The Divine Right Theory —Western world. God created the state and God had given those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule. People were bound to obey their ruler as they would God.
The Social Contract Theory —Developed by Thomas Hobbes, James Harrington, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. State exists only to serve the will of the people, and the people are free to give or withhold that power as they choose.
Democracy —Supreme political authority rests with the people.
Direct Democracy —Large meetings or assemblies where citizens discuss what should be done. Citizens vote on an action at these assemblies. All decisions are made in this fashion. Few elected officials, each w/little power. Not used at the national level anywhere in the world today.