American Government Chapter 2
Basic Concepts of Government <ul><li>Ordered Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first English colonists saw a need for o...
Basic Concepts of Government <ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is limited; each individual has r...
Landmark English Documents <ul><li>Magna Carta (1215) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Great Charter” signed by King John </li>...
Landmark English Documents <ul><li>English Bill of Rights (1688) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited a standing army in peace...
Government in Colonies <ul><li>Royal Colonies (8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature (2 houses) </li></ul></ul><u...
Government in Colonies <ul><li>Proprietary Colonies (3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral (1 House) legislature </li></ul><...
Government in Colonies <ul><li>Charter Colonies (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Governors elected by the white, male property owners...
Royal Control <ul><li>All 13 colonies were separately controlled under the king </li></ul><ul><li>Objected to taxes they h...
Growing Colonial Unity <ul><li>Several attempts to unity occurred in the early 1770s </li></ul><ul><li>Early attempts </li...
Growing Colonial Unity <ul><li>Albany Plan (1754) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included the colonies of Connecticut, Maryland, Ma...
The Stamp Act Congress <ul><li>1765- Stamp Act passed by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Required the use of tax stamps on a...
First Continental Congress <ul><li>1774- 55 delegates from every colony except Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Met in Philadelph...
Second Continental Congress <ul><li>1774-75 (winter) British government refused to compromise its political policies </li>...
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>A group of five men were selected to prepare a Proclamation for Independence </li></ul...
The First State Governments <ul><li>January 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire adopted a constitution to replace its roy...
Common Features of New States <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government can exist and function only wit...
Common Features of New States <ul><li>Civil Rights and Liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers/Checks & Balances ...
The Critical Period
The First National Constitution <ul><li>ratification- formal approval </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></u...
Powers of Congress <ul><li>Make war and peace </li></ul><ul><li>Send & receive ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>Make treaties...
State Obligations <ul><li>Submit their disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Allow open travel and trade </li></ul>
Weaknesses <ul><li>No power to tax </li></ul><ul><li>Could not regulate trade between states </li></ul><ul><li>Had no powe...
Critical Period- 1780s <ul><li>Revolutionary War ended October 19, 1781 (Treaty of Paris-1783) </li></ul><ul><li>They refu...
Meetings at Mount Vernon and Annapolis <ul><li>Maryland and Virginia took the first step for change </li></ul><ul><li>Repr...
The Framers <ul><li>12 of 13 states sent delegates to Philadelphia (Rhode Island did not) </li></ul><ul><li>Main “framers”...
Organization and Procedure <ul><li>Meeting to establish rules on May 25 and May 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary William Jac...
The Virginia Plan <ul><li>Bicameral government </li></ul><ul><li>Congress- Legislative Branch </li></ul><ul><li>President-...
The New Jersey Plan <ul><li>Keep unicameral Congress </li></ul><ul><li>States should be equally represented </li></ul>
The Connecticut Compromise <ul><li>Congress compromised of two houses </li></ul><ul><li>Senate- equal representation </li>...
3/5 Compromise <ul><li>“free persons” be counted </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and “non citizens” be counted 3/5 </li></ul>
Sources of Constitution <ul><li>William Blackstone’s- Commentaries on the Laws of England </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </l...
Convention Completes It’s Work <ul><li>September 8, 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revising of articles were agreed upon. </li...
Ratification <ul><li>The new document was sent to the states on September 28, 1787 </li></ul>
Federalists and Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists- favored ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison, Alexander ...
Success <ul><li>June 21, 1788- nine states ratified the new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Inauguration of new government ...
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GOVChapter2

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GOVChapter2

  1. 1. American Government Chapter 2
  2. 2. Basic Concepts of Government <ul><li>Ordered Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first English colonists saw a need for orderly regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many offices needed then are still in existence today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheriff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Townships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justice of the Peace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Concepts of Government <ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is limited; each individual has rights the government cannot take away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should serve the will of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People should have a voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We elect our representatives </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Landmark English Documents <ul><li>Magna Carta (1215) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Great Charter” signed by King John </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petition of right (1628) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited the king’s power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kings could not imprison political critics without a trial by jury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged the “divine right” of kings </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Landmark English Documents <ul><li>English Bill of Rights (1688) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be fair and have a speedy trial </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Government in Colonies <ul><li>Royal Colonies (8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature (2 houses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Carolina, and Georgia </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Government in Colonies <ul><li>Proprietary Colonies (3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral (1 House) legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Government in Colonies <ul><li>Charter Colonies (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Governors elected by the white, male property owners in each colony </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut and Rhode Island became charter colonies in 1662 and 1663, respectively. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Royal Control <ul><li>All 13 colonies were separately controlled under the king </li></ul><ul><li>Objected to taxes they had no part in levying </li></ul><ul><li>French and Indian War (1754-1763) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Growing Colonial Unity <ul><li>Several attempts to unity occurred in the early 1770s </li></ul><ul><li>Early attempts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1643 “League of Friendship” between Plymouth Bay, Mass and New Haven, CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1696 William Penn and his inter-colonial coop. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Growing Colonial Unity <ul><li>Albany Plan (1754) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included the colonies of Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Stamp Act Congress <ul><li>1765- Stamp Act passed by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Required the use of tax stamps on all legal documents, business arrangements, and newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Nine colonies sent delegates to the SA Congress in New York, except for (Georgia, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott- refusal to buy or sell English goods </li></ul>
  13. 13. First Continental Congress <ul><li>1774- 55 delegates from every colony except Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Met in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Second Continental Congress <ul><li>1774-75 (winter) British government refused to compromise its political policies </li></ul><ul><li>13 colonies sent reps to congress </li></ul><ul><li>John Hancock was chosen President </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Continental Congress became the nations first national government </li></ul>
  15. 15. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>A group of five men were selected to prepare a Proclamation for Independence </li></ul><ul><li>July 4, 1776 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Adams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roger Sherman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Livingston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The First State Governments <ul><li>January 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire adopted a constitution to replace its royal charter </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions- bodies of fundamentals </li></ul>
  17. 17. Common Features of New States <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The powers delegated to the government were </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Common Features of New States <ul><li>Civil Rights and Liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers/Checks & Balances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial branch </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Critical Period
  20. 20. The First National Constitution <ul><li>ratification- formal approval </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established “a firm league of friendship” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral- made up of delegates chosen yearly by the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No judicial or executive branches (it was handled by congressional committees </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Powers of Congress <ul><li>Make war and peace </li></ul><ul><li>Send & receive ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>Make treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul><ul><li>Set up monetary system </li></ul><ul><li>Build a navy </li></ul><ul><li>Raise an army by asking the states for troops </li></ul><ul><li>Fix uniform standards of weights and measures </li></ul><ul><li>Settle disputes among the states </li></ul>
  22. 22. State Obligations <ul><li>Submit their disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Allow open travel and trade </li></ul>
  23. 23. Weaknesses <ul><li>No power to tax </li></ul><ul><li>Could not regulate trade between states </li></ul><ul><li>Had no power to make states obey </li></ul>
  24. 24. Critical Period- 1780s <ul><li>Revolutionary War ended October 19, 1781 (Treaty of Paris-1783) </li></ul><ul><li>They refused to support the new central government financially </li></ul><ul><li>States printed their own money and banned some trade </li></ul>
  25. 25. Meetings at Mount Vernon and Annapolis <ul><li>Maryland and Virginia took the first step for change </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from the two states met on March of 1785 and January of 1786 </li></ul><ul><li>Compromises in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Compromise (Conn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3/5 compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade compromise </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Framers <ul><li>12 of 13 states sent delegates to Philadelphia (Rhode Island did not) </li></ul><ul><li>Main “framers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edmund Randolph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Mason </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Organization and Procedure <ul><li>Meeting to establish rules on May 25 and May 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary William Jackson kept the convention’s journal </li></ul><ul><li>The framers met on 89 of the 116 days from May 25 to Sept 27 </li></ul><ul><li>The decision to write a new constitution was made at the Philadelphia condition </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Virginia Plan <ul><li>Bicameral government </li></ul><ul><li>Congress- Legislative Branch </li></ul><ul><li>President- Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Courts- Judicial Branch </li></ul>
  29. 29. The New Jersey Plan <ul><li>Keep unicameral Congress </li></ul><ul><li>States should be equally represented </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Connecticut Compromise <ul><li>Congress compromised of two houses </li></ul><ul><li>Senate- equal representation </li></ul><ul><li>House- based on population </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3/5 Compromise <ul><li>“free persons” be counted </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and “non citizens” be counted 3/5 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sources of Constitution <ul><li>William Blackstone’s- Commentaries on the Laws of England </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul>
  33. 33. Convention Completes It’s Work <ul><li>September 8, 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revising of articles were agreed upon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 17, 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39 names were placed on the finished document </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Ratification <ul><li>The new document was sent to the states on September 28, 1787 </li></ul>
  35. 35. Federalists and Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists- favored ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison, Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-federalists- opposed ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry, Richard Lee, Samuel Adams, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Hancock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They thought the articles were too weak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greatly increased powers of the central government </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a bill or rights </li></ul>
  36. 36. Success <ul><li>June 21, 1788- nine states ratified the new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Inauguration of new government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 13, 1788 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convened on March 5, 1789 in Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York </li></ul></ul>

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