the U.S. continuously for at least five years between the ages of 14 & 28.