Geousandcanada2
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  • 1. Chapter 6 Cultural Geography of the United States and Canada
  • 2. The United States
    • May have a wider range of ethnic groups than most other countries in the world
    • “Melting pot of the world”
    • Most diverse population in the world
  • 3. Population Patterns
    • Immigration- is the movement of people into one country from another.
    • Over 300 million people live in the U.S.
    • Mostly immigrants- our forefathers were immigrants to this country
  • 4. Population Patterns
    • People come to the United States seeking jobs, educational opportunities, and career opportunities.
    • Others seek refuge from difficult political situations
    • In 2004, 11.7% of the U.S. population was foreign born
  • 5. Density and Distribution
    • Approximate population density is 80 people per square mile
    • Out of large urban areas, the population is widely distributed
    • Great lakes and northeast are the most densely populated
    • Sub-arctic region and the arid Great plains are the least densely populated
  • 6. Density and Distribution
    • 1970s
      • American south and Southwest became the fast growing area
      • Sunbelt- nickname for this area due to its mild climate
      • The areas proximity to Mexico and the Caribbean make it a prime location for immigrants
  • 7. Urban Areas
    • Urbanization- the movement of people from rural areas to the city
      • Cities grew when agriculture became mechanized and required less workers
    • Metropolitan area- includes a city of at least 500,000 people
    • Suburbs- outlying communities near a city
    • Urban sprawl- spread of people and suburban development
  • 8. Population
    • Most of the population is located near coastal areas where the economy is linked to world trade
    • Megalopolis- a chain of closely linked metropolitan areas
    • Pacific coast cities provide important links to Asian economies
  • 9. History and Government
    • US. Has been influenced by:
      • Native Americans
      • European colonization
      • A war for independence
      • Creation of a new government
      • Westward expansion
      • Industrial growth
  • 10. Early America
    • Nomads crossing a bridge from Asia became the first people to America thousands of years ago
    • Native Americans settled throughout North, central, and South America.
    • 1500s- English and French began to settle in these areas and begin farming
  • 11. Early America
    • 1700s
      • Britain controlled the Atlantic coast; set up 13 colonies
      • New England
        • Rocky soil, short growing season, abundant timber
      • Middle
        • Fertile soil, mild winters, warm summers for growing cash crops
      • Southern
        • Mild climate, rich soils, promoted plantation agriculture
  • 12. Early America
    • 1763- France was forced to give up its American empire to Britain
    • British Government angered the colonists leading to a revolution
    • The U.S. Government is a federal republic
    • 3 separate and equal branches
      • Executive, Legislative, Judicial
  • 13. Growth, Division, and Unity
    • 1800s- industrialization transformed the United States
    • Midwest became a leading center of industry due to large supplies of coal
    • Textile industry made cotton a major cash crop in the South
    • Underground Railroad- an informal network of safe houses
  • 14. Technological Change
    • 1800s- U.S. government encouraged settlement of the Great Plains to ease overcrowding in Eastern city
    • Dry farming- a method of cultivating land to catch and hold rainwater
    • Railroads
      • Chinese, Irish, Mexican and other immigrants
    • World Wars spurred economic growth
  • 15. Modern Challenges
    • September 11, 2001- terrorism became a major concern for the United States
    • We invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in March of 2003
    • The War in Iraq continues
  • 16. Culture
    • Language and religion
      • English is the main language in the U.S.
      • Bilingual- learn to speak English in addition to their native language
        • Growing Latino population has made Spanish the second most common language
      • Many religions have flourished in America
        • Christians, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism
  • 17. Education and Health Care
    • Education is built on a network of public and private schools
      • Literacy rate- the percentage of people who can read and write (97%)???
    • Healthcare costs are rising
    • Many people have trouble affording insurance
    • Universal Healthcare is being debated
  • 18. The Arts
    • First Americans
      • Integrated art, music, storytelling into daily life
    • 1800s
      • People began to create art forms that reflected their own lives and cultures
      • Jazz- blends African rhythms with European harmonies
    • Los Angeles- Hollywood (movie business)
    • New York- Broadway (theatrical productions)
  • 19. Family Life
    • Many people in the U.S. enjoy a high standard of living
    • Married couples make up about 50% of all households
    • 44% have children under the age of 18
    • Average age of a person is 36 years old in 2004
  • 20. Section 2 Canada
  • 21. Population Patterns
    • The People
      • Immigrants came to Canada in search of:
        • Political and religious freedom
        • Economic and educational opportunities
        • Refuge of war
      • Loyalists- colonists who wished to remain loyal to the British Government moved to Canada
      • Province- is a political unit similar to a state
  • 22. Density and Distribution
    • 90% of the population live along the U.S./Canadian border
    • Average population density is 8 people per square mile
    • More densely populated areas are found near water and lakes
    • Prairie Providences- Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta
  • 23. Urban Areas
    • Toronto- Canada’s largest city
      • Industrial and financial center
    • Montreal- industrial and shipping center
    • Vancouver- handles nearly all trade between Canada and Asia
    • Edmonton- grew because of the petroleum industry
  • 24. History and Government
    • Early Inhabitants and Settlers
      • 1400s- Europeans arrived
      • Native population died due to disease brought by the Europeans
      • John Cabot and Jacques Cartier helped establish European claims
      • French were allowed to keep their language, religion, and systems of laws
        • Quebec Act
  • 25. A United Government
    • Canada is a constitutional monarchy
    • Dominion- a partially self-governing country with close ties to Great Britain
    • Parliament- part of the Canadian government that includes the Senate and House of Commons
  • 26. Expansion and Diversity
    • The British government encouraged immigration to Canada
      • 1 million Britain immigrants arrived
    • Quebecois- Quebec’s French speaking inhabitants
    • Klondike Gold Rush- led to widespread immigration from other parts of the world
    • Westward expansion came at a price as Native Americans were pushed off their land
  • 27. Modern Challenges
    • Trade is thriving between the U.S. and Canada
    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)- eliminated tariffs and other trade barriers
    • Canadians struggle to maintain a separate identity
    • Separatism- the breaking away of one part of a country to create a separate independent country
  • 28. Culture
    • Language and Religion
      • Two official languages (English and French)
      • Christians make up the largest religious group
      • Numerous other religions are practiced which shows the nations diverse immigrant populations
  • 29. Education and Healthcare
    • Literacy rate of 97%
    • Each providence is responsible for organizing and administering public education
    • Public health care system so everyone has access to high quality medical treatment
    • Cost is increasing- so taxes must be raised and benefits limited
  • 30. The Arts
    • Influenced by the British, French, American, and native cultures
    • Immigrant population has added to the variety of the arts
    • Toronto is a major area for theater and music
      • Toronto Symphony Orchestra and National Ballet of Canada call Toronto home
  • 31. Family Life
    • One of the wealthiest countries in the world
    • 65% of the population own cars
    • Married couples make up 70% of the population
    • 60% have children under the age of 18
    • 1 in 6 Canadians are 65 or older