Geousandcanada2

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Geousandcanada2

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Cultural Geography of the United States and Canada
  2. 2. The United States <ul><li>May have a wider range of ethnic groups than most other countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>“Melting pot of the world” </li></ul><ul><li>Most diverse population in the world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Population Patterns <ul><li>Immigration- is the movement of people into one country from another. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300 million people live in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly immigrants- our forefathers were immigrants to this country </li></ul>
  4. 4. Population Patterns <ul><li>People come to the United States seeking jobs, educational opportunities, and career opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Others seek refuge from difficult political situations </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, 11.7% of the U.S. population was foreign born </li></ul>
  5. 5. Density and Distribution <ul><li>Approximate population density is 80 people per square mile </li></ul><ul><li>Out of large urban areas, the population is widely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Great lakes and northeast are the most densely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-arctic region and the arid Great plains are the least densely populated </li></ul>
  6. 6. Density and Distribution <ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American south and Southwest became the fast growing area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunbelt- nickname for this area due to its mild climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The areas proximity to Mexico and the Caribbean make it a prime location for immigrants </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Urban Areas <ul><li>Urbanization- the movement of people from rural areas to the city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities grew when agriculture became mechanized and required less workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan area- includes a city of at least 500,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbs- outlying communities near a city </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl- spread of people and suburban development </li></ul>
  8. 8. Population <ul><li>Most of the population is located near coastal areas where the economy is linked to world trade </li></ul><ul><li>Megalopolis- a chain of closely linked metropolitan areas </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific coast cities provide important links to Asian economies </li></ul>
  9. 9. History and Government <ul><li>US. Has been influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European colonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A war for independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of a new government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westward expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial growth </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Early America <ul><li>Nomads crossing a bridge from Asia became the first people to America thousands of years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans settled throughout North, central, and South America. </li></ul><ul><li>1500s- English and French began to settle in these areas and begin farming </li></ul>
  11. 11. Early America <ul><li>1700s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain controlled the Atlantic coast; set up 13 colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky soil, short growing season, abundant timber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile soil, mild winters, warm summers for growing cash crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild climate, rich soils, promoted plantation agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Early America <ul><li>1763- France was forced to give up its American empire to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>British Government angered the colonists leading to a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Government is a federal republic </li></ul><ul><li>3 separate and equal branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive, Legislative, Judicial </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Growth, Division, and Unity <ul><li>1800s- industrialization transformed the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Midwest became a leading center of industry due to large supplies of coal </li></ul><ul><li>Textile industry made cotton a major cash crop in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad- an informal network of safe houses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Technological Change <ul><li>1800s- U.S. government encouraged settlement of the Great Plains to ease overcrowding in Eastern city </li></ul><ul><li>Dry farming- a method of cultivating land to catch and hold rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese, Irish, Mexican and other immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wars spurred economic growth </li></ul>
  15. 15. Modern Challenges <ul><li>September 11, 2001- terrorism became a major concern for the United States </li></ul><ul><li>We invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in March of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>The War in Iraq continues </li></ul>
  16. 16. Culture <ul><li>Language and religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English is the main language in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual- learn to speak English in addition to their native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing Latino population has made Spanish the second most common language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many religions have flourished in America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christians, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Education and Health Care <ul><li>Education is built on a network of public and private schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy rate- the percentage of people who can read and write (97%)??? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Healthcare costs are rising </li></ul><ul><li>Many people have trouble affording insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Healthcare is being debated </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Arts <ul><li>First Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated art, music, storytelling into daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People began to create art forms that reflected their own lives and cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jazz- blends African rhythms with European harmonies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles- Hollywood (movie business) </li></ul><ul><li>New York- Broadway (theatrical productions) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Family Life <ul><li>Many people in the U.S. enjoy a high standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Married couples make up about 50% of all households </li></ul><ul><li>44% have children under the age of 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Average age of a person is 36 years old in 2004 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Section 2 Canada
  21. 21. Population Patterns <ul><li>The People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants came to Canada in search of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political and religious freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and educational opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refuge of war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalists- colonists who wished to remain loyal to the British Government moved to Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Province- is a political unit similar to a state </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Density and Distribution <ul><li>90% of the population live along the U.S./Canadian border </li></ul><ul><li>Average population density is 8 people per square mile </li></ul><ul><li>More densely populated areas are found near water and lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie Providences- Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta </li></ul>
  23. 23. Urban Areas <ul><li>Toronto- Canada’s largest city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial and financial center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montreal- industrial and shipping center </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver- handles nearly all trade between Canada and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Edmonton- grew because of the petroleum industry </li></ul>
  24. 24. History and Government <ul><li>Early Inhabitants and Settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1400s- Europeans arrived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native population died due to disease brought by the Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Cabot and Jacques Cartier helped establish European claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French were allowed to keep their language, religion, and systems of laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec Act </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A United Government <ul><li>Canada is a constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Dominion- a partially self-governing country with close ties to Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament- part of the Canadian government that includes the Senate and House of Commons </li></ul>
  26. 26. Expansion and Diversity <ul><li>The British government encouraged immigration to Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million Britain immigrants arrived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quebecois- Quebec’s French speaking inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Klondike Gold Rush- led to widespread immigration from other parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Westward expansion came at a price as Native Americans were pushed off their land </li></ul>
  27. 27. Modern Challenges <ul><li>Trade is thriving between the U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)- eliminated tariffs and other trade barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians struggle to maintain a separate identity </li></ul><ul><li>Separatism- the breaking away of one part of a country to create a separate independent country </li></ul>
  28. 28. Culture <ul><li>Language and Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two official languages (English and French) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians make up the largest religious group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous other religions are practiced which shows the nations diverse immigrant populations </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Education and Healthcare <ul><li>Literacy rate of 97% </li></ul><ul><li>Each providence is responsible for organizing and administering public education </li></ul><ul><li>Public health care system so everyone has access to high quality medical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is increasing- so taxes must be raised and benefits limited </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Arts <ul><li>Influenced by the British, French, American, and native cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant population has added to the variety of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Toronto is a major area for theater and music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto Symphony Orchestra and National Ballet of Canada call Toronto home </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Family Life <ul><li>One of the wealthiest countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>65% of the population own cars </li></ul><ul><li>Married couples make up 70% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>60% have children under the age of 18 </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 6 Canadians are 65 or older </li></ul>

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